Manager is a person who in charge in an organization to control resources available in business such as labor and coordinating activities in business to ensure the company is toward attaining the organization's goals. Administrator can be labeled into 3 levels that are first-line managers, middle professionals and top professionals.
First-line professionals as known as supervisor will be the least expensive level in the management. They are really senior who controlling a few workers. They supervise employees and close with them. They identify the daily task and weekly target with employees.
Middle professionals are communicator between top management and low management. These managers include all levels of management between your first-line level and top level of the organization. They may be people who listen to top supervisor and make implementation from what top management had decided.
Top professionals are manager who are in charge of decision-making, make strategic planning, vision and mission declaration and placed goals and objectives which affect the whole organization.
2. What are the functions of any manager? That is the most important? Explain.
A manager utilize the firm available resources with it optimum level. Functions of administrator are planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Planning is a process of determining goals, make proper planning for attaining those goals and growing plans to handle activities or responsibilities in firm.
Organizing is the procedure of determining what should be achieved, who should carry it out, how to set up the business resources that open to attaining the organization's goals in an effective way.
Leading is a process which includes motivating workers, coping with employees' action issues. The director have to consider the best way to communicate with employees when the manager want to inform them what to do, which method should be use, when and where in fact the activity should be carry out. Besides, when employees aren't follow to the administrator, the manager have to stimulate them by different way such as financial incentives or non-financial bonuses like increment of salary or offer employees an improved position.
Controlling is an activity of monitoring activities in organization to ensure they are being accomplished and check will there be any space or difference between what is expected and what exactly are doing currently, the manager have to do something to reduce the gap.
In my estimation, planning is the most important in management process. It is because that planning is a process which we determine what organization should do. In planning, administrator place goals and objectives predicated on resources available in business. Without planning, organization's people have no idea about the target. When there is no planning, the business will facing a problem, they are not clear about the goals and objectives and don't know how achieve the target. The organization will not toward turn into a progressive company because there is no improvement or vibrant.
3. Explain Mintzberg's managerial tasks.
Mintzberg's managerial functions include interpersonal functions, informational tasks, and decisional tasks.
An social role is managerial functions that entail people and other responsibilities that are ceremonial and symbolic in mother nature. This role includes figurehead, authority and liaison. Figurehead means the director is seen as a symbol of status and authority. Command means the responsibilities of supervisor is to motivating and direct subordinate, overseeing their improvement, promoting and stimulating their development. The supervisor should coach, advice and impact their subordinate in an optimistic way. Liaison means website link and organize people outside and inside the business to help achieve goals.
Informational tasks means associated with the tasks needed to obtain and transmit information for management of the business. This role includes monitoring, disseminator and spokesman. Monitoring means analyzes information from both the internal and exterior environment. Disseminator means transfer information to influence attitudes and action of employees. The manager has to advise members of corporation about information that modified. Spokesman means stand for a business or unit to talk with outsiders or stakeholders about information to positively influence the way people outside and inside of the organization react to it.
Decisional roles means associated with the methods professionals use to plan strategy and employed resources to achieve goals. This role includes businessman, disturbance handler, resources allocator and negotiator. Businessperson means encourage managers to create improvement projects and supervise clubs in the development process. Disruption means the responsibility for handling an urgent event. Resources allocator means the supervisor has to decide who to get resources and budget. The supervisor must assign resources between functions and department, set budgets of lower professionals. Negotiator means seek to make a deal alternatives between unions, suppliers, other managers, customer or shareholders.
4. Describe the skills a manager needs to have in order to accomplish his/ her objectives. Which do you consider is the main and explains?
A manager needs to have some management skills in order to achieve his or her aims. Those skills are complex skills, human being skills and conceptual skills.
Technical skills are skills including knowledge in a certain specialised field. This skill is produced by practice such as fixed a particular machine, executing particular responsibilities, to make something accurate. This skill usually need by first- collection managers.
A real human skill is the capability to work well, cooperate and communicate with other people singularly or in a group. This skill is to interacting differing people and individual and combining different people into a group and leading the team. The manager have to learn about understand people, how to get along with people and motivate people or employees. This skill need by middle managers who usually need to talk to low management and top management.
Conceptual skill is the ability to think in a complicated situation. Managers who posses this skill will understand things in a fairly easy way. They got some future taking into consideration the company such as how the organization suits into broader environment in the foreseeable future. In addition, it consider as skill of earning perspective. This skills need by top professionals who have to help make the vision of corporation.
In my estimation, I feel that human being skill is the most important. This is because at work, a manager has to face and communicate with many workers to steer and lead them toward organization's goals and goals. So, a administrator always has to learn to understand people and inspire them. Because of this, human skill is very important for a manager.
6. Is actually a sales consultant (an basic level job in a marketing corporation) responsible for a place considered a supervisor? Discuss.
In my opinion, a sales rep in charge of territory cannot consider as a director. As a director, their functions are organizing, managing, leading and managing or monitoring. Like a sales representative, they could do planning such as determining their targets like how much goods to be sell and make strategies such as how to go after customer to buy it, but a sales representative didn't do other function like organizing, leading and monitoring as a director. So, a sales consultant cannot be considering as a administrator.
7. List the six Management Ideas and illustrate how each is used by professionals today.
The six Management Theories are technological management, general administrative theory, quantitative strategy, organizational habit, system theory and contingency theory.
Scientific management is used by director today. For example, when a administrator analyze the essential work tasks that must be performed, use time-and-motion review to reduce wasted motions, employ the best competent workers for employment or plan motivation system based on output, they are employing the principles of clinical management.
General administrative theories are used by administrator today. For example, the 14 rules of Fayol serve a frame of reference from which many current management concepts such as managerial expert, centralized decision making and reporting to only 1 boss. All of these are being used by manager today.
Quantitative approach is also utilized by manager today. When a administrator want make decision in the areas of planning and handling, they have to make budgeting, queuing, scheduling quality control. For this reason, they need to use the quantitative approaches.
Organizational behavior are employing by supervisor of an organization today in their office too. They study behavior of individuals, learn to speak and use employees.
Currently, a administrator of an organization is using system theory. Being a administrator today, they should not only concern some area of the organization, however the complete system of the organization too.
Contingency theory is using by supervisor today too. Professionals who are using this approach will do things depends on the problem. If there are some uncertain situation took place, the manager changes his approach to fits the problem.
8. List the seven proportions of organizational culture and which you believe is the main and the reason why for your opinion.
The seven dimensions of organizational culture are focus on detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, stableness, advancement and risk taking.
In my estimation, I believe that attention to details is the main among the list of organizational culture. This is because when the business gives attention to details, they'll notice some wrongdoings and improve it immediately. Besides, when they give attention to details, they'll notice some little opportunities to allow them to get large benefits for the business. For example, when an account clerk files the transaction's amount of RM1000 as RM10000, if they're not focus on details, it'll cause reduction for the business.
9. Ranking the eight characteristics of any innovative culture as well as your reasons for ranking them in such order.
1. Problem and involvement
4. Trust and openness
5. Idea time
6. Playfulness or humor
8. Discord resolution
I am rating them in such order because for me, challenge and engagement will always energize many new and different ideas from different people or employees. It really is the main in impressive culture. Another is risk-taking. When people are prepared to take risk, they'll fear for nothing at all and will get some special idea for advancement which has gone out of the blue. I rated debates as third is because when employees are allow to express their views or ideas for account, they will believe that their idea has been appreciate. So, they will think ideas which are actually contribute to invention. I had rated trust and openness as the fourth is basically because this attribute considers the supportive and respectful to the other person for employees. When employees get value and recognition, they will feel comfortable using their workplace. So, they'll give ideas with contribution to progressive culture of firm and benefit the organization. Another four characteristics of invention culture which can be idea time, playfulness or laughter, freedom and issue resolution, I had developed ranked them in such order is basically because I feel they are important too, but not as the first four quality.
10. List all the stakeholders of an company and express which is the main in your view and why.
All of the stakeholders are employees, customers, Friendly and Political Action Communities, rivals, Trade and Industry Connection, governments, media, suppliers, communities, shareholders, unions.
In my opinion, employees are the most important among other stakeholders of your company. This is because those employees are people who employed in an organization and toward reaching organization's goals. Besides, employees are also maybe interest with the shares of organization, they may buy the stocks too and become one of the shareholder. Employees are interrelated and incredibly important to the business.
11. If you're the CEO of a global corporation, which one of these behaviour could you advocate in your corporation- ethnocentric, polycentric or geocentric. Explain.
If I am the CEO of a global corporation, I'd advocate the polycentric attitudes in my group. A polycentric frame of mind allows other branches in various part of the world having their own ideas, let them do things in a different way. This is a more flexible frame of mind. This frame of mind allow branches can do things based on different culture of different country and let local citizen able to admit the product predicated on their culture. For example, KFC restaurant in the us are selling only fried hen and some soft drinks. While, KFC restaurant in Malaysia are selling fried hen too however they will selling chicken breast rice and Milo beverages that are not available in the us. This is an idea based on the culture in Malaysia. The polycentric frame of mind allows the business more appropriate in the whole world.
12. a) Define the next:
i. Corporate Friendly Responsibility
Corporate Friendly Responsibility (CSR) is the decision-making and execution process that courses all company activities in the security and advertising of international real human protection under the law, labor and environmental specifications and conformity with legal requirements within its operations and in its relationships to the societies and areas where it works.
Ethics are the principles, prices and believe define what is right and wrong behavior. It can be thought as the self-discipline that examines one's moral expectations or the moral criteria of a society.
b) For me, I concur that 'conscience is the key sources to determine bad and the good areas of an action'. For example, I determine that cheating is a negative action based on my conscience because cheating is an action that may harm people and cause people having reduction.
c) Among the teachings of my religion that I would use to guide me ethically running a business transfer is 'Do Not Cheat'. For instance, when I wish to sell my product to consumer, I must advertise to add my product. WHENEVER I advertise the product, I will not discuss the untrue information about the features or function of the product to consumer. So that they know I am an ethical business person and I can get long-term benefit from my customers.
d) One of the teachings of my religion I would use to attempt CSR is do anything in an effective way which means do not do things which are illegitimate and cause harm to people. If I am the owner of a corporation, I will do something that happen to be good and give long-term gain for society. For instance, I'd use the creation methods which do not cause environment pollution, so that the society no must pay for the public cost.
13. Format the eight steps in the decision making process.
The first step in your choice making process is identifying a problem. A problem can be explained as the dissimilarities between what's existing and what's expected.
The second step is identifying the decision requirements. This means consider the conditions which relevant and can influence your choice making.
The third step is allocating weights to the requirements. In this step, the decision machine considers the value of criteria, and gives main concern to the requirements which is the most important.
The fourth step is producing alternatives. The decision maker now must make out alternatives available to solve the trouble.
The fifth step is analyzing alternatives. The decision maker must evaluate each one of the alternatives predicated on the criteria.
The 6th step is selecting an alternative. After the decision maker examined all the alternatives, he or she has to selecting the best alternative.
The seventh step is putting into action the alternatives. The choice that had been chosen must be executed. The decision machine has to notify other people who will affect by the decision and have to commit the decision.
The eighth step is assessing the decision success. This previous step of your choice making process is to check on whether the situation had been resolved or not following the decision integrated.
Q14. If you are an entrepreneur who has just started a firm, which decision making style could you have a tendency to gravitate towards? Explain.
If I am an entrepreneur that has just started a business, I would have a tendency to gravitate toward directive decision making style. A directive decision making style, the tolerance for ambiguity of your choice manufacturer is low and they have a rational thought process. They could view the problem in a rational way.
As an entrepreneur, I must be a competent and reasonable person. I must have the ability to make fast decision predicated on logical and rational view whenever i facing a problem. Besides, I must concentrate on the brief run, so that my company can be excersice at all times and become a powerful and intensifying company.
Q15. What are the normal decision making errors and biases? How can a manager prevent them?
The common decision making problems and biases are overconfidence, immediate gratification, anchoring impact, selective perception, confirmation, framing, availableness, representation, randomness, sunk costs, self-serving and hindsight.
A director can prevent them by act corresponding to their own ability; do not maintain unrealistically positive views of themselves and their shows. The manager shouldn't only want the immediate satisfaction or rewards. Besides, the administrator should avoid to use only the information which come first, information that can come afterward also needs to be consider. A administrator shouldn't interpret events predicated on their own thought, it might be unfair. In addition, a manager should understand the situation carefully, if not they don't get the right solution. In addition, they should also avoid biases by always make decision that consider the business's benefit however, not for personal interest.