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Debates on Genetically Modified Microorganisms (GMO)

  • Leif Swan
  • Kisha Hawkins-Sledge

The issue of whether genetically revised foods are helpful or hazardous has been getting more and more extreme. GMO's were touted as essential product in nourishing the entire world but Genetically Modified Organisms and crops are a controversial subject and the globe is still eager. GMO's have never been with us long enough, and there isn't enough research on the long-term effects of genetically changed foods to feel positive about their widespread use in our food supply. In recent years GMO's have gained a whole lot of attention from the media and proponents of organic food. We have to know very well what GMO's are, what goal they serve, and what makes them not the same as other food techniques that have been used for years and years.

Many people have heard the term GMO but don't grasp what it actually is. For an effective research of what genetically made food is, it must be identified along with its history and the conditions essential to understand the argument against its use. This will be accompanied by the research of the varying positions and valid concerns for and against GMO's and why I am not in favor of using GMO's for our food. In order to grasp why GMO's are harmful and needless for society, we have to understand the risks and potential implications to demonstrate why people find them so controversial. Finally, I will conclude with steps for increasing understanding of GMO's and possible activities on proper labeling of foods that contain GMO's.

Food can be an essential part of healthy living for just about any human being and animal. The consumption of food provides nourishment that's needed is for a living organism to create energy to keep and expand the natural body functions. Food has been obtained throughout history by hunting for live game, gathering vegetation, berries, and farming. However, in developed worlds and modern culture, most of our food is obtained from our grocery stores, which are given by the food industry. Less developed country's are also important to the talk of GM crops as they are victims of the bio-tech industry and food industry as well.

The food industry is involved with all facets of our consumption, out of every part of the growing process, to the research and development of food, handling, slaughter of family pets, and the packaging and marketing of food. As the complimenting element of the meals industry, world has instituted the monitoring of food safeness. Food safety will involve preventing food born conditions, insuring healthy materials, presentation, labeling and proper eating expectations. The oversight of the food industry is completed by organizations like the meals and Drug Connection and the globe Trade Firm - WTO (About FDA).

Obtaining food is a sophisticated process whether it's done by an individual, community or the food industry. Many factors have an effect on the availability of food including the earth's climate, natural diversity, human population, and water supply. The inability to obtain the proper caloric intake and the right amount of minerals and vitamins brings about malnutrition. That is the effect of a lack of nutrients from an effective diet and can result in medical issues and even fatality. Strangely enough, Us citizens have trouble with overeating while children across the world, even our very own neighbors and people in our communities starve (Cunningham 157). That one of the issues that GMO's and GM vegetation were meant to address.

Science has long been intertwined in raises food production. Whether it was the hybridization of two plant life or Louis Pasteur discovering that heating milk to a temperature of 161F killed harmful bacterial that damaged fermentation causing food to ruin, this "which contributed greatly to the improvement of food hygiene"(Campbell-Platt 86). GMO's are a culmination in our previous scientific breakthroughs. Previously, the process for modifying food was selective mating and hybridization and it has been with our food for years and years. Plants have male and feminine love-making organs and hybridization is the procedure of creating a fresh seed organism with the attributes of another. The simple way to accomplish this is to adopt the pollen, not the dust but the sticky string like masses, from one plant and use it on the different place which results in a cross of both (Iannotti). This process includes the selective breeding and growing of more beneficial fruits, fruit and vegetables and vegetation and the mating of similar but different pets or animals such as a donkey and a equine or different strains of dogs.

GM crops are altered with genes with a specific purpose or feature added to their own DNA (Cunningham 169; Brittanica). Vegetation have been hybridized for centuries, but the process is gradual and doesn't always produce the desired results. Modifying plants and plants at the genetic level is appropriate and just about promises the successful creation of the transgenic seed (Thompson 3). These altered or new genes can do virtually whatever is needed by the circumstance (Brittancia). Crops and fruits can be modified to withstand spoilage, have thicker epidermis to avoid bruising, boosts a crops capability to expand in a harsher or very different environment that it would normally increase in, produce more feasible berries or grain and finally be immune to herbicides and pesticides. One of the biggest threats to crops is weeds and "dominant transgenic vegetation are made to tolerate high does of herbicides" (Cunningham 172). In addition genetically modifying plants allows them to be resilient to "drought, frost, or diseases" (Cunningham 172).

"Genetically improved (GM) foods were first approved for real human consumption in the United States in 1995" (Brittanica GMO). "Will GMO's help feed the earth or business lead to more disparity (Cunningham 173)?" When GMO's and GM crops were in development I recall reading science books that touted them as the answer to feeding the globe. "The first software of GMO in food was the creation of food enzymes" and enzymes perform numerous functions such as supporting in digestion, wearing down food, inhaling air, curing, creating sugar and the rising of dough in yeast fermentation (Campbell-Platt 79). Enzymes are within all living microorganisms plus they essentially increase chemical substance reactions. Monsanto identifies GMO's and GM vegetation as biotechnology and defines that by declaring "biotechnology is the science of changing the genetic makeup of seed products that grow our food to add new benefits" (Kneen 42). Actually "it is currently possible to construct totally new genes and even new organisms" (Cunningham 172). One of these of the beneficial success experiences with GMO's is the "Flavr savr tomato" that was revised to "vine-ripen" and further reduced the tomato from spoiling and therefore increased flavor although it was being sent to grocery stores (Campbell-Platt 79).

Health implications of GMO's and GM vegetation have never been proven or disproved. Monsanto is the owner of the patents to all GMO's on the marketplace, to say they can be a powerhouse is an understatement. Take including the genetically improved cows made by Monsanto. Monsanto attempt to engineer cows that created a hormone by natural means, somewhat than injecting the cows, that could increases milk development considerably (Kneed 65). Eventually the rbGH cured cows were approved for use in the United States, but not in Canada or European countries which means the united states cannot sell to them (Kneen 65). Human hormones recombinant bovine growth hormone to increase dairy resource (Kimbrell 21). However, "scientific research shows that IFG-1-tainted dairy survives the human being digestion process" which has strong links to breasts and lung tumors. The FDA didn't even bother "labeling rbGH derived products" (Kimbrell 22). "Transgenes make it through digestion and can copy to gut bacterias or transfer to the blood and organs, including passing through the placenta into the fetus and through the blood-brain barrier" (Natural Revolution). Human hormones in GM dairy are suspected of early puberty and expansion abnormalities. Herbicides and pesticides pollute surface water and the surroundings. New types of GM crops and GMO's are financially unavailable to numerous which cause poverty for a few and an economic growth to other farmers (Cunningham 169). The public often needs food to be 100% safe. The realization that is never possible can be considered a difficult theory to explain (Campbell-Platt 356). Even if a consumer tried out to eat completely organic and natural, "almost all soybeans, more than one-quarter of most corn, and almost 80 percent of most cotton grown in the united states are now GM kinds (Cunningham 173). Trying to stay free from all GMO's in the food string is "practically inevitable" (Ruse 136). EUROPE is even more restrictive in allowing GMO's to be there in their food supply and appreciable research of GMO must happen before it is allowed on the marketplace (Campbell-Platt 363).

The harm that could or might not exactly be induced by genetically modified foods was not researched, just like cigarettes weren't researched at one point. The normal purposes of GM crops are to "avoid spoilage, deal with off bugs or drive back pesticides" Exactly like Newton's Third Regulation of Action, "every action has an equal and complete opposite response. Changing the genes inside a food could cause the meals contain protein it normally doesn't contain (Kimbrell18). GMO's and GM vegetation are so known as due to rearranging of genes and the adding or altering of genes from other vegetation or organisms. Taking genes from rooster and placing them in strawberries may appear farfetched but it's being done. We have no idea how that will impact us because "genetically built foods aren't systematically tested for these varieties of changes" (Kimbrell 19). The greatest concern is for folks with peanut and nut related allergy symptoms. Because "in regards to a hundred people expire every year from peanut allergy symptoms" (Improved Food - Nationwide Geographic). What if a gene from nut products is utilized in another food product that normally doesn't contain nut products? A scientist decided to find out if individuals allergic to Brazil nuts would be hypersensitive to soybeans revised with genes from Brazil nut products, and in fact people did have an allergic reaction compared to that gene (Kimbrell 26). Imagine pouring a glass of soy milk because you're lactose intolerant and everything the sudden entering anaphylactic distress because the soybeans used to make your milk are spliced with Brazil nuts. Another example is proven when "Australian researches found that peas, genetically made with a bean gene, activated allergic reactions in research pets or animals" (Kimbrell 26).

Antibiotic Resistance antibiotics are drugs used to treat microbe infections such as diseases. The body disease fighting capability can struggle off infection alone but often needs the excess help of antibiotics such as penicillin to aid in our security. Antibiotics work by either destroying or slowing the expansion of bacterias so our own physiques can fight the attacks off (What Are Antibiotics). Just as pests become immune to certain GM vegetation, the question of whether our bodies healthy bacteria will create a level of resistance or immunity to the "antibiotic level of resistance genes" present in GM plants may prevent antibiotics from working in us (Kimbrell 19). Already the news informs us that people are suffering from over prescription of antibiotics for simple problems, that cause a resistance to antibiotics for much more serious illnesses.

Scientific meddling in the meals chain has triggered many people in society to become worried about the safety of these food in particular when new medical issues such as "bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse), avian flu and dioxin contamination" popped up at exactly the same time as GMO's (Campbell-Platt 356). Biodiversity is a huge concern with the hybridization between weeds and GMO plants in reality "hybridization with untamed relatives has been implicated in the advancement of more hostile weeds for seven of the worlds thirteen most significant crops. . . resulted in a fresh weed that devastated Europe's glucose development" (Ruse 327). Genetically engineered fish that develop faster than naturally occurring fish have the ability to get rid of the native fish in the mating process (Kimbell 42). In addition to the environmental harm what problems will we face down the line, eventually, when "500 varieties of insects, mites, and ticks are immune to one or more pesticides" (Cunningham 173)? Almost all, if not all, of GM crops are manufactured by the business Monsanto since the company possesses the patent. Monsanto also companies and distributes the herbicide Roundup and their GM plants are usually Roundup proof this is one way Monsanto regulates and dominates the marketplace. Part of the problem with Roundup is when weeds become immune system to it which is exactly what has been going on since 2001 with horses weed and now even more protected weeds can be found (Kimbrell 48). Bacillus thuringiensis also known at Bt is a pesticide widely used that kills pest. Instead of spraying crops and plants with Bt over and over new vegetation such as corn have have been genetically modified to produce the pesticide on its own which we then eat (Kimbell 53). In addition "turning plants into pesticide makers may simply rate the day when pests develop resistance to Bt" (Kimbrell 48). Without a simple way to eliminate these weeds plants are wiped out.

Food products have nutrition labels attached nevertheless they also needs to have a label that informs consumers if their food is made up of a genetically altered component. If we at least have the info regarding the substances in our food, we increase our food consumption and purchase options. Humanity has the right to know very well what they are placing to their own bodies and proper labeling would further that right. Labeling GMO's is a controversial subject because many people want it, and many don't see it as necessary. "There were NO long-term studies conducted on the protection of genetically made foods on humans" (LabelGMOs. org). As Peter Spence points out, there are numerous bugs, rodent hairs and possibly rodent feces blended in with foods we purchase every day (Ruse 136). Despite the fact that the possibility prevails these things may be there in our food, there certainly aren't any labels that time that out to the consumer. The challenge with this problem is that folks know what a few rodent hairs can do to their heath; probably nothing. When it comes to GMO's though, we don't know what GMO's will due to your health. Simply labeling a food "biotech" or "contains GMO" wouldn't educate the buyer regarding any potential hazards. When you get cigarettes however, individuals are blasted with a big label indicate some rather visual facts such as "Cigarettes cause fatal lung disease" or "smoking can eliminate you" (About FDA). The issue with labeling GMO's would be that the FDA doesn't assume that GMO's are any different than the previous centuries of selective breed or hybridization of vegetation. A similar thing can be said about cigarette smoking because at onetime they weren't said to be addictive or bad for your health. Actually anyone who grew up in the 90's can inform you of the billion money court fights that tobacco companies lost while looking to argue that tobacco didn't cause lung malignancy. Oddly enough, we all have been aware that cigarette smoking and tobacco are addictive, and they cause cancer. It might be another 50 years before we realize the true impacts of GMO's but"the united states food and medication administration has dropped to require labeling of foods including GMO's" because we've been creating hybrids for years and years and this is merely a far more specific way of doing what has been done before (Cunningham 173).

Very few farmers can afford to grow food organically, and even those that have tried and achieved some degree of success, have often found themselves susceptible to large firms when they are sued for seeds that have been blown onto their land by the wind. Farmers in India are in a financial crises due to cost of buying GM seeds. Furthermore the GM seed products they bought didn't live up to the media hype including "low yields, drought and pests" issues that evidently they didn't have before (Berlatsky 40). Further, GM cotton reduced beneficial bacterias necessary for the earth in India "ten years of planting with GM natural cotton could lead to total devastation of soil organisms" (Berlatsky 44).

Genetically Modified Microorganisms provide many convenient benefits for food and agriculture. However, the unknown factors and effects of unregulated GMO's place humanity and our environment at a considerable risk. Humanity is usually looking for the next big thing, the newer and better product or method. However, if in the quest for these desires we destroy our health and wellness and environment we might find ourselves lacking any escape. We enjoy everything we sow, of course, if we keep sowing untested and unproven plants, we are just going to raises our suffering. Regrettably for the public, the negatives outweigh the pro's in obtaining completely organic food. Even though research and just a little investigation provides information regarding whether or not the food we consume includes a GMO, so a lot of it does, that people are kept with hardly any reasonable avenues in our food supply. Even though we live what we eat, what goes on when all the food available to us is filled with questionable ingredients? Exactly what will humanity eat when there is nothing completely safe?

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