Posted at 11.25.2018
John Donne was created as a Catholic in 1572, at the same time when Great britain was filled with anti-Catholic emotions and the Catholic was annoyed by key polices of Elizabeth queen. His spiritual took away many opportunities from him and "his viewpoint, " matching to Norton Anthology of British Books, "was always that of an insecure outsider. "(P. 586) He lost his dad suddenly at age four and his mother, Elizabeth, had to breed three children by itself; her mom was girl of playwright John Heywood and was Sir Tomas More's relative. John Donne's brother died in prison due to a fever in 1593 because he defended The Catholic. His fatality experienced a great effect on Donne and he questioned his religion but finally he converted to Anglican religious beliefs. He wrote his book Satire in this perid which was considered as one of most important functions by Donne. Having been the Person in Parliament foe Brackly, secretly he hitched seventeen-year-old Anne More who was niece of Female Egerton. A the elevation of John Donne's flourishing and boosting, his wife perished on August 15, 1617 at the age of thirty three after giving birth to her twelfth child. Donne was struck by her death and grief and onwards he composed no other love poem and composed the holy sonnet XVII "Since she whom I lov'd hath paid her previous credit debt" for lack of her wife.
According to the concise and brief biography of John Donne, it could be assumed that he acquired familiar with loss of life from the early era of his life, obsessed with it, and thought bitter style of fatality and loss during is life very well. Complexness personality of John Donne overshadows his poetry and it can be observed in his frame of mind toward idea of death which is paradoxical and deconstructive. He was hypnotized with the mystery of death. The image of fatality and its own byproduct sentiments in John Donne were very different from the other's frame of mind toward loss of life and he sometimes adored fatality, sometimes mocked it, and in the other times belittled death. Donne believed in existence of life after death and regarding to his Religious world and thinking in afterlife, he was not afraid of death and applied it as a way to attain the eternal and everlasting life in the glory of heaven, the promised land of Lord wherein there is no more death and all shall relax in peace permanently. The majority of John Donne's works handled death straight or indirectly but fatality is an unimportant matter for him while others fear for fatality. He wanted to have superiority within the horrible face of fatality alternatively than being its slave and victim. This paper intends to review the idea of fatality which is deconstructed by John Donne in his three poems as "Death, be not very pleased, though some have called thee", "A valediction: Forbidding Mourning", and "Since she whom I lov'd hath paid her previous debt".
In his holly poem X, "Death, be not proud, while some have called thee", he presents the fatality before our eyes and disparages it as much as possible. From the very start of the poem, " Fatality, never to be proud, though some have called thee/Mighty and dreadful for, thou fine art not so", John Donne reminds fatality never to be pleased with yourself because you are not what other imagine and from this time he deconstruct the horrible and dreadful conception of fatality and break its icon. He rebels against traditional knowledge of death and wishes to give a fresh so this means and image of the frightened fatality. Here it could be said that "some" in the first type of poem can refer to the poet himself who dares o face fatality and summoned it. In the next lines, For individuals who thou think'st thou dost overthrow/Die not, poor Loss of life, nor yet canst thou wipe out me", he reject the power of death and makes himself more powerful and the main one who can evade from death. He believes that is the God who creates the loss of life and fatality is an integral part of creation as other animals and does not have any more electric power over others. Gradually, he tries to justify his reason behind deconstructing the image of fatality and in further lines" From leftovers and sleeping, which but thy picture be, /Much pleasure; then from thee much more must stream, /And soonest our best men with thee do go, /Rest of these bones, and soul's delivery. " He demonstrates loss of life is not the end of your life however the end of your earthy life which is mortal and fatality is a gift from God which bestows us our immortal life in heaven. It isn't possible for human beings to be immortal without dying so even "our best men" hang on to be taken away with fatality to their deathless lives. Furthermore, death is similar to sleep, a nice rest, which not only offers rest to physical bodies and bones but also brigs freedom for souls; it allows human's souls go back to glorious Jesus Christ. Loss of life is consider as a gateway, a transitory stage, between earthy and afterlife world. By talking about "our best men with thee do go" John Donne grants a good attitude toward death for many who are afraid of death and recalls his viewers that fatality is not a abuse from God which is received only by some individuals but it happens for everyone human being, even for commendable and best men and everyone should endures it so you can get to adored heaven. Fatality is the last chapter of moving into earthy world and the rest persists in world after fatality. Donne remains his poem by wounding death's vitality and list other elements which fatality will depend on them for getting rid of people, elements such as fate, chance, king, and eager men. For him, loss of life cannot make the lives of individuals ceased only and needs other associates; therefore, fatality is not something special and does not have any superiority over other and like other animals should waits for proper chance, "poor Death". Finally, the poem leads to lines"One short rest recent, we wake eternally/And loss of life shall be no more; Fatality, thou shalt die. " And here the poet mock and destroy death completely. After awakening from a short sleep, all will live permanently with no loss of life; death is deconstructed and taken off afterlife completely and ceases to exist. Fatality does not have any room in the life after death and loses its unpleasant images in the mind of individual. John Donne displays the true mother nature of loss of life against public's conception and loss of life is forget about "Mighty and dreadful"; it is like a short sleep which bring about eternal life so there is no cause to be afraid of loss of life. He reduces the fear of fatality and dramatizes its weakness and dependency.
Next poem is another holly sonnet XVII, "Since she whom I lov'd hath paid her last debt", which really is a love poem overshadowed by parting and fatality. Donne's wife's death in 1617makes him a great source of ideas for his poetry. This holly sonnet is about his love toward his inactive partner and her caring memory. Mixture of love and fatality, two contrary concepts, are shown in this poem by Donne to reason fatality and only love and remind his audience the transitory gateway of death. According to the first collection, Ann is breathing her last moments and is going to leave this earthy world. She shall not be on the earth anymore but her absence on this earthy life guarantees her presence in a peaceful and glorious life beside her Lord. On this sonnet, like the previous one, the theme of poem is fatality but a loss of life which lacks its electricity in another world. In the last poem, John Donne mocks loss of life because he managed to protect humankind against death but here he attacks fatality as a opposition and objection to God he's defeated by God who is taking his partner away but later on he will try to use her fatality profitably and transforms his thoughts and love toward God. Although in lines "though I've found thee, and thou my thirst hast fed/A holy thirsty dropsy melts me yet. ", he make makes an attempt to deemphasizes his wife's fatality and transfers all of his love to God completely, he is not successful which time he complain deity. On this poem, Instead of belittling fatality, he criticizes God for creating loss of life which made him separated from his wife.
One of the major poems of John Donne is "A valediction: Forbidding Mourning", which separation or fatality alongside with love is provided. In such a poem, a guy is getting ready her much loved for saying farewell to his beloved and all together he persuades her that their parting, maybe the man's fatality, shall not ruin their real love but strengthens it in other way. According to the name of the poem "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning", the poet from the very beginning of poetry asserts that there surely is a valediction but there is no mourning. His strong idea in fatality as a surprise from the Holly Father spreads throughout the poem to help make the audience aware that loss of life is not at all something awful and it does not make people segregated but grants or loans them more closeness. The man is offering to death carefully and in the following lines "So why don't we melt, and make no noises, /No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move; /Twere profanation in our joys /To tell the laity our love. " He would like to heightens their love and reminds his beloved that fatality make their love perfect and she should not mourn and cry over his death. The word "melt" can be considered as transforming to other afterlife and a big change in physical position. He compares their love with earthquake and says to his love that earthquake is dreadful and destroys not our relationships, even after my death, shall cause no injury to our love and loss of life make no damage but closeness and assures her that their separation, or death, cannot annoy them. After death their eternal love changes to spiritual love and he appreciates fatality because it cleans away the four elements which made their physical body" Absence, because it doth remove/Those things which elemented it" and close them to their spiritual togetherness in afterlife; their souls shall be located above elemental and physical world and will be holly and enhanced. "But we by the love a lot sophisticated, /That ourselves know not what it is, /Inter-assurЁd of your brain, /Treatment less, eyes, lips and hands to miss" Again in this poem like the holly sonnet X, death is welcomed since it glorifies their love and make them eternal. Death is not that awful image and principle which is forbidden but is accepted happily. Fatality makes them collectively in afterlife where there is no more separation and loss of life since "And death shall be forget about; Loss of life, thou shalt pass away. " The poem assimilates their like to a compass that his beloved is located in the center and the poet traveled across the world and makes a circle. In last lines "Such wilt thou be if you ask me, who must/Like th' other feet, obliquely run; /Thy firmness makes my group just, /And makes me end, where I begun. " John Donne discusses the circle as a symbol of perfection and mentions that his death and separation of his favorite is necessary to become perfect and fatality gives individual to come back to the Eden and encounters efficiency and glory once more. John Donne didn't fear loss of life like others because of his beliefs to Religious theology assures him about afterlife world packed with love, peace, and kindness so mourning is forbidden.
In holly sonnets X, XVII, and the poem A valediction: Forbidding Mourning", a juxtaposition of loss of life and love is exhibited. Traditionally, people believe fatality is against love so they curse death and do not point out it in their converse as much as possible. But what John Donne tries showing his readers is the fact that death is essential for human being and it should be treasured since it grants us moving into other world without fatality, separation, and sadness. A global in which people will live by their Holly Daddy and relax in peace forever, both actually and spiritually and the lifetime of death stops in that world. John Donne snacks poetry subjects such as love, loss of life, and religion in an unconventional manner. He believes in immortality of man after his loss of life. "His poems, " regarding to Sara Thorn in her book Mastering Poetry, "are full of original ideas and frequently revolve around a central paradox where he challenges typical mortality. "(P. 144) his tone is an iconoclastic speech about man's life and his attitudes toward different subject matter.