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Definition of marketing and management

The actual term 'marketing' is a creation of recent background and often from the dawn of the 20th century. However the actions of marketing acquired started a large number of years. There are various definitions of marketing. For this purpose, marketing defined as the identification of customer desires and needs, adding value to products and services that satisfy those needs and needs, at a earnings (Wysocki, 2001). Noted that description has three components: (1) the identification of customer desires and needs, as the client or end-user of the merchandise or service is the main professional in marketing, (2) one must add value that satisfies wishes and must one's service or product or the client will not remain a customer for long, and (3) businesses must make money to be lasting in the long-run.

With an economic procedure the emphasis is on products and services, sources of supply, the mostly used programs of circulation and the functions performed during the marketing process (Cooke et al. 1992). Marketing protects all the business activities involved with getting commodities of all types, including services, from the companies and manufacturers to the ultimate consumers. The primary concern of marketing is the business steps by which goods progress on the way to the ultimate consumption. This is also true of the things in those periods at which change of possession occurs (McNair et al. 1975). Marketing is the combination of activities designed to produce revenue through ascertaining, creating, rousing, and satisfying the needs and/or wishes of a determined segment of the market (Eldridge, 1970).

In the first 1990s Kotler defined marketing as a managerial and interpersonal process by which individuals and groupings get what they need and want through creating and exchanging products of value with others. By 2000 he previously altered this to a societal process by which individuals and groups get what they need and want through creating, offering, and readily exchanging services and products of value with others. When you compare Kotler's views with American Marketing Connection (AMA) views; these are similar in many ways but maybe it's say that the AMA's meaning is more centered on financial in conditions of transactions.

In the 1960s, the American Marketing Relationship defines marketing the following: "the process of planning and executing the conception, costing, promotion and syndication of ideas, goods and services to generate exchanges that fulfill individual and organizational goals. " Several ideas can be indicated in this classification. First, marketing is a managerial function which require both planning and execution. Thus marketing is not really a pool of unrelated activities but jobs that are planned and executed to attain the goals diagnosed. Second, marketing consists of the management of specific elements or functions: product, costs, promotion and circulation; where they constitute the task or materials of what marketing is focused on. The planning, execution and control of the activities get excited about the task of marketing. Third, marketing is goal-oriented. Its goal is to produce exchanges that fulfill the goals for both specific and organizational. Marketing's concern is with customers and interacting with a need available on the market. However, its matter is not just with any customers but those preselected by management as the market segments which the business will focus. Thus, the center point of your organization's marketing activities is specific customers with the specific needs.

The marketing theory is an enterprise orientation that targets satisfying customers' need at satisfactory levels of earnings and costs. In organizations looking for income, acceptable degrees of revenues and costs are described in terms of the target return on investment; in organizations not looking for revenue, the concentration is on achieving a balance between earnings and costs. Organizations having a true "marketing orientation" concentrate on handling the needs and needs of one or even more targeted sections of the marketplace.

2. 2 Marketing Management

Marketing management is the conscious effort to achieve desired exchange outcomes with target markets. You can find four goals of tactical marketing management that need to be understood to make profitable strategies: (1) to select reality-based desired achievements, (2) to effectively develop or alter business strategies, (3) to create priorities for operational change, (4) to boost a firm's performance.

According to the American Marketing Association, marketing management is the "procedure for planning and performing the conception, costing, promotion and syndication of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that gratify person and organizational goals". In recent years, marketing management has ever more centered on four key elements to enhance market share, gains and efficiency. These elements are quality, value, connections and customers' satisfaction.

Organization must achieve its aims. That is why marketing management helps them in the task of influencing the level, timing and composition of demand. Marketing administrator has many duties to do because marketing management is essentially demand management. One of the important duties is carrying out marketing research, planning, execution and control to control the demand. Marketers must make important decisions on marketplace, market positioning, product development, costing, distribution channels, physical distribution, communication and promotion within marketing planning.

The marketing division is organised according to operate, geographic area, products or customer markets because it take numerous forms. Another awareness is global organisation for businesses that market goods or services in other countries. Marketers need to focus on the result of globalization, technology and deregulation. Marketers can start with market segmentation and create a market offering that is put in the target market. Plainly, marketing activities should be carried out successfully, effectively and socially liable marketing.

2. 2. 1 Advantages of Marketing Management in Retail Sectors

Retailing is the actions involved in offering goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non-business use. A dealer or retail store is any business enterprise whose sales size comes mostly from retailing. Any business whether it's a manufacturer, wholesaler or shop selling to last consumers does retailing. No matter the way the goods or services are sold or where they can be purchased.

When suppliers are building their overall online marketing strategy, they make decisions about seven factors: location, merchandise, marketing communications, price, services, physical qualities, and staff. These variables are occasionally called the retailing combine.

There are several ways to classify retail companies, none which is mutually exclusive of the others: (1) in conditions of these retailing combination, (2) in terms of store possession, and (3) in terms of store location.

2. 2. 2 Marketing Research

Market research and marketing research are two different concepts. 'Market' research is merely research into a specific market. It really is a very small concept. 'Marketing' research is a wide concept. It offers 'market' research, research into services, and settings of distribution.

According to the North american Marketing Connection, marketing research links the buyer, customer and community to the marketer through information which is the information used to identify and specify marketing opportunities and problems; make, execute and evaluate marketing activities; supervise marketing performance; and improve knowledge of marketing as a process. Marketing research prescribes the info required to deal with these issues, designs the methods for collect the information, manages and implements the process of data collection, analyses and communicates the conclusions and their implications.

In 2000, Palmer defines marketing research as about researching the whole of a process of company's marketing. This explanation explains to that marketing research is in to the elements of the marketing combine, competitors, marketplaces and everything regarding customers.

Marketing research provides information to lessen uncertainty. It can help concentrate decision making. Marketing research can be categorised on the basis of either approach or function (Zikmund, 2003). Experiments, research and observational studies are only a few common research techniques. Classifying research by its purpose or function shows the way the aspect of the marketing problem influences the decision of methods. The type of the problem will determine whether the research is explanatory, descriptive or causal.

2. 2. 2. 1 Process of Marketing Research

The objective of marketing research is to help in the managerial decision-making process for all areas of the firm's marketing combination: pricing, advertising, distribution and product decisions. By providing the necessary information on which to foundation decisions, marketing research can decrease the uncertainty of the decision and in that way decrease the threat of making the incorrect decision.

Marketing research consists of a series of interrelated activities. The phases of the study process overlap regularly. Marketing research often employs a general pattern. The stages are (1) defining the problem, (2) planning a research design, (3) planning for a sample, (4) collecting the data, (5) analyzing the info, and (6) formulating the conclusions and preparing the report.

Figure 1. 0 portrays these six stages as a cyclical, or circular-flow, process. The circular-flow concept can be used because the conclusions from clinical tests usually make new ideas and problems that need to be investigated. In practice, the levels overlap chronologically and are functionally interrelated; sometimes the later periods are completed before the earlier ones.

Figure. 0: Levels of the study Process

Problem Breakthrough and Definition

The first rung on the ladder towards its solution is figuring out the problem. The research task may be to clarify an issue, define an opportunity, or screen and assess current operations. The idea of problem finding and description includes research of opportunities. The original level is problem breakthrough rather than definition.

Careful attention to the problem meaning level allows the research workers to set the proper research targets. If the purpose of the research is clear, the probability of collecting necessary and relevant information and not collecting surplus information will be much better.

To be successful, marketing research must have clear aims and definite designs. The term problem refers to the managerial problem and the information needed to help solve the problem. Defining the problem must go before dedication of the goal of the research. Once a problem area has been learned, the marketing research workers can begin the process of determining it.

Research Design

A research design is a professional plan. It concentrates the methods and strategies for collecting and analysing the needed information; this can be a construction for the action research plan. The sources of information, the design strategy, the sampling strategy and the schedule and cost of the research should be driven first.

The target of the analysis, the available data options, the urgency of the decision and the price tag on obtaining the data will determine which method should be chosen. You will discover four basic design techniques


It is the most typical method of producing key data. Information is accumulated from a sample of individuals using questionnaire. The essential part is writing a set of questions and building the format of the questionnaire. Researchers might want to contact respondents by phone or email, on the internet or in person


Experimentation allows analysis changes in one variable, while manipulating a couple of other variables under manipulated conditions. Experimental control offers a basis for alienating causal factors by eliminating outside the house, or exogenous, influences. An experiment manages conditions so that one or more variables can be manipulated to be able to test a hypothesis.

Secondary Data

An example of secondary data study is the utilization of mathematical model to anticipate sales on the basis of past sales or a correlation with related parameters. Formal supplementary data studies have benefits and limitations comparable to those of exploratory studies that use extra data, but usually the quantitative research of extra data is more sophisticated.


Observation can be mechanically recorded or witnessed by humans. Observation approach details behaviour without depending on reports from respondents. Observational data tend to be collected silently and passively without a respondent's direct participation.


Sampling consists of any process that uses a small range of items or a portion of the population to make a final finish about the whole population. Quite simply, an example is a subset from a more substantial populace. The results of an good sample must have the same characteristics as the population all together. When errors are created, samples do not give exact estimates of the population.

Specifying the mark population can be an essential requirement of the sampling plan. The next sampling issue concerns the sample size. Usually larger samples tend to be correct than smaller ones, but if probability sampling is done properly it'll allow a little proportion of the total population to give a reliable measure of the complete.

The last sampling decision concerns how to select the sampling products. For instance, a cluster sampling method may keep your charges down and make data gathering strategies better. In identifying the sampling plan, the researcher must select the best suited sampling technique to meet the study targets.

Data Gathering

Data may be collected by humans or noted by machines. Research techniques entail many methods of data gathering. The survey method requires some type of direct contribution by the respondent. If an unobtrusive approach to data gathering can be used, the themes do not actively participate.

The process of gathering data often has two stages: pretesting and the main analysis. A pretesting phase using a tiny subsample may determine whether the data gathering arrange for the main analysis is a suitable method. Thus a small-scale pretest study provides an progress chance for an investigator to check on the info collection form to minimise problems due to incorrect design. Gleam chance to discover confusing interviewing instructions. Tabulation of data from the pretest supplies the researcher with a format for the knowledge which may be gained from the real study.

Data Control and Analysis

Editing and Coding

Editing involves verifying the info collection kinds of omissions, legibility and persistence in classification. The editing process corrects problems. Before the data can be tabulated, meaningful categories and personality symbols must be established for groups of responses. The guidelines for interpreting, categorizing, recording and transferring the info to the info storage media are called rules.


Analysis is the use of reasoning to comprehend the data that contain been gathered. Examination may involve identifying consistent habits and summarizing the relevant details discovered in the inspection. The appropriate analytical way of data examination will be dependant on management's information requirements, the characteristics of the research design and the type of the info gathered.

Conclusions and Report

The conclusions and statement preparation stage consist of interpreting the info and making conclusions for managerial decisions. The research statement should effectively connect the research findings. It can't be overemphasised on the value of effective communication. Research is merely as good as its applications.

Marketing research workers must speak their studies to a managerial audience. The written article serves another purpose as well: it is a historical document that will be a record that may be described later if the study is to be repeated or if further research is usually to be based on what has come before.

2. 2. 3 Marketing Plan (belum edit)

According to businessdictionary. com; planning defines as "basic management function relating formulation of one or more specific plans to achieve perfect balance of needs or demands with the available resources". The planning process (1) recognizes the goals or objectives to be achieved, (2) formulates ways of achieve them, (3) arranges or creates the means required, and (4) implements, directs, and screens all steps in their proper sequence.

A marketing plan is defines as product specific, market specific, or company-wide plan that describes activities involved with attaining specific marketing objectives within a collection timeframe. 'It spells out who'll do what, when, where and how, to accomplish its ends. ' (Westwood). A market plan starts with the recognition (through general market trends of specific) of specific customer needs and how the organization intends to fulfil them while creating an acceptable level of come back. It generally includes analysis of the existing market situation (opportunities and trends) and thorough action programmes, budgets, sales forecasts, strategies, and projected (pro-forma) financial assertions.

The marketing plan runs at two levels: strategic and tactical. The tactical marketing plan lays out the target markets and the value proposition which will be offered, predicated on an analysis of the greatest market opportunities. The tactical marketing plan specifies the marketing strategies, including product features, campaign, merchandising, pricing, sales channels, and service

Marketing planning takes a careful examination of all tactical issues, including the business environment, the markets themselves, competitors, the organization mission statement, and organisational features. The ensuing marketing plan should be communicated to appropriate personnel, preferably via an oral briefing with questions and answers, to make sure it is fully known.

2. 2. 3. 1 Situation Analysis

This section contains relevant track record data on sales, costs, revenue, the market, opponents, programs, and the makes in the macroenvironment. These details is used to carry out on the SWOT evaluation. Then, management will review the main opportunities found in the SWOT evaluation and identifies the main element issues more likely to have an impact on the organization's attainment of goals.

A SWOT examination combines the external and internal analysis in summary the Advantages, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Dangers.

External Environment Evaluation (Opportunity and Threat Examination)

In general, a business unit has to keep an eye on key macroenvironment makes (demographic-economic, technological, political-legal, and social-cultural) and significant microenvironment celebrities (customers, competitors, marketers, suppliers) that affect its potential to earn revenue. The business product should create a marketing intellect system to keep track of movements and important improvements. For each craze or development, management must identify the associated opportunities and hazards.

The main goal of environmental scanning is to discern new marketing opportunities. A marketing opportunity is an part of buyer need or potential interest when a company can perform profitability. Opportunities may take many forms and marketers need to be good at spotting them.

Some trends in the external environment represent risks. An environmental menace is a task posed by an unfavourable development or development that would lead, in the absence of defensive marketing action, to deterioration in sales or earnings. Threats are considered problems that give attention to the weaknesses and which can create a probably negative situation. Hazards should be classified relating to seriousness and success of incident.

Once management has identified the major hazards and opportunities facing a particular business product; it can characterize that business's overall appeal.

Internal Environment Evaluation (Strength and Weakness Research)

Each business needs to evaluate its inside strengths and weaknesses. The business doesn't have to correct all its weaknesses, nor should it gloat about all its strengths. It really is up to whether the business should limit itself to prospects opportunities where it possesses the required advantages or whether it will consider better opportunities where it could have to obtain or develop certain strengths.

Strength can be an asset or a source that can be used to boost a community's competitive position. A weakness is just the opposite, a source of information or ability that may cause the community to truly have a less competitive position. For example, empty commercial space or unattractive vacant buildings are categorized as weaknesses.

Opportunities are in need to look for that play to the advantages. Decision on how to proceed about hazards to the business enterprise and how to overcome important weaknesses must be produced. SWOT analysis will help to recognize the most encouraging customers to focus on.

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Figure. 0: SWOT Analysis

2. 2. 3. 2 Marketing Objectives

Once SWOT research has been conducted, the target is the starting point of the marketing plan. The SWOT analysis results will advise objectives. The purposes of objectives include:

To enable a business to regulate its marketing plan

To help stimulate individuals and teams to reach a common goal

To offer an agreed, consistent emphasis for everyone functions of any organization

SMART is a mnemonic used in job management at the job objective setting level. It is a way of evaluating if the aims that are being placed are appropriate for the average person project. A GOOD objective is the one that is Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time-bound.

2. 2. 3. 3 Goal Market

A concentrate on market is several customers that the business has made a decision to purpose its marketing work and in the end its merchandise. A well-defined marketplace is the first component to a online marketing strategy. The prospective market and the marketing mixture variables of product, place(syndication), promotion and price are the two elements of a marketing blend strategy that determine the success of a product in the software industry.

Segmentation is actually the id of subsets of clients within a market that talk about similar needs and illustrate similar buyer behaviour. The starting place for talking about segmentation is mass-marketing. In mass marketing, owner engages in the mass creation, mass circulation, and mass promotion of one product for all buyers. The argument for mass marketing is the fact it creates the most significant potential market, which contributes to the lowest costs, which can result in lower prices or more margins. You can find four degrees of market segmentation: (1) segments, (2) niches, (3) local areas, and (4) individuals.

Market section can be developed in many ways. One of many ways is to identify preference sections. Three different patterns can emerge: (1) homogenous tastes - a market where the consumers have around the same choices. The market show no natural segments, (2) diffused personal preferences - market where the consumers differ greatly in their tastes, and (3) clustered personal preferences - the market might reveal different preference clusters, called natural market sections.

Market segments can be identified by classifying consumers demographically. The clients in virtually any one portion have different needs, attitudes, and preferences. It has led the market studies to advocate a needs-based market segmentation way. Roger Best proposed the seven-step strategy as shown in Table 1. 0.

Market segmentation must be done periodically because sections change. A method to discover new segments is to research the hierarchy of attributes consumers study in choosing a brandname. This process is named market partitioning. Companies must monitor potential shifts in the consumers' hierarchy of characteristics and adjust to changing priorities.

The hierarchy of traits can show customer segments. You can identify those who find themselves type/price/brand dominant as creating a segment; those who find themselves quality/ service/type dominating as creating another segment. Each portion may have a definite demographics, psychographics, and mediagraphics.

Table. 0: Steps in Segmentation Process

Segmentation process


Needs-Based Segmentation

Group customers into segments predicated on similar needs and benefits wanted by customer in solving a particular intake problem.

Segment Identification

For each needs-based section, determine which demographics, standards of living, and usage behaviours make the segment distinctive and identifiable (actionable).

Segment Attractiveness

Using predetermined segment attractiveness criteria (such as market progress, competitive strength, and market access), determine the overall attractiveness of each segment.

Segment Profitability

Determine section profitability

Segment Positioning

For each section, develop a "value proposition" and product-price placement strategy predicated on that segment's unique customer needs and characteristics.

Segment "Acid Test"

Create "segment storyboards" to test the attractiveness of every segment's setting strategy.

Marketing-Mix Strategy

Expand segment placement technique to include all aspects of the marketing mixture: product, price, advertising, and place.

Source: Modified from Robert J. Best, Market-Based Management (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000)

Two broad sets of variable are being used to section consumer market. Some experts make an effort to form sections by looking at consumer characteristics: geographic, demographic, and psychographic. They look at whether these customer sections show different needs or product replies. Other researchers try to form sections by looking at consumer responses to benefits, use events, or brands. Once the segments are created, the researcher perceives whether different characteristics are associated with each consumer-response section. The major segmentation factors - geographic, demographic, psychographic, and behavioural segmentation are summarized in Stand 2. 0.

Table. 0: Major Segmentation Parameters for Consumer Markets

Segmentation Variables



Region, City or metro size, Density, and Climate


Age, Family size, Family size routine, Gender, Income, Job, Education, Religion, Race, Era, Nationality, and Friendly Class


Lifestyle, Personality


Occasions, Benefits, Customer status, Consumption Rate, Loyalty Status, Readiness stage, Frame of mind toward product

Once the company has recognized its market-segment opportunities, it has to determine how many and which ones to target. You will find two factors to look at in assessing different market sections: the segment's overall appeal and the company's aim and resources. Having evaluated different segments, the company can consider five patterns of target market selection:

Single-segment amount - the firm gains a strong knowledge of the segment's needs and achieves a solid market presence; and enjoys working economies through specializing its development, circulation, and promotion

Selective specialization - the company selects a number of segments, each objectively attractive and appropriate

Product specialization - the company makes a certain product it sells to many segments.

Market specialization - the firm concentrates on offering many needs of a particular customer group

Full market coverage - the firm attempts to serve all customer communities with all the current products they might need where only very large firms can undertake a complete market coverage strategy

2. 2. 3. 4 Marketing Strategy

Marketing strategy contain the research, strategy development, and execution activities. Proper marketing is a market-driven procedure for strategy development, taking into account a constantly changing business environment and the need to deliver superior customer value. The emphasis of tactical marketing is on organizational performance rather than primary concern about increasing sales. Online marketing strategy seeks to deliver superior customer value by merging the customer-influencing strategies of the business into a coordinated group of market-driven actions. Proper marketing links the organization with the surroundings and views marketing as a responsibility of the entire business rather than specific function.

Marketing Mix

Target Market

Figure. 0: The Four P The different parts of the Marketing MixMarketing mixture is the set of marketing tools the solid uses to follow its marketing targets in the prospective market. McCarthy categorized these tools into four extensive organizations that he called the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place and promotion. The particular marketing factors under each P are shown in Figure 3. 0. Marketing-mix decisions must be made for influencing the trade stations as well as the ultimate consumers.

The firm can change its price, sales team size, and advertising expenditures in the short run. It can develop services and enhance its distribution channels only over time. Thus the firm typically makes fewer period-to-period marketing-mix changes in the short run than the amount of marketing-mix decision variables might suggest. The four Ps represent the sellers' view of the marketing tools designed for influencing purchasers. From a buyer's perspective, each marketing tools was created to deliver a person gain. Robert Lauterborn recommended that the sellers' four Ps match the customers' four Cs.

Winning companies will be those that can meet customer needs economically and easily and with effective communication.

provideFour Ps Four Cs

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Figure. 0: The Four Ps and Cs of Marketing

The Product Life Circuit (PLC)

A company's setting and differentiation strategy must change as the product, market, and opponents change as time passes. To say that a product has a life pattern is to assert four things: (1) products have a restricted life, (2) product sales pass through distinct periods, each posing different troubles, opportunities, and problems to owner, (3) profits go up and fall at different levels of the merchandise life routine, and (4) products require different marketing, financial, making, purchasing, and individuals source of information strategies in each life-cycle level.

Most product life-cycle curves are portrayed as bell-shaped. This curve is normally split into four phases: introduction, expansion, maturity, and drop. The merchandise life-cycle concept can be used to analyze a product niche, a product form, a product, or a brandname.

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Figure. 0: Sales and Income Life Cycles

Introduction Stage

A period of slow sales development as the merchandise is introduced in the market. Gains are negative or low in the introduction level. Promotional expenditures are at their highest ratio to sales as a result of need to (1) inform potential consumers, (2) generate product trial, and (3) secure syndication in shops. Firms focus on those potential buyers who are the readiest to buy, usually higher-income teams. Prices have a tendency to be high because costs are high.

Growth Stage

A amount of rapid market popularity and substantial profit improvement. The growth stage is marked by an instant climb in sales. Early adopters like the product, and extra consumers start buying it. New competition enter, attracted by the opportunities. They introduce new product features and expand distribution. Profits increase in this stage as promotion costs are multiply over a larger volume and device manufacturing costs land faster than price declines owing to the producer learning effect.

Maturity Stage

A amount of a slowdown in sales progress because the merchandise has achieved acceptance by most potential buyers. Gains stabilize or decrease because of increased competition. This level normally lasts much longer than the prior phases, and poses formidable troubles to marketing management. Most products are in the maturity stage of the life span cycle, and most marketing managers handle the condition of marketing the older product.

Declining Stage

The period when sales show a downward drift and gains erode. Sales decrease for several reasons, including scientific improvements, shifts in consumer tastes, and increased local and foreign competition. All lead to overcapacity, increased price cutting, and earnings erosion. The drop might be slow-moving or quick. Sales may plunge to zero, or they may petrify at a minimal level.

The PLC principle helps interpret product and market dynamics. It could be used for planning and control, although as a forecasting tool it is less useful. PLC theory has its show of critics. They claim that life-cycle habits are too variable in shape and length. PLCs shortage what living organisms have - particularly, a fixed sequence of levels and a fixed amount of each level. Critics also ask for that marketers can rarely tell what stage the product is at. a product may appear to be adult when actually it has reached a plateau prior to another upsurge. They charge that the PLC pattern is the consequence of marketing strategies alternatively than an inevitable course.

The Customer Life Routine (CLC)

The Customer Life Routine (CLC) has evident similarities with the merchandise Life Circuit (PLC). However, CLC centers after the creation of and delivery of life-time value to the client that is talks about the products or services that customers need throughout their lives. It really is marketing oriented somewhat than product oriented, and embodies the marketing concept. Essentially, CLC is brief summary of the key periods in a customer's romance with an organisation. The problem here is that every organisation's product offering differs, which makes it impossible to acquire an individual life cycle this is the same for each organisation.

Figure. 0: The Customer Life Cyclehttp://kylemcnamara. documents. wordpress. com/2008/05/couponlifecycle. jpg

2. 2. 4 Marketing Control

Control takes on so this means in the framework of a mindful agent who desires to accomplish certain results. The results desired by the agent go under the name of targets or standards. The target must be achieved in just a certain range, if not the agent is dissatisfied. The agent strategies and observes the actual results and compares those to the desired results. If there is too much deviation, he undertakes certain activities to close the difference. Thus control is the process of taking steps to bring actual results and desired results deeper together.

Marketing control is the procedure of monitoring the suggested programs as they proceed and modifying where necessary. Control entails measurement, analysis, and monitoring. Resources are scarce and costly so it is important to control marketing plans. Control involves arranging criteria. The marketing director will than compare actual progress up against the expectations. Corrective action (if any) is then used. If corrective action is used, an investigation will also need to be undertaken to establish the key reason why the difference happened.

All control system posses the four common elements illustrated in Body 7. 0. The first element consists of the definition of goals and criteria by the agent (Goals). The next consists of the introduction of an application for achieving these goals (Programs). The 3rd element contains the dimension of real results (Information). And the fourth element involves making modification either in the goals, program, or both, if the goals aren't being achieved (Corrective action). Although simple in format, this style of the control process has many ramifications.

Determining the goals and standardsSWOT Analysis

Designing the program

Measuring the program's results

Taking corrective actions if goals aren't being achieved

Figure. 0: The Four Components of a Control System

As one of the major action subsystems found within an enterprise firm, marketing consists of a collection of individuals, facilities, and activities whose purpose is to market and aid the motion of company products to the marketplace place and market information to the business. Six areas of the marketing subsystem bring about issues of control. They are simply: (1) top management control over the marketing subsystem, (2) marketing is control over other company subsystem, (3) marketing is control over outside real estate agents, (4) marketing is control over marketing employees, (5) marketing is control over program effectiveness, (6) marketing is control over special tasks.

Information is a vital element in the control process. Information moving to the business from the environment is called marketing intelligence; information moving within the business is called inside information. A good company information system produces information which is pertinent, accurate, and easily available. A growing number of companies are creating marketing information centers accountable for the search, filtering, dissemination, and storage space of information.

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