Posted at 10.28.2018
This medical theory paper defines Madeleine M. Leininger's theory of Transcultural health care variety and universality. She was born in Sutton, Nebraska 1948. Leininger (1978) launched concept of transcultural medical and developed culture good care theory to explain cultural competency. Her book Culture Care Variety and Universality: A theory of Nursing was released in 1991. Today nurses are faced with unprecedented cultural variety as a result of increasing amount of immigrants and refugees. Culturally skilled nursing manuals the nurse to provide optimal holistic, culturally established attention. Transcultural theory focuses on culture as an important element of human care. The main goal of Leininger theory is to comprehend the effect of culture on health and disease. This Transcultural theory newspaper will discuss the social dynamics that impact the nurse patient relationship.
Basic concept of Transcultural Theory.
Leininger's theory of Transcultural health care variety and universality is the theory focusing on transcultural diversity. Medical is a discovered profession centered on treatment phenomena. His theory is also called 'Culture Treatment theory'. Treatment is the central of medical. Culture good care theory is the sole nursing theory that focuses on culture (Rosenbaum 1997). Increasing variety of multicultural population internationally has made the nurse to be culturally proficient. This can only appear when client's beliefs and prices are thoroughly and skillfully contained into nursing programs. Leininger noticed that human attention was an important aspect of medical that helped people to maintain health insurance and recover from condition ( Leininger, 1991, p. 7). Leininger is convinced that nursing is actually a transcultural attention phenomenon and lived experience, the uniqueness of which centers around providing human care to people in a way that is important, congruent, and respectful of ethnic values and standards of living.
Description of Medical Activity.
Before 1950, in nursing two important components were lacking, the culture and care. Transcultural medical is a comparative research of cultures to understand similarities (culture general) and difference (culture-specific) across real human teams (Leininger, 1991). Nurse should be culturally qualified in providing holistic health care to patient. The sunrise model created by (Leininger, 1997) points out the inter relationships between culture care variety and universality theory. The sunrise theory includes the enabler which gives guide map that helps nurses for systemic review of all dimensions of the theory. The sunrise enabler symbolizes the growing of the sun (Care). the key elements in higher fifty percent of the sunrise enabler are ethnic care and attention world view, ethnical and social structure dimensions that effect healthcare through words, ethno history and environmental factors, these in turn also influence the professional medical system. The next two halves stand for the world that nurses should respect to appreciate human care. Matching to Leininger nursing functions like a bridge between general and professional system.
Culturally Congruent Care
Leininger (1991) discovered three major methods to guide medical decisions, judgments, or actions to provide culturally congruent care to clients.
1. Cultural preservation or maintenance identifies upholding particular group's principles, practices, and beliefs that are learned and shared by client to keep up, improve health condition, and face disability or death.
2. Ethnic health care accommodation or negotiation identifies those actions and decisions that help people of a selected culture to conform oneself or discuss with professional health care specialist for beneficial or gratifying health effects.
3. Cultural care repatterning or restructuring refers to professional activities and decisions that help the clients to change or adjust their life styles to new environment to get more detailed beneficial or much healthier life ways than before and still respecting the client's values and cultural techniques.
Acquiring knowledge and knowledge of Transcultural model.
The ethnic phenomena by (Giger and Davidhizer, 1995) concentrate on six different domains.
1. Communication: Culture greatly affects both verbal and non verbal manifestation of an individual. Verbal appearance like language performs a significant role, the nurse should keep in mind all of the words spoken and respect them. Non verbal conversation such as body good posture, use of touch, eyesight contact, facial appearance can change this is of communication like in the us avoiding eyes contact may be looked at as untrustworthy, where as in many Asian culture it is recognized as disrespectful. Touch may be looked at as healing in a few culture, but can also be believed as serious insult by South East Asians.
2. Space and distance: some individuals tends to maintain space close or very good, some feel closeness is expression of treatment, at same time others feel like taking their space.
3. Time and punctuality: Concept of time make a difference the communication of nurse and the patient. In USA (US) culture time and promptness are essential. Whereas the Hispanic people consider amount of time in wider shape.
4. Biological modifications: the data of growth and development helps the nursing assessment. In a few civilizations like Indian, Asian, Latino they imagine illness is because of imbalance in body. And health can be looked after by fixing this imbalance. Nurse should keep in mind several other factors like the use of herbal supplements, values, beliefs, dietary preferences that affect well-being and health.
5. Environmental variations: You will find civilizations who still believe in folk medication system. They give attention to natural phenomena and body. The traditional western medical system gives importance to health prevention and curative medication. Health education in non judgmental way by upholding one's culture is vital.
6. Social corporation: Culture is passed on from one era to another by families, groups and tribal. They provide a system for individual development. Nurses must provide education and entail the households, multigenerational relatives, adults and children in attention of patient.
Importance and uses of Transcultural / Culture health care theory.
The main purpose of this theory is to identify cultural established factors that impact health, illness, death and health of clients and communities.
' This theory provides culturally congruent and safe good care to clients with diverse culture.
' In global research provides understanding of present and future techniques.
' Helps to identify patient's values on health and illness and their beliefs.
' Culture health care theory is very versatile and globally used, and can be applied in all functional clinical adjustments.
' Helps for self applied examination and knowledge build.
' Transcultural theory is very important to the nurses to check out cultural aspects between your co-workers to keep good inter-personal romantic relationship.
' Provides theoretical foundations to all or any nurses for culturally congruent and skilled care to all or any age groups, people and communities.
' Transcultural nursing strategy gives holistic treatment to patient by including physical, social, psychological, spiritual and mental needs of patient.
Example of prominent care and values. (Indian Culture):
I am an Indian nurse working in USA for earlier five years. I work in medical surgical and orthopedic unit. I had a Indian patient middle older man with dehydration and weakness. ONCE I went to patient's room the individual was upset, stressed out with the evening meal on the table not handled. In Indian culture the males are prominent and the still left hand is thought to be used for toileting purpose. We use right palm for any work, especially while administering water and food. The individual here being male prominent felt insulted when the dietary person delivered the food in left palm. The individual said this food is unclean; I really do not want to consume. This may look a small subject of handling, but patient's social beliefs were not respected. I had fashioned to reorder food, make him comfortable. I QUICKLY addressed this problem to our nurse administrator regarding social education to all Para medical staff who entail in patient good care immediately or indirectly. Now inside our hospital more focus is given on social base during orientation. As being a nurse this theory helps me to increase the nurse- patient romantic relationship by understanding their ethnical tactics and respecting the same.
Increasing variety of multicultural human population has challenged the nurses to be culturally skilled. Religious beliefs and procedures greatly influence health insurance and health problems. Leininger's transcultural theory targets culture as an important element of health. 'Clearly nurses without prep in transcultural medical would be greatly handicapped when working with folks of diverse culture' (Leininger, 1991). The main principles of Leininger's theory are culture, ethnical values, ethnical diverse, ethnic congruence and ethnocentrism. The sunrise model helps the nurse for organized research of the culture care theory. Transcultural theory is also very important to self evaluation and follow cultural aspects between co-workers to keep good inter personal relationship. Transcultural theory is adaptable and can be globally found in any clinical configurations to provide optimal holistic and culturally established care.