Posted at 10.31.2018
Communication is similar to a bridge between people, how it happens depending very much on the art of communication, the creative imagination of the human beings, the meaning of the communication and on the framework in which it requires place. Due to its complexity, communication has been defined in many ways, some explanations being "broad and inclusive, others restrictive" (Littlejohn, Foss, 2008:3): "The procedure that links discontinuous parts of the living world to one another" (Ruesch, 1957:462), "Something for communicating information and order" (Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1986:460), "A participative, two-way writing of understanding, commitment and purpose, resulting in appropriate action" (Robbins et al, 2000:633).
Communication is an interdisciplinary notion as it is contacted from different areas such as linguistics, mindset, ecology, mathematics, etc. , enabling us to transmit and share facts, ideas, data, feelings, attitudes. It plays an integral role in every the domains of activity, so that it should succeed in order to be an component of success for each relationship, organization, appointment, research, etc. Still, there a wide range of obstacles to effective communication (e. g. vocabulary, inappropriate choice of words/route, different cultural backgrounds, difference in behaviour and values, etc. ) which lead to misunderstandings and failure in interaction. Communication is not established just on a straightforward verbal relationship between people, but also on the body words and the cosmetic expression that happen to be does mean of communicating a message. More than that, communication and technology are suffering from so much nowadays that we can also speak of forms of communication that move from the original human forms toward impersonal communication with entities to which we cannot transmit emotions or activities, e. g. banking networks, computers, mobile phones, etc. and we can also speak not only of human or impersonal communication but also of animal communication.
However, if we are to consider a simple model of communication which suggests that it is an activity of information copy from a sender to a receiver with a medium, the procedure beginning with an inner state of the sender which produces the transfer of the signal and concluding with an interior state of the device when the indication is supplied (Shannon&Weaver, 1949), we can ask ourselves if this simple model is ideal for communication in general, be it human being, impersonal or dog.
In their publication "Animal Alerts" Maynard Smith and Harper (2003:3) defined the sign as: "any function or framework which alters the behaviour of other organisms, which advanced because of this effect, and which is effective because the receiver's response in addition has evolved". Here, the transmission is recognized as getting a corresponding response, a modification of behavior. Still, it may fail sometimes, for example because of poor design or noises. On the contrary, communication means an effective accomplishment of the signalling act, so there is no such theory as failed communication. Thus, it is this possible inability which makes the clear difference between signalling and communication. In the previous definition, there is absolutely no reference to the idea of "information" but this will not mean that signalling will not use it. If we think of both impersonal and canine signalling, the theory that the signal carries information is implicit, even Maynard Smith and Harper (1995:305) explained that: "it is not evolutionarily stable for the receiver to alter its behaviour unless, normally, the signal bears information of value to it". Hence, information is carried but the relevance of the signal is important as the receiver may ignore the signalling behaviour if the indication is of no use to him and has little or nothing to get from it. A significant difference between human being communication and pet animal signals (maybe we could even think of this difference when referring to impersonal devices signalling) is the occurrence of language. People are able to speak by making use of language, getting the power of incorporating and creating different communications by using symbols, words and their ingenuity. A lot more than that, people have thoughts, desires, values being able to show and acknowledge their motives to communicate, they may use different stimuli to attract the receiver's attention and take part in activities with similar goals and aims. Family pets, on the other palm, haven't any intentional system (Davidson, 1982) and nothing of all these human traits. The speech works mark also a difference between real human communication and animal/impersonal impulses. The communicative functions help us not and then communicate but also to effect each other in various ways.
In summary, if we take into consideration the particularities of individual communication and the restrictions of creature/impersonal signalling, we can notice that there are similarities but also differences, thus it might be difficult to say a simple model would cover all instances. The general terms of individuals communication being established, we use look at other important aspects/models of successful and effective (man) communication.
Two-way process: The two-way process refers to a communication where in fact the participants take turns in being speaker-listener, writer-reader, the process being complete only if there's a reviews from the recipient to the sender about how well the subject matter is understood.
Verbal and nonverbal: Verbal communication uses looks and language expressing ideas and concepts while non-verbal communication uses gestures, touch and body language to receive and send wordless cues between people.
Language familiarity: Effective communication means that the sender must use a vocabulary the receiver is familiar with, in any other case the communication is a failure.
Interest in the note: The device needs to be interested in the subject the sender must convey, so the communication process is successful.
Perception: There must be a consensus between the note that is sent and the one that is received. The expected meaning should be the same for a highly effective communication.
Continuity: Communication is constant because in everything we do, we must convey or acquire information, the exchange of information being truly a continuous process.
Formal or informal: Formal communication conforms to established professional rules and specifications while casual communication is everyday, unofficial and does not comply with any restrictions.
Communication becomes effective when it achieves the required response from the receiver. They are the components by means of which communication can be effective:
Context - every communication starts off with a context and is damaged by the context in which it occurs. The context could be cultural, interpersonal, physical, etc. which is the sender who decides the message to connect within such a context.
Sender/encoder - This is actually the person who conveys the concept. He/she uses words, aesthetic aids or body language to send the communication and produced the needs response, the verbal or nonverbal icons chosen being essential for the correct interpretation of the meaning by the device.
Message - The subject matter is the essence of the particular sender would like to communicate and it is the starting place of the communication process because the sender starts off by planning the note he/she desires to transfer.
Medium - It is the channel which is used to execute the communicative action. It is vital to choose the right medium in order to have a powerful communication.
Receiver/decoder - This is the person to whom the concept is dealt with, the knowledge of the message depending also on the relationship between the sender and the recipient, but also on the reliance that the encoder is wearing the decoder.
Feedback - Feedback is very important for the communication process as the sender gets the likelihood of analysing the effectiveness of the note and also to understand if the concept has been interpreted accurately.
There are extensive code models for understanding the communication process and it might be difficult to consider most of them in this paper, therefore we will consider only some significant models which provide the goal of understanding the procedure of communication.
The ancient greek language philosopher Aristotle was the first to give a model of communication. Incorporating few elements, his model is ideal for presenting and public speaking (www. eou. edu).
SPEAKER - Concept - LISTENER
According to this model, the presenter/sender has the most important role in communication, taking complete demand, carefully setting up and delivering his thoughts to be able to impact the listener/receiver. Aristotle's model is the most common model for presenting and public speaking where the meaning is sent to impact the receivers and make them act consequently.
Shannon and Weaver (1949)
Claude E. Shannon was an electrical engineer and mathematician who printed a newspaper which referred to a theory of probability for assessing the success of electric transmitting of information, an idea which became known as the information/communication theory. His model was based on five constituents involved in the process of communication:
1. An information source which produces a note or a sequence of announcements to be communicated to the getting terminal.
2. A transmitter which functions on the communication in some way to produce a signal suited to transmission in the channel.
3. The channel is merely the medium used to transmit the sign from transmitter to receiver. During transmission, or at one of the terminals, the sign may be perturbed by noise.
4. The receiver ordinarily does the inverse procedure of this done by the transmitter, reconstructing the note from the transmission.
5. The destination is the individual (or thing) for whom the concept is intended. (Shannon, 1948:380, 1949:4).
In 1949 Shannon' s theory was researched by Warren Weaver who actually long the term communication, deploying it in an exceedingly wide sense and making the knowledge of the idea easier for many who were not acquainted with mathematics. Shannon and Weaver released a interact "The Numerical Theory of Communication" which contributed significantly to the application of the communication theory within different areas.
MESSAGE SOURCE - TRANSMITTER - CHANNEL - Recipient - DESTINATION
Roman Jakobson (1960)
Jakobson's model of the functions of terminology makes a distinction between six factors of communication that are necessary for the communication to take place: addresser, note, addressee, context, code and contact.
The ADDRESSER transmits a MESSAGE to the ADDRESSEE. To become operative, the concept requires a CONTEXT described ("referent" in another, relatively ambiguous, nomenclature), seizable by the addressee, and either verbal or capable of being verbalized; a CODE completely, or at least partly, common to the addresser and addressee (or in other words to the encoder and decoder of the subject matter); and, finally, a CONTACT, a physical channel and psychological interconnection between your addresser and the addressee, permitting both of these to enter and stay in communication. (Jakobson, 1960:353).
ADDRESSER CONTACT ADDRESSEE
According to Jakobson (1960) each one of these factors determines a different function of words (termed by him as referential, emotive, conative, phatic, metalingual and poetic), each verbal message fulfilling several of these functions.
M. A. K. Halliday (1978)
David Crystal (2003)
In "A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics" Crystal defines communication utilizing a classic version of the style of communication.
Communication identifies the transmission of INFORMATION (a 'subject matter') between a source and receiver utilizing a signalling system: in linguistic contexts, source and receiver are interpreted in real human terms, the system involved is a Dialect, and the notion of reaction to (or acknowledgement of) the subject matter becomes of essential importance. Theoretically, communication is thought to have taken place if the information received is the same as that sent (Crystal, 2003:85).
SOURCE - Vocabulary - RECEIVER
Possible diagram of Crystal's model
The examples offered here demonstrate the long existence of different models, each of them having a pattern of development, a contribution and an affect on the process of communication. However, an essential requirement of the communicative process is dialect which helps us to talk, to actually communicate the note to other individuals, to socialize and create systems for communicating. In general linguistics, language is analysed as a formal system, Noam Chomsky (1975) discussing it to be innate, a biological necessity and an extremely abstracted individual competence. Still, when connecting, people do not count only on the rules of words as a formal system, but also on the surroundings, the social framework and the data they may have of this issue. Even though linguists like Chomsky or Pinker declare that folks are somehow "wired" to language, people likewise have the capability to become aware also to respond to the environmental cues with all the language. For the reason that of these capabilities and reactions that dialect performs an important role in communication and comes with an impact on individual interaction. Language functions many communicative functions, one of the primary functions being the communication of information, and even if there have been many attempts to provide some general guidelines for the primary functions of terminology, the results have been inconsistent, this efficient methodology being "less well documented" (Brown and Yule, 1983:1). Brown and Yule used only two terms to refer to the main functions of terminology, the variation being made between "transactional terminology" and "interactional words", that actually match the classifications "representative/expressive" found in Buhler (1934), "referential/emotive" (Jakobson, 1960), "ideational/interpersonal" (Halliday, 1970b) and "descriptive/social-expressive (Lyons, 1977). According to Brown and Yule (1983), transactional words is that terms which is useful, the loudspeaker (or writer) having at heart "the effective transference of information", the receiver having to receive the message accurately, as there is absolutely no place for misinterpretation due to terrible consequences that it may have, for example a professor giving the incorrect information to students at the beginning associated with an exam or a fireman misguiding his co-workers during a flames. Interactional language identifies the language used in everyday discussions or social romantic relationships, the sociologists and sociolinguists being the people concerned with "the use of language to establish and maintain cultural relationships" (Dark brown and Yule, 1983:3). Everyday conversations are more at the mercy of interactional than transactional use of language, phrases like "Terrible weather, isn't it. " or "That is clearly a nice shirt/blouse" suggesting the speaker's purpose to build up a conversation and become friendly not his/her goal to convey a message. Conversational analysts such as Brown and Levinson (1978) believe agreement and a typical perspective are essential because of this type of language, repetition being one of the means where arrangement is emphasised.
A distinction needs to be made here between spoken terminology which is normally considered to be more interpersonal than useful, and written terminology which is known as to be generally transactional. Spoken and written terms are produced in another way and with different effects.
There are distinctions between your spoken and the written words which send not and then the way that they are produced and also to their effects, but also with their evolution and self-reliance. Language is known as to be a natural ability, the capacity to obtain it being innate. Still, the views are different when referring to spoken or written language. There are various linguists who believe written terminology is a individual invention rather than a natural capacity. Darwin (1871) published about the instinct of speaking that people can observe despite having little children while there is no such instinct as writing that can be observed with children. Saussure (1916) explained that writing can be found only to represent speech, while Bloomfield (1933) claimed that writing is merely a way where speaking can be registered, there being no such term as written vocabulary. Even when this view about writing has been sustained by many renowned linguists, it isn't universally accepted. Linguists from the Prague Linguistic Circle, such as Pulgram (1965) or Vachek (1973, 1989), view written terminology as an independent system add up to spoken language, the two systems mutually influencing the other person.