Curiosity or inquisitiveness is a unique feature of human beings. We have been curious to learn about ourselves, our institutions, our environment, our world, other planets, etc. Questions continue arising in our mind. What are the parameters of sound health of the person? Just how do problems of health arise? What are the remedies? What's the form of the earth? How do solar and lunar eclipses arise? How is rain formed? What makes places like Ootacamund, Simla cooler than their near by places? Will there be any life in other planets? What are stars? Why night and day alternate? Why the mode of life and activities of human beings vary from spot to place? Why there is no communal harmony in certain places? Why there is abject poverty in a few countries like India and African countries than in others? And so forth. Whenever questions arise we seek answers to them. Whenever we come across problems, we try to find resource and solutions to them. Such seeking answers and solutions is really as old as human civilisation. A systematic seek out a remedy to question or a remedy to issues is called research.
Library and Information Science and Research
A library is the treasury of books and documents which contain and carry knowledge. A library is an essential part of academic life. A researcher's first step is to go to the library to learn books and other materials pertaining to his/her own field of interest to formulate a study problem. P. V. Young writes "As a preliminary to field research, or regarding the it, a sustained and high-quality search for data in the library is a most pressing need in the social sciences. " There are, therefore, implications about the increasing research activities for libraries. The study staff visit libraries for his or her information needs. It's the duty of the librarian to give them the required information as quickly and exhaustively as is feasible. Therefore, it's important for librarians to learn in detail, their information requirements and hence to know known reasons for conducting research, that they reach generalizations and generate new knowledge. Herein lies the necessity for students of library and information science to learn the procedure of research. Such an educated person will be better equipped to serve the scientist and other researchers.
Scientific research in librarianship is a careful process by which librarians can acquire more accurate knowledge and understanding of libraries and librarianship. Knowledge about the numerous areas of library and Information science can be obtained by asking questions, thinking of possible answers and testing the options through careful inquiry. Specifically, a researcher in library and Information science must have a definite grasp of the user's behaviour, nature and demand of the clientele, size and nature of the library, types of collection it own and most importantly the type storage and extent of continuous advancement taking place in it. The researcher in information science runs the risk to be out-dated if he/she is not dynamic enough to keep track of these fast developments. A more careful and concerned researcher on the other hand may bring in inestimable benefits to a developing country like India if he/she succeeds in laying practical the best option technology for the taming of so many otherwise intractable problems of under development.
2 Meaning and Definition of Research
Research simply means search for facts - answer to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It really is an "organised inquiry " It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon, to clarify the doubtful facts also to correct the misconceived facts.
Therefore, seek out facts should be produced by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. Hence Research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. An analysis of the definitions given by notable authorities may reveal the correct meaning and nature of the idea of research.
D. Slesinger and M. Stepahesion in the Encyclopedia of Social Science, define research as "the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the intended purpose of generalizing to increase correct over verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aides in construction or in the practice of on ask "
Kerlinger defines research as a "systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena. " The word "systematic, controlled, empirical and critical" describe the characteristics of scientific method. Whether research needs to be an "investigation of hypothetical propositions about presumed relations" is debatable. Research will not always require a hypothesis. It may also be carried out for the discovery of hypotheses.
Emory defines research as "any organised inquiry designed and carried out to provide information for solving problems. " The definition is an inclusive one. But it emphasises the problem-solving purpose only. Research could also aim at finding response to questions.
3 Characteristics of Research
The above definitions reveal the various characteristics of research:
Research is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon.
It is not really a mere compilation, but a purposive investigation; it aims at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon.
It adopts scientific method.
It is objective and logical, applying possible tests to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached.
It is based after observable experience or empirical evidence.
Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems.
It emphasises the introduction of generalization, principles or theories.
The reason for research is never to arrive at an answer which is personally pleasing to the researcher, but instead one which will stand up the test of criticism. 5
4 Objectives of Research
The objectives of research are varied6. They are simply:
Research extends understanding of human beings, social life and environment. Scientists and researchers build up the wealth of knowledge through their research findings. They search answers for numerous kinds of questions: What, Where, When, How and just why of various phenomena, and enlighten us. The bodies of knowledge have been produced by research on the whole and pure of fundamental research in particular.
Research brings to light information that may never be uncovered fully through the ordinary course of life. For example, marketing research could bring about discovery of new uses for an old product.
Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in a variety of fields of knowledge. Our knowledge of separately known events is linked together to draw generalizations and general laws. Law of gravitation, Law of Demand, and principles of organization such as unity of command and scalar principle, the theory of consumer behaviour and motivation theories are some examples for such generalizations, laws and theories.
Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help enhancing our knowledge and ability to handle situations and events. Merton argues: "Empirical research goes far beyond the passive role of verifying and testing theory. Research plays a dynamic role, it performs at least four major functions. It initiates, it formulates, it deflects, and it clarifies theory "7
Good, V. Carter, Introduction (5) to Educational Research, NY, Appleton - century Crofts, 1959, p. 3.
Krishnaswami, O. R. , Methodology of Research in Social Sciences, Bombay, Himalaya, 1998.
Merton, Robert, K. , Social Theory and Social Structure, New York, Free Press, p. 103.
General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen.
Research aims to analyse inter-relationships between variables and to derive causal explanations: and so enable us to get a better understanding of the world in which we live.
Applied research is aimed at finding solutions to problems. socio-economic problem (e. g. , social unrest, unemployment, poverty) health issues, human relations problems in organizations and so on. Thanks to the fruits of research, we have better quality of life, longer life span, better control over events.
Research also is aimed at developing new tools, concepts, and theories for a much better study of unknown phenomena.
Research aids planning and so contributes to national development. Research-social science research in particular-aids planning in the next ways:
Research brings our factual data on prevailing situations and problems for drawing up plans and schemes on a realistic basis. Research uncovers needed facts which sound decisions can be made before committing resources. Studies open up the possibility of testing the validity of planning assumptions or premises.
Research studies enable the planners to judge alternative strategies and choose the most likely strategies for development of the many sectors like agriculture, industry, education, health, social welfare, Library and Information Systems and Services etc.
Before getting into the details of research methodology and techniques, it appears appropriate to present a brief overview of the study process. Research process consists of group of actions or steps essential to effectively carry our research and the required sequencing of the steps.
The chart indicates that the research process consists of a number of closely related activities, as shown through I to VII. But such activities overlap continually rather than following a strictly approved sequence. Sometimes, the first step determines the type of the last step to be undertaken. If subsequent procedures have not been considered in the early stages, serious difficulties may arise which might even prevent the completion of the analysis. One should remember that the various steps involved in a research process aren't mutually exclusive; nor they can be separate and distinct. They don't necessarily follow each other in virtually any specific order and the researcher needs to be constantly anticipating at each part of the study process certain requirements of the next steps. However, the following order concerning various steps offers a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process: (1) formulating the study problem; (2) extensive literature survey; (3) developing the hypothesis; (4) preparing the study design; (5) determining sample design; (6) collecting the info; (7) execution of the project; (8) analysis of data; (9) hypothesis testing; (10) generalisations and interpretation, and (11) preparation of the report or presentation of the results, i. e. , formal write-up of conclusions reached.
The formidable problem that follows the task of defining the research problem is the preparation of the look of the research project, popularly known as the "research design". Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, with what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a study design. "A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to incorporate relevance to the study purpose with economy in procedure. " In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.
As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its own operational implications to the final analysis of data. More explicitly, the design decisions happen to be in respect of:
What is the analysis about?
Why is the study being made?
Where will the study be completed?
What kind of data is necessary?
Where can the required data be found?
What periods of time will the analysis include?
What would be the sample design?
What techniques of data collection will be used?
How will the data be analysed?
In what style will the report be prepared?
Keeping because the above explained design decisions, one may split the overall research design in to the following parts:
the sampling design which handles the technique of selecting what to be observed for the given study; the observational design which pertains to the conditions under that your observations are to be made;
the statistical design which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and the way the information and data gathered are to be analysed; and
the operational design which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be executed.
From what has been stated above, we can state the top features of a research design as under:
It is an idea that specifies the sources and types of information relevant to the study problem.
It is a technique specifying which approach will be utilized for gathering and analysing the data.
It also contains the time and cost budgets since most studies are done under these two constraints.
In brief, research design must, at least, contain - (a) a statement of the study problem; (b) procedures and techniques to be utilized for gathering information; (c) the population to be studied; and (d) methods to be utilized in processing and analysing data.
Research design is necessary since it facilitates the hanging around of the various research operations, thereby making research as efficient as is possible yielding maximal information with minimal expenditure of effort, money and time. Just for better, economical and attractive construction of a residence, we desire a blueprint (or what's commonly called the map of the house) well-planned and prepared by an expert architect, similarly we desire a research design or an idea in advance of data collection and analysis for our research study. Research design means advance planning of the methods to be adopted for collecting the relevant data and the techniques to be used in their analysis, keeping in view the objective of the study and the option of staff, time and money. Preparation of the research design should be achieved meticulously as any error in it could upset the entire project. Research deign, in fact, has a great bearing on the reliability of the results attained and as such constitutes the firm foundation of the complete edifice of the research work.
A good design is often characterised by adjectives like flexible, appropriate, efficient, economical and so forth. Generally, the look which minimises bias and maximises the reliability of the data collected and analysed is known as a good design. A unitary design cannot serve the purpose of all sorts of research problems.
A research design befitting a particular research problem, usually involves the consideration of the next factors:
the method of obtaining information;
the availability and skills of the researcher and his staff, if any;
the objective of the challenge to be studied;
the nature of the challenge to be studied; and
the availability of money and time for the research work.
Different research designs can be conveniently described if we categorize them as: (1) research design in case of exploratory research studies; (2) research design in case there is descriptive and diagnostic research studies, and (3) research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies.
The difference between research designs according of the aforementioned two types of clinical tests can be conveniently summarised in tabular from as under:
Types of Study
Exploratory of Formulative
Descriptive / Diagnostic
Flexible design (design must definitely provide chance of considering different aspects of the challenge)
Rigid design (design must make enough provision for protection against bias and must maximise reliability)
Non-probability sampling design (purposive or judgement sampling)
No pre-planned design for analysis
Unstructured instruments for collection of data
No fixed decisions about the operational procedures
Probability sampling design (random sampling)
Pre-planned design for analysis
Structured or well thought out instruments for assortment of data
Advanced decisions about operational procedures.
7 Types of Research
7. 1 Pure Research
Pure research is undertaken with regard to knowledge without the intention to apply it used, e. g. , Einstein's theory of relativity, Newton's contributions, Galieo's contributions, etc.
Pure research is also known as basic or fundamental research. It really is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It isn't necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of a preexisting theory. The development of varied science owes much to pure research. The findings of pure research enrich the storehouse of knowledge that can be drawn upon in the future to formulate significant practical researches. In what of Dixey, "natural knowledge pursued because of its own sake without any direct view to future utility will most likely lead to results of most unexpected kind and of very highest practical importance. " Thus, pure research lays the building blocks for applied research. The findings of pure research formed the foundation for innumerable scientific and technological inventions like steam engine, machines, automobiles, electronic gadgets, electronic data processing, telecommunication, etc. , that have revolutionised and enriched our human life.
7. 2 Applied Research
Applied research is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It really is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e. g. , marketing research continued for developing a new market or for studying the post-purchase connection with customers.
There is vast scope for applied research in the fields of technology, management, commerce, economics and other social sciences. Innumerable problems are faced in these areas. They need empirical study for finding solutions.
Though the immediate reason for an applied research is to find answers to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of an theory or to conceptual clarity.
Action research is a type of evaluation study. It really is a concurrent evaluation study of any action programme launched for solving a problem/for bettering an existing situation.
This plethora of development programmes has given impetus to action research. Using the pressing need to examine the relative effectiveness of different methods to the same goal or the worth whileness of one goal as against another, research has been called after that can be played a closer and relevant role for action. The criterion of relevance for action is of critical importance doing his thing research.
Types of Research
Definition and Scope
It is the formal and systematic process of deductive-inductive analysis. it is concerned with elucidating concepts and their relations, hypotheses, in the end leading to development of theories. It is concerned with understanding.
It adapts the theories, developed through pure research to the perfect solution is of problems. Thus, it can be involved with getting things done.
It targets the immediate application.
It has little concern with application of findings to actual problems faced by folks apart from the investigator himself. It is not directly related to technical and practical problems.
It is not concerned with development of theory.
It is completed in a specific setting without the assumption about the general application of the finding beyond the situation being studied. It is neither worried about development of a theory nor after general applications.
Its aim is to build up theories by discovering broad generalizations or principles. It is primarily interested in deriving new knowledge. Sometime, pure research is described as research conducted to acquire knowledge for its sake. Probably, this is a simplistic viewpoint.
Its aim is to apply pure research for the good thing about society. Thus, it emphasizes the solving of specific problems in real life situations.
It aims to apply scientific method to the solution of problems in an area setting.
It is usually carried out in laboratory situation, often using animals as subjects of study.
It tests theoretical concepts in actual problem situations.
It is completed in a particular setting (local setting).
It uses sampling procedures to extend the findings of a report beyond the group or situation being studied.
It processes the majority of the characteristics of pure research. It uses sampling techniques and inferences regarding target population.
It uses the same procedures as found in pure research.
Processes rigorous qualities of research.
Processes rigorous qualities of research.
Scientific thinking methods are put on problems taken from real-life situations. It generally does not possess the rigorous qualities of pure and applied research.
It has little concern with application of the findings to the actual problems.
Solution to the problems has general applicability (general or universal validity).
Solution to the issues has only local applicability. This is the solutions are determined without any considerations or assumptions about their general application beyond the situation being studied.
The development and testing of theories of behavior (behavioral sciences).
Development and testing of theories of 'how students behave within an educational setting' (education).
A few studies in library and information science can be regarded as types of pure of basic research because they are not directed towards practical applications of knowledge but the aim being to accomplish a full understanding of the discipline.
Most educational research is applied research because it aims to develop generalizations about teaching-learning process and instructional materials.
Evaluation of an library service.
How to make each type of library more effective?
How to make a particular library effective?
Broadly speaking, there are three major research methods, viz. , historical, survey, and experimental, by which research is usually conducted.
History is reported to be the storyline of humankind understood in a social context. An inquiry in to the past in a systematic manner, is exactly what we call historical research. It helps us to understand why, how and when past events occurred, which aids anticipation of future developments in virtually any field of activities affecting decision making in the present setup. In Library and Information Science, the analysis of history or a credit card applicatoin of the historical research method is usually called "Library History". Library history, as defined by Charles H. Busha and Stephen P. Harter "is the systematic recounting systematically arranged collections of recorded information or knowledge". Historical information, which may range between official records, newspaper, annual reports, manuscripts, etc. to eye-witness and oral history records. The data collection phase in historical research requires a advanced of competency to determine the authenticity of the resources of information.
Historical method in Library and Information Science can be applied to write the biography of the person (e. g. Ranganathan, Dewey, Cutter, Poole and more) or in the introduction of a library during a particular period (e. g. Bodlean Library, Library of Congress, National Library etc. ), or to record the history of libraries in a country, or history of development of a library technique (e. g. indexing, classification), etc. Although historical method is often criticised for its heavy reliance on secondary sources, it is one of the techniques best suited to check out the social, economic, political and cultural environment where libraries and library science have been instituted. Pierce Butler in his Introduction to Library Science emphasizes that librarianship can be fully appreciated only via an understanding of its historical origins.
Survey research has been trusted in social and behavioural Sciences. It deals mainly with collection, analysis and presentation of data relating of today's time, reflecting today's state of affairs in social, monetary and political activities. The most commonly used survey method is the 'opinion poll' during election periods. Similarly an inquiry in to the group of survey research. Another kind of survey research could possibly be the study of psychological phenomenon of a group of individuals (e. g. attitude, behaviour, motivation, etc. ). Survey research is a way of gathering empirical data regarding certain phenomenon, process or object in a systematic way to be able to interpret them in a broader perspective for generalizations.
Survey research is often found in Library and Information Science. However, it is used differently in several contexts. Some popular examples of survey research from Library and information Sciences are : (a) Community Survey to learn the characteristics of the population being served with a library or even to be served by way of a proposed library, (b) Library Survey to ascertain the sources of library or a group of libraries and their growth in a particular period, (c) Users' Survey or Users' Studies to determine the utilization of library resources, satisfaction of the clientele and their need. Survey research is characterised by a selection of an example for the inquiry, design of data collection instruments, administration or conduct of the analysis, design of presentation of report. There are many ways by which data are collected in survey research (e. g. observation, schedule etc. ), questionnaire, interview. It really is, therefore, to the purpose. The success of the survey research method is determined by proper collection of representative samples from the population and unbiased data collection. This method can easily be used and is effective when the mark group is large and widespread across a huge geographical area.
This is the most rigorous of most research methods. The technique has its origin in science, where the researcher has the capacity to control the variables/factors for conducting experiments. In Social Sciences, the experimental method is an extension of survey research having characteristics of any experiment. Control is one of the differential characteristics of the experimental method. This means that the experimental method uses a control group and one or more experimental groups (subjects). In social sciences, the subjects of investigation are usually individuals and the control group is kept under observation for comparison and contrast with the experimental groups. It is highly essential however that the control group and experimental groups have got almost equivalent characteristics though complete equivalence is impossible because of the nature of the subjects (i. e. the individuals in society). Experimental research may lead to establish everyday relationships and can provide an answer as to why certain phenomena occur or what would happen if a particular factor changes.
In Library and Information Science, experimental method can be used to investigate the next : efficiency of classification schemes, aftereffect of book display on use, impact of bibliographic instruction on library use and students' performance, innovative methods of collection developments, uses of catalogue and the extent of retrieval success in the shelf, etc.
Scientific method is a philosophy / thinking or a guideline to the complete realm of research. Unless a study is dependant on scientific methodology, the result is not considered reliable and valid. There's a ladder of steps which make up a scientific methodology. These logical steps in scientific investigation are : (1) identification of problem; (ii) formulation of hypothesis; (iii) collection of data; (iv) analysis and testing of hypothesis; and (v) broad generalisation or formulation of laws. When the laws thus formulated, hold good by using a period of time they are accepted and theories are constructed. Scientific method is concerned with verification of acquired knowledge.
Scientific research is always open for refutation. Quite simply, the research is known as complete as if holding the final say on the topic involved. The hall-mark of scientific research, therefor, is based on providing for the necessary scope and direction in the torso of the study, so that the methods adopted and conclusions drawn can be further checked. The researcher should always suggest the direction in which future research on the topic itself and its own related aspects can be carried out. Scientific research is thus verifiable and therefore, always open-ended.
The interview method is some sort of verbal technique for obtaining data. It's the mostly used approach to data collection in the study of human behaviour. It is a direct approach to data collection. According to P. V. Young, "Interview may be regarded as a systematic way a person enters more or less imaginatively in to the life of any comparative stranger. "
The objectives of interview are mainly of two kinds:
Laboratory study of verbal bhavioural pattern under given circumstances.
Securing information from the individual who alone knows the subject of the matter. Under both of these headings, we can classify the objectives in the next way:
Formulation of hypothesis.
Collecting information about unknown facts through personal
Collecting information about qualitative facts.
Improving the method of observation.
Collecting information about various problems in different
The types of interviews may be classified based on the grounds, as given in the following chart.
Basis of Classification
Subject Purpose Formalness Number
Qualitative Mixed Structured Unstructured Group Individual
Quantitative Methodology & Role
Clinical Treatment Selection Research Curiosity Focused Non Directive
Period of Contact
Short Contact Long Contact
The term observation is utilized to indicate that "the object or subject of a study of being put through close usually visual surveillance and this the information obtained (i. e the observation in the form of recorded data) will be related to more general propositions or theories" 0 (Busha, 1980). Observation is the oldest of the approaches for collecting factual statements about the object of research. It means seeing things with a purpose.
Much of Social Science research has been and will continue to be the analysis of human behaviour through direct observation. This is also applicable in the library science research. Study of the users behaviour in the library, functioning of a library system etc. requires the utilization of observation techniques extensively. Observational strategies are seen as excellent research ways to be used in gathering data. In what of Sproull "Observation method is a data collection method in which a person (usually trained) observes subjects or phenomena and records information about characteristics of the phenomena.
A researcher in the course of his study observes numerous things, but considers only those that are relevant. Observation is thus always selective. It's the technique used for collecting facts through the use of sensory organs like eyes, ears and nose. However, observation is not just sensation - it demands focus on the object of research. Thus, attention is another component of observation. In observation, fact is recongnised only once, the relationship sometimes appears between sensation and previous knowledge or experience. That is known as perception. Thus observation comprises; sensation, attention and perception.
Observation techniques are generally categorised as: participant or non-participant; obtrusive or unobtrusive; controlled or uncontrolled and lastly structured or non-structured.
A schedules is a set of questions, which helps to accumulate data or requisite information. In this method, the investigator himself presents the questionnaire to the individuals whose responses are needed. According to Goode and Hatt, "Schedule" is the name usually put on a couple of questions which can be asked and filled by an interviewer, in a face-to-face situation with another".
Both questionnaires and schedules are incredibly similar; however they also differ in a few respects. A questionnaire is delivered to the respondents by mail, whereas a schedule can be used directly in interviews.
The set of questions is a far more document, so that it need not be very attractive.
The schedule can be utilized in a restricted section of research.
The schedule is put directly by the researcher and he also notes the answers down.
According to P. V. Young, the schedule can be split into the following four parts: 1
A questionnaire method is that method in which a range of printed questions is employed for collecting data. This set of questions questionnaire they return it to the investigator. The questionnaire method has been defined by different sociologists in difficult ways. According to Bogardus, "a questionnaire is a set of questions delivered to lots of persons to allow them to answer. It secures standardised results that can be tabulated and treated statisticaly".
To collect information from the respondents who are scattered in a vast area.
To achieve success in collecting reliable and reliable data.
P. V. Young has classified the quetionnaires into two groups 2, i. e. ,
Structured Questionnaires. Non-structured Questionnaires.
A 'Structure' Questionnaire contains definite, concrete and preordained questions. This type of questionnaire is prepared in advance and not at that moment through the questioning period. The structured questionnaires are used in a variety of projects. The method can be used to initiate a formal enquiry and also to supplement and check data previously accumulated. A couple of mainly used in studies of economical and social problems, studies of administrative policies and changes, studies on the price of living, consumer expenditures, public health insurance and many other issues.
A Non-structured questionnaire is employed as a guide during interview. In this technique, the interviewer is free to arrange the proper execution and timing of enquiry. Flexibility is the key advantage of this method. This technique is put on studies of family group cohesiveness, to studies of personal experiences, beliefs, attitudes and the like.
The questionnaire is also split into different types based on nature of the questions. The many types receive below:
(i) Open (ii) Closed (iii) Mixed (iv) Pictorial.
The Importance of Questionnaire method
The questionnaire method occupies an important devote social research for various reasons that happen to be enumerated below:
The questions which are included in the list of questionnaire are standardised. The questions are real and create interest to the informants.
This can be an indirect approach to collection of data.
By this technique, a respondent acquires some knowledge about many fields which were unknown to him.
In this method, the researcher or investigator does not have to make any administrative arrangements.
The method is economical.
Through this method, a vast area and population can be studied easily.
This is very good method of collecting information about a person, a family group, or a group of persons. It really is a rigorous study by which one can understand specifically the factors and factors behind a particular phenomenon. It really is some sort of qualitative analysis. according to P. V. Young, "case study is a method of exploring and analysing the life span of any social unit, whether it is a person, a family, an institution, cultural group or even entire community. "
The Study of the complete Unit. In this particular study, a sizable variety of units are selected for study and how big is the machine may be quite large to protect a whole community. In a word, this method treats an individual, an institutions or a group of persons as a whole.
Intensive Study. In is aimed at deep, and thorough study of any unit. It deals with every aspect of the unit and, studies it intensively.
After the assortment of research data, an analysis of the data and the interpretation of the results are necessary. Analysis of data comes prior to interpretation. But these two operations are so mixed up that they cannot be thought to be two separate operations. There is something more crucial than the facts and figures in research. The purpose of research is to determine that something. The goal of analysis is to build up sort of intellectual model where the relationships involved are carefully brought out so that some meaningful inferences can be drawn. Facts are never innocuons. They involve both subjective and objective elements. Facts and figures should be observed in the perspective of objectivity.
Analysis of data is usually to be made with reference to the purpose of the study and its possible bearing on the scientific discovery: An analysis is manufactured with reference to the study problems at hand or the hypothesis. Some authors consider processing a required prerequisite for analysis. but many maintain that analysis of data involves processing. In other words, these two operations can be simultaneously made.
Method means the mode or rule of accomplishing a finish. Methodology means a system of methods and rules applicable to research. It is linked basically with principles and techniques to be followed for collecting data, information and material for a given research project.
The researcher has followed the research methodology in the study for reaching the aforesaid objectives is really as follows.
The survey of literature on: (a) the topic of, (b) library automation, and (c) telematics in general at international and national level.
By consolidating the suggestion got during discussion and by reviewing the literature, analysing, and interpreting suitably to control and computerise the house keeping routines such as circulation and serials using software.
Personal visits and interview at the university libraries.
Discussion with computer experts and librarians.
Questionnaires were circulated to each university library so you can get the principal data and their reactions.
Secondary data were collected from the university budgets and twelve-monthly reports of university libraries.
Random sampling method is used to collect the info regarding the adequacy and user's expectation.
Narrative method can be used with a description of systems annotation and interpretation.
Flowcharts receive for the whole house keeping functions, information storage and retrieval.