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Defining and Analysing Brand Extension

Few of the generally acceptable definitions of the brand extension are as follows: using name of more powerful brand of particular product category for entrance in to a new product category (Aaker, 1990). The brand extension is one of the ways of leverage the strong brand towards a fresh product category, then it is further two other proceeding come under it that is "RANDOM Extension" and the other is "Creating Range brand" the basic difference is this that ad hoc is unplanned or the we can say the extension took in line with the current scenario of market, where as Creating range brand is the preplanned or being come into existence while starting company (Aaker, 1996). Nowadays in this competitive situation the marketers want to increase their organization collection with the diminishing cost of promotion and diluting the chance of the damage to the get better at brand, so the one of the most popular way is to use the strategy of brand extension (Fox et al. , 2001). The strategy of brand expansion permits the buyer to form goals about the performance of recently launched product predicated on the previous understanding of the existing brand (Keller, 2003). The perceived risk which consumers will often have with respect to the new product will be reduced when the consumer has the understanding of and familiar with the father or mother brand (Aaker & Keller, 1990). In wide-ranging, studies of similarity between the mother or father brand and the expansion show a immediately proportional relation between the product similarity and customer's assessment of the extension. If the likeness is high, consumers starting their diagnosis of the expansion on their procedure towards the mother or father brand (Keller & Aaker, 1997).

Parent Brand:

Parent brand can be explained as the name of the brand that represents the foundation of the brand extension (Apostolopoulou, 2002). As when customer come to shop and first face the extension he/she is unfamiliar with that extension, however consumer may have already the knowledge of the mother or father brand, so he/she might examine that extension based on the knowledge of parent brand (Bhat & Reddy, 2001). The mother or father brand that happen to be dominating in characteristics are those when their product category is being recalled their name come first in the mind (Herr, Far-quhar, and Fazio 1996) for example like when some asks about detergent, what comes firstly mind that can be Search excel or Ariel.

Brand Image:

The current perception about the brand is called brand image, but the brand image is tactical in character unlike brand identity as it is tactical in dynamics (Aaker, 1996). A confident status or a graphic of an brand has been considered a valuable competitive advantages for the business, in studies it's been shown that brand image plays very significant role to evaluate the brand expansion by the customers (Kwun & haemoon, 2007).

Brand Individuality:

Brand personality is been described by the Aaker (1996) that "it's the unique set of associations which symbolizes that the particular brand are a symbol of and imply a offer to customers from the organization members".

The structure of the brand individuality is divided into two parts that is central identity and lengthened identity, where as core identity typically not change and remain steady as the brand goes on the new market or product it is for years while the extended identity is the component for the brand that completes the brand (Aaker, 1996).

As in the other e book of Aaker (2000) argues that the brand is more a product, corresponding to him extension is important it creates the mother or father brand stronger and its very important to have the strong extended individuality, it'll be more clear after taking a look at this figure.

A Brand Is More Then A Product

Source: Aaker, 2000, p. 52

Aaker (2000) says concerning this picture that lengthened identity supplies the space to move beyond the qualities.

As individuals have usually personality cards where they can be identified that who they are what they do and the best way to reach them, so same is the truth with the brand because as the brand have personality same like it gets the brand id as well therefore the customer can identify the brand (Jean and Kopfere, 2003).

Brand identification will be little more clear after providing the response of some inquiries like.

Vision and purpose of brand?

How it is exclusive?

What need the brand is fulfilling?

In which it is consistent?

What it worth's?

What are its acknowledgement signals?

After having the answers of the above mentioned questions the brand can be easily recognized (Jean and Kopfere, 2003).

Difference between Brand Individuality and Brand Image

As it is for certain and it has been identified in lots of the studies that brand personality is from the company side means organizations true personal what they would like to show to the customers (Aaker, 1996 : Jean and Kopfere 2003).

Brand personality is given immediately by the organization however the image is been recognized by the clients where that understanding is being made by the noise or competitor these two things are also known as extraneous factors which create interpretation of the brand bye various ways which is often more clear by this diagram.

Signal, icon, name

Brand identity Company Mass media Customer


Brand image

Source : Jean & kopferer 2003

Brand Personality:

For any brand most important thing is to help make the brand lasting for the long term by brand collateral and to build a brand equity brand personality is someone to create it through its three models which are self expressive model making a customer expressive before others and second is the partnership model which build a relation of a person with the brand and the third is the functional benefits model which is also very important for the clients because the first and the foremost thing for the client is its efficient benefits in the brand (Aaker, 1997).

As regarding person as it includes some type of personality with some unique kind of the sizes this is actually the same with the brand personality and gleam brand personality range BPS this is also known as as big five which is written under at length.


Under which the several variety can be obtained like down to globe means family focused, for love category and honest and sincere in characteristics, it show originality, traditional, cheerful mean friendly many of these are under the top of sincerity.


In this kind of personality it shows daring, spirited, imaginative, astonishing and imaginative comes under this kind of personality.


A personality which ultimately shows reliability, cleverness and the successfulness.


This personality shows the top class and the elegance.


This show outdoorsy means athletic, productive and the other is difficult.

By each one of these personality proportions every customer tries to choose the brand whose personality related to her or him or they might select the brand what they want to be or they could want to make relationship with it (Aaker, 1997)

Now they are the brand personality dimension where customers relates him/her with the individual brand personality he/she have or what personality he/she loves will purchase that brand (Hawkins et al, 2001).

Brand personality makes brand more favorable for the consumers because thus giving the meaning to the brand in the mind of the consumers, the concept of the brand personality is new for the marketers and the consumers but its not new for the promoters because in early on fifties they have got started using celebrity endorsement in their advertise from then on consumer started corresponding themselves with those superstars and started out purchasing those products (Plummer, 1984). Brand personality can be defined as the association of the personality of real human with the given brand, thus it offers all the demographics as well like, gender, ager, socioeconomic school etc, for example Tapal Tea is perfect for family while Lipton is ideal for the executives by these kind of example one matches himself/herself with the personality or brand to have it (Aaker, 1996).

One person makes camaraderie or come to a marriage or become a partner due to personality he or she like or the he or she desire to be like that personality same is the situation with the brand personality it becomes the spouse of the consumer who buys it and a relation becomes better (Aaker, 1997).

Brand Knowledge:

In common the brand knowledge can be explained as the composition in the mind containing values and attitudes, that are related to the varied examples of power (Broniarczyk and Alba, 1994). In a few of the studies it has been shown that the data can be inspired through the notion of the new product with the relationship of the prevailing belief (Crocker, Fiske, and Taylor, 1984). Brand knowledge play a vital role other then brand specific relationship and the brand have an impact on to judge the extension by the consumer, the analysis was done on the respondent were brand experts and everyone or new to brand, two brands has been used Apple and Compaq using their individual extensions (Broniarczyk & Alba, 1994).

Empirical Studies

Thamer, Neale and Bougoure (2009) looked into The effect of Brand extension on parent brand relationship quality utilizing the sample size of N=216 by taking two parent or guardian brands first one is the Apple and the next one is Dove where as for each of them one related and other unrelated expansion has been decided on like for Apple the related expansion is WRISTWATCH and unrelated is Apple Shoes where as for the Dove brand the related extension is shaver (non- electric ) and the unrelated brand expansion was Juice. factors BRQ has been taken like love, personal concept persistence, interdependence, intimacy, brand spouse quality and personal determination. Techniques Chi Square and T - Test have been used to recognize the partnership between related and unrelated extension and parent or guardian brand marriage quality. The result implies that for both related extension make strengthen marriage quality while weaken romance quality with the unrelated extension, where for love, self concept uniformity and interdependence weren't supported only regarding intimacy proved weaker father or mother brand marriage quality for unrelated extension significantly, in brand partner quality demonstrated the strengthen romance quality of parent brand of dove with unrelated expansion that was not hypothesized in the way so that it is also not reinforced, for the non-public determination both related expansion of apple and dove the changes were significant while in the unrelated extension it was not significant so that it is supported. It's advocated that the related expansion makes the fortify the parent brand while BRQ of father or mother brand performs a vital role for marriage with the extension and parent or guardian brand.

Tariq Jalees (2009) investigated that romantic relationship between Brand personification of father or mother brand and brand extension by selecting the test size of 245, company and consumers perception relationship has been done on three brand that are lifebuoy, pakola and woodwards as well as for the parent or guardian brand and brand extension romantic relationship of personification the expansion has been taken of the three brand like lifebuoy hair shampoo, pakola milk and woodwords toothpaste respectively, the questionnaire is made up of 45 personality features which comes under the measurements of brand personality those are sincerity, exhilaration, competence, elegance, ruggedness, Technique Get ranking relationship has been used to identify the partnership of brand personification between your consumer and company belief and between your parent or guardian brand and brand extension, The results shows that there was a solid marriage between company and consumer perception of the brand personification of lifebuoy, where as the partnership of brand personification between the lifebuoy and its own shampoo is apparently strongly negative romance, a vulnerable inverse romantic relationship found between pakola and its milk, where as a significant romance found between your consumer and company belief of the brand personification of woodwords and its own toothpaste, for the extension and its parent or guardian brand there is a solid positive relationship of brand personification was found. it is suggested that brand personification plays a very vital role for the expansion as well and company should align there strategy based on the consumers understanding and their fit.

Ko de Ruyter and Wetzels (2000) looked into the Role of Corporate Image and Extension similarity operating brand Expansion in the telecommunication market by selecting 299 respondents out of which 67% were male and 33% feminine with different age ranges. Technique MANOVA and ANOVA has been used to recognize consumers evaluation of related service brand expansion and unrelated extension with evaluation of innovative past due mover and ground breaking pioneer image under the requirements of corporate trustworthiness, expected service quality and purchase intension. The result demonstrates service brand extension by company with the overdue mover creativity were more beneficial in terms of corporate credibility and operating quality and it's been seen that service brand expansion was most advantageous in the related market then the unrelated market in terms of most three the same circumstance is at the past due mover impressive companies, where the difference between your overdue mover and pioneer companies the pioneer gets the larger advantage for the unrelated market over past due mover in term of corporate trustworthiness and expected service quality. It's advocated that for the service industry the followers are more advantageous in conditions of trustworthiness and the expected service quality.

Eva Martinez and Polo (2007) investigated the Effect of Bran Extension strategies on brand Image: A comparative analysis of UK and Spanish market by firmly taking test size of 389 from UK and 388 from Spain in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Factors quality, familiarity, Fit and frame of mind have been considered. techniques Chi-Square and t test has been thought to identify the extension strategy influence on brand image through standard brand image and brand product image before and after the extension. the effect shows that the more acquainted with the brand a lot more better analysis of the GBI and PBI before expansion in both countries where consumers knowledge of the brand using its attitude towards extension was not recognized it also shows that the better the overall brand image is before expansion is better after the extension. It is suggested that brand image play very vital role for the extension so that it can be said that if the brand image is strong there will be low risk in expansion.

Cochen Wu and yen (2007) investigated that How the strength of parent brand associations influence the interaction results brand breadth and product similarity with brand extension evaluation by arbitrarily selecting 384 undergraduates. Parameters brand trust, brand influence and brand expansion frame of mind have been considered. Techniques ANOVA has been considered to identify the favorability towards the thin brand and broad brand with the expansion in similar and non similar product category in terms of trust and influence of brand. The results implies that for the similar product category extension with the strong connection of trust and affect the thin brand will be preferred and conversely for the broad brand which is advantageous in the no similar product category regardless of trust and influence terms, it has also be shown that trust and impact influences the attitude into the brand extension. It's advocated that brand trust and brand affect plays very vital role for the narrow brands.

Kuang Jung and Liu (2004) investigates the positive brand extension trial and selection of parent or guardian brand by selecting the sample of 600 with 200 in each group which was divided in dedicated users, low to medium user and the non users with the brand used is soap using its vertical extension is whitening cleaning soap and horizontal expansion is deodorant. Factors repurchase, point of purchase display, promotion deal and advertising is been considered. Approach logistic regression has been thought to identify the acceptance of vertical and horizontal extension with the parent brand extensions. The result implies that for the whitening cleaning soap means vertical expansion the advertising, point of purchase screen and the parent or guardian brand experience shows a relevance for the trial technology and for the deodorant trial technology all advertising, point of purchase screen, promotion revealed a significance it means only dependent on parent brand is insufficient well for the reciprocal ramifications of brand extension on father or mother for the vertical extension is same not change while for the horizontal expansion if the buyer is less user of parent brand might change his / her beliefs. It is suggested that the independent changing takes on an important role for the trial creation of horizontal extension where as for the vertical expansion parent or guardian brand experience is dominates.

David Joon, Kwun and Oh (2007) investigated the consumers evaluation of brand portfolios by selecting the sample product from two of major lodging portfolios brands as Marriott and Hilton organizations and there 4 lodging brands are ( Fairfield Inn, Renaissance Hotels and Resorts, Hampton Inn, and Embassy Suites) and having total 211 respondents. factors product quality, service quality, understanding, brand image, familiarity, fit and attitude has been considered. Strategy multiple regressions has been considered to identify the brand image, understanding, product quality, service quality, fit, familiarity, and attitude relation with the portfolio brand and the extended brand. the effect demonstrates product quality has the effect on brand extension frame of mind through the brand image it also implies that product quality, brand image and attitude towards the parent or guardian brand results the attitude to the extension where as the service quality was not significant well for the familiarity it has no main impact but intervention impact is significant were for the fit both are the significant for both the father or mother brand and brand expansion. it is suggested that brand image, consciousness, product quality, fit, familiarity and attitude with the parent brand plays very essential role for the evaluation by the buyer for the brand expansion.

Hongwei He and Li (2009) investigated the consumer evaluation of Technology-based vertical brand extension by taking the test size of 200 respondents through shopping center intercept method by firmly taking two real leading parent brands in several categories like Lenovo leads in notebooks and the second is Galanz a innovator in microwave ovens where two hypothetical brand extension has been created with esteem to technology like Lenovo having extension of microwave oven and Galanz with extension of laptops. Variables brand devotion, brand extension evaluation, fit and two dummy factors with the name of upward expansion and downward extension has been considered. Techniques correlation, Confirmatory factory examination and Regression examination has been considered to identify how these technical directions effects the evaluation of brand expansion and the other variables as well. the effect demonstrates the downward brand expansion is examined more favorable due to its perceived fit that shows that technological directions effects the fit on expansion this is also implies that fit is more favored with the downward extension in the scientific direction and when fit is high the brand devotion gets the positive effect and then for upward extension the moderating aftereffect of fit on brand loyalty is as general. It is suggested that the effect of brand commitment on brand extension isn't only effected by the fit but also the scientific directions works and important role.

Leif E. Hem, Chernatony & Iversen (2001) investigated that the factors influencing the successful brand extension by taking the sample size of 701 consumers and having 3 real parent brands with the name of maraud treats from FMCG industry, ford automobiles from durables and telenor from service sector by giving three hypothetical extensions to each parent brand. Variables over all analysis, similarity, reputation, perceived risk and innovativeness has been considered. techniques bivariate and multiple regression examination has been used to identify about those factors which effect the successful brand extension. the result implies that the extension into a category more like the parent or guardian brand is more beneficial and easily accepted, reputation of the prevailing brand is also and important factor for the success of brand expansion these are similar for all those sector which has been select those are service, fmcg and durable industry however identified risk about the extension category was only seen to boost acceptability of expansion for durable and service brands where about progressive consumers are more inclined to the service brand than the rest of the two. It's advocated that each factors impact the brand expansion for the success which differs based on the sectors.

N. Thamaraiselvan and Raja (2008) investigated that just how do consumers evaluate brand extensions by firmly taking the sample size 845 and having 6 real parent brands 2 from the FMCG and 4 from service industry which are Colgate, Dettol, Life insurance coverage company of India (LIC), Bharat sanchar Niagm Small (BSNL), state loan provider of india (SBI) and commercial credit and investment corporations of india (ICICI) by giving the 3 hypothetical brand extension to each. factors brand reputation, perceived quality, similarity fit perceived risk and brand expansion evaluation has been considered. Techniques Pearson's relationship and multiple regression has been considered to identify the hypothesis of the given variables. the results show that similarity fit is positively evaluated while identified quality and brand reputation were partially supported where as the perceived risk is low in fmcg where for the service it is high. it's advocated that that the dependent parameters those are fit, Perceived quality, brand reputation and perceived risk plays very important role to improve the other person as well as and enhance the brand extension.

Eva Martnez Salinas and Prez (2008) investigated modeling the brand extensions' effect on brand image utilizing the data from 699 research developed under market condition with 6 real mother or father brand namely colgate, transmission, Nike, Puma, Telefonica, Amena with the genuine hypothetical extension of these. variables brand image, consumer innovativeness, extension attitude and perceived fit has been considered. Techniques T-test and structure formula modeling has been considered. the results demonstrates when there is low easily fit into the extension you will see negative effect towards the frame of mind of the brand regardless of attitude towards the extension how ever if the easily fit into the expansion is high it does guarantee the coverage of the brand image in circumstances were extension attitude is not sufficient where as the original brand image and the identified fit between your new or left over products or the image fit are cable to strengthen the consumer frame of mind here role of consumer is really as moderating factor. it's advocated that consumer personality could become more important than as it is predicted.

Sobodh Bhat and Reddy (1999) investigated the impact of mother or father brand attribute relationship and influence on brand expansion evaluation by using the sample size of 233 and taking the 4 real father or mother brand out which two are symbolic and two are efficient particularly ROLEX, Haagen Dazs, Timex, Sealtest respectively with the true but hypothetical expansion. Parameters parent brand affect, product category fit, brand image fit, father or mother brand attributes purchase intension has been considered. techniques t-test, factor evaluation and Structure equation model has been considered to identify the results accordingly. the results shows that product category will plays a significant role in the brand expansion evaluation while image fit affects cognitive evaluation of and have an impact on towards brand extension and mother or father brand influence brand extension which influences brand extension impact which affects the purchase intension of expansion. it's advocated that hyperlink the traits and image of a parent or guardian brand to obtain the success in the brand extension in future.

Daniel A. Sheinin (2000) investigated the consequences of experience with the brand extension on father or mother brand knowledge by firmly taking the info from 250 respondents with the taking the brand out which two were familiar and the remaining two were unfamiliar specifically coca cola, pepsi cala, Rc cola and Dr. pepper respectively. Variables extension produced believes, first brand beliefs, behaviour towards parent or guardian brand, brand expansion experience, father or mother brand familiarity parent brand price, parent or guardian brand fit with extension category, category familiarity and category frequency of use has been considered. Techniques factor analysis, anova, monova and mancova has been considered to derive the results. The results implies that there was a notable difference between the unfamiliar brand but there's been no difference in the familiar brand the effect also implies that after go through the brand extension the consumer change there beliefs about and attitude into the unfamiliar father or mother brand more then the familiar brand parent or guardian brand. It's advocated that the brand extension experience plays a very essential role to affect the parent or guardian brand knowledge of new brand but it is difficult to affect the knowledge of familiar parent.

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