The Oxford Dictionary identifies culture as ideas, customs, and social behavior of a specific people or contemporary society; the behaviour and behaviour characteristic of a specific social group. Culture can't be precisely identified, but it could be sensed and experienced. Mobley, Wang and Fang (2005) also suggests that culture provides route to people's behaviours, in obvious and sometimes unnoticeable ways; and it deeply influences decision-making.
Culture is sectioned off into two aspects that are visible and unseen. Visible aspects include the appearance of any person or what food does he take in. While invisible aspects include the importance of religion, values in a contemporary society or the thoughts and emotions folks have about certain issues.
In the global market today, culture can be an essential requirement to multinational companies (MNCs). Apart from serving a diversified current market, MNCs would also be comprising different nationalities. So, companies are faced with the challenges of offering and owning a culturally diverse labor force. In addition, doing business on a global basis requires a good knowledge of different cultures. Failing to understand ethnic differences can lead to serious outcomes such as a direct effect on the business's business connections with overseas customers, clients and employees and bad pr. Culture also figures just how people conduct business across international edges. Same organizations of different nationalities may operate differently because of the culture and this impact on insurance policies, communication strategies, organizational composition, and human resources management. Organizations specifically MNCs can no longer afford not to consider the culture of the countries where they operate in.
Thus, the main objective of this essay is to critically assess that culture is the most important factor in shaping and accounting for international dissimilarities in employment relations. The article will be evaluating culture through countrywide culture and organisational culture. In countrywide culture, it'll begin by contrasting and contrasting three different countries (France, China and Japan) with their distinct national ethnicities in employee relations using the Hofstede's six cultural dimensions with case studies of "Danone Vs Wahaha" and "Renault Vs Nissan". The two case studies will illustrate the value of countrywide culture to organizations and occupation relations.
In the next part, the article will be evaluating the value and the need of the organisational culture. It'll further evaluate organisational culture by using "Edgard Schein's Three Degrees of Culture" with a good example of "Google" as a case study.
Lastly, it'll end of by talking about the other actual factors that also assist in shaping and accounting for international variances. It will also conclude with advice and the rationale why culture is the most crucial factor.
Hofstede (1991) dened nationwide culture as "the collective programming of your brain which distinguishes the users of 1 group or folks from another". It means that the people talk about a collective nationwide character that signifies their social mental programming which is a set of norms, behaviours, values and customs which exist within the population of any sovereign country. Hofstede also promises that every national population shares a distinctive culture.
However, in the modern times, many MNCs have not yet grasped the culture of the country that they are operating or advertising their products in. By using circumstance studies of "Danone Vs Wahaha" and "Renault Vs Nissan" in this essay, it will try to compare the great differences in national culture between France, China and Japan using Geert Hofstede's 6 proportions of defining and interpreting culture.
First Case Study: Wahaha Vs Danone
In 1996, China's Hangzhou Wahaha food group, France's Danone group and Hong Kong's Bai fu qin company made a decision to form a joint venture named "Wahaha". With this jv, Danone attemptedto enter into the china market using "Wahaha" brand that is well-received by the Chinese language. However, problems surfaced when Danone became the biggest shareholder in 1998; thus producing resentment from the China's Wahaha group as they experienced that Danone misled them from the beginning. To worsen the situation, Hangzhou Wahaha food group that is been able by Chairman Zong was accused of breaching the agreement by creating non-joint projects which infringed the passions of Danone, claiming that the Hangzhou Wahaha's establishment of the non-joint endeavors and the illegal use of the "Wahaha" trademark has violated the clause in the contract. And Wahaha's Chairman Zong was sued by Danone in California and Italy, he created some small companies producing the same products as the jv. The "Wahaha Vs Danone" case has significantly depicted a dispute between ownership rights. Conflicts between Danone and Wahaha may be caused by unawareness of the cross ethnic distinctions between France and China.
Second RESEARCH STUDY: Nissan Vs Renault
Nissan, a Japanese company and Renault, a French company decided to come together to focus on a joint job. Both companies were popular for their different corporate civilizations and brand personal information. The joint task was made as both companies stocks an individual joint of strategy for profitable development and community of interest. However, Nissan's management style firmly inspired group performance while Renault focuses on individual performance. Communication between your top management and employees were unclear and indirect, therefore resulting in misunderstanding within the company.
The conflict between the 2 partners was anticipated to Nissan's employees assuming that Renault was just like them that encourage group performance. However, Renault's management style belongs to a much more individualistic methodology, making the Nissan's employees experienced uncomfortable of experiencing the feeling of burning off their family atmosphere. Communication between your Nissan employees and Renault employees broke down; Nissan didn't grasped what were Renault's main goals and their company goals in their collaboration with Nissan. Some of the Nissan's managers believed frustrated and against the accessibility of Renault representative on Nissan's board. The professionals were old employees, plus they sensed that employees should be advertised according to their seniority rather than specific performance. The breakdown of communication is also brought on by the differences in their language. With such a significant difference in their management style, there is a need in combination cultural recognition for the business joint venture to be always a successful one.
According to Geert Hofstede's ethnic research studies, culture can be categorized into six different proportions; Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism Vs Collectivism, Masculinity Vs Femininity, Long run orientation Vs Short-term orientation. The desk below illustrates for France, China and Japan.
Individualism Vs Collectivism
Masculinity Vs Femininity
Long Term Orientation Vs Short-term Orientation
Figure 1. 0 - Ratings allocated to the different dimensions for France, China and Japan
Power distance can be defined as all individuals in societies aren't equal - it expresses the frame of mind of the culture towards inequalities among us. Power distance can be defined as to the scope to which the less powerful expects and allows that vitality is sent out unequally. (Geert Hofstede, 2001 )
In comparability of France, China and Japan, China belongs to a contemporary society where in fact the people is convinced that inequalities is satisfactory, there is a presence of a robust employer-subordinate relationship which the subordinate will abide all regulations established by the employer.
France on the other hands may be prone towards a far more hierarchical group system where in fact the "attitude towards managers tend to be formal".
Japan belongs to a far more hierarchical society where in fact the Japanese should be aware of their hierarchical position in any situations. All decisions must be assessed by each level of the management and lastly the very best management.
Individualism Vs Collectivism
Individualism can be discovered as the high amount of independence a society retains among its members. It relates to people's do it yourself image in terms of "I" while Collectivism can be identified to be the contrary. Within a individualist contemporary society, people tends to only look after themselves and their direct family while a collectivist contemporary society includes people owned by a group that takes care of them in exchange for their commitment. (Geert Hofstede, 2001)
Comparing the 3 countries, there is a significant difference; China belongs to an extremely collectivist country where people respond at a pastime of an organization. In this norm, personal human relationships prevail over the task and company.
However in France, there is a certain amount of independence a culture maintains among its members. The French prefers specific and private ideas and work human relationships between the company and employees are agreement based where everyone focus on the task itself. Communication within an individualist company would be immediate where everyone gives their opinions widely if they do not consent. Referring back again to the "Nissan Vs Renault" case, it has obviously shown that Renault (France) inspired a far more individualist approach by promoting individual initiatives and hoped that the employees are advertised through individual performance. Direct associates between your top management and employees were motivated in their individualistic methodology.
Japan comparable to China; belonging to a highly collectivist society, this can be shown through placing their tranquility of group above the expression of individual viewpoints and japan have a solid sense of shame for dropping face. In the "Nissan Vs Renault" case, Nissan's employees feel that it is important to have a family atmosphere in their working environment. The professionals of Nissan believed frustrated and opposed to the entrance of Renault as they experienced that offers should be done according to seniority, not individual performance.
Masculinity Vs Feminity
Masculinity Vs Feminity is another sizing where we can infer a masculine contemporary society will be powered by competition, accomplishment and success. It is a value system that begins in the school and goes on throughout organizational behaviour. On the other hand, a feminine modern culture will be powered by caring for others and quality of life. It really is one where quality of life is indication of success and standing out from the public is not admirable. (Geert Hofstede, 2001)
In China, free time is much less important set alongside the position and better salaries. Such examples are available in students as they caution very much about their exam ratings and rank as the main criteria to achieve success or not.
France belongs to a relatively feminine society. It might be because of the famous welfare system, "securit sociale" where in fact the French are just required to work 35 working hours per week and eligible for 5 weeks of holiday seasons per yr. France cares greatly for his or her quality of life and concentrates more on work in order to reside in the opposite. Competition in the working environment is not often motivated and flashy indicators of success should not be shown in the public. Inside the "Renault Vs Nissan" case, Nissan is proven to "treat men and women equally". A number of the feminine employees were offered several managerial positions in the business.
Japan, a complete reverse from France has a highly masculine culture. It is usually shown through competitive situations between groupings, not individuals. Their famous "workaholism" is another appearance of their highly masculine culture. In Japan, women find it hard to climb the corporate ladder due to their masculine norm of long working hours. Contrasting Renault in the event analysis, Nissan belongs to a masculine company which managerial positions are only wanted to the male employees, not the feminine workers.
Uncertainty avoidance has to do with how the society deals with the fact that their future will not be known. The mysterious elements will bring about ambiguity and different cultures will react to the ambiguity in several ways. The uncertainty avoidance can be explained as the degree to which the members of your culture feels threatened by ambiguous or mysterious situations and have created beliefs and establishments that stay away from these. (Geert Hofstede, 2001)
High degree of ambiguity can be seen from the Chinese language as their terms is often full of ambiguity that can be seen as perplexing for the westerners. It really is shown that the Chinese are more comfortable with ambiguity and appear to be adaptable and entrepreneurial. 70% - 80% of Chinese businesses tend to be small to medium sized and family owned.
France on the other palm tends to have their training done in a deductive procedure. Inside the management level, rules and securities are made certain to make a stress free working environment and a certain degree of know-how are welcomed. An alteration of policies can be regarded as a demanding event.
Japanese is mostly of the countries that have the highest doubt avoidance score. It might be because of the fact that Japan is continually threatened with natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanoes eruptions that a lot of Japanese are always ready in any kind of situations. In the business environment, a lot of time and effort are placed into feasibility studies and everything the risk must be worked out before the project can carry on.
Long term Vs Short-term orientation
In the future Vs Short term orientation, a permanent orientation can be seen closely related to teachings of Confucius and can be individually interpreted as interacting with society's seek out virtue. Long lasting orientation can be defined as the level to which a culture shows a pragmatic future orientated point of view while Short-term orientation shows a typical historical short-term point of view. (Geert Hofstede, 2001)
China belongs to a permanent orientated world whereby persistence and perseverance is normal. The Chinese are thrifty and tends to invest in long term assignments such as real house. They also acknowledged that the federal government is by men alternatively than being influenced by external factors such as god or the regulations.
France over a contrary is a short term oriented contemporary society; there's a great esteem towards traditions, ethnicities and their words. In business related issues, the French will focus on short-term results and for that reason, companies are usually powered by quarterly results. They don't focus on keeping and the management style is based on self-reliance, personal success, effort and managers are judged predicated on short term results.
In Japan, people lives their lives led by virtues and good examples in life. There's a hint of permanent orientation in the constantly high rate of investment in R&D, even through difficult times. This is with regard to a steady expansion for market show rather than a quarterly revenue, thus increasing sturdiness of the company, providing the stakeholders and the culture for many generations to come.
Figure 2. 0 - Hofstede's Ethnic Dimensions table for France and China
From the graph above, it shows that the cultural variations between France and China are distinctly different in the different measurements. The graph implicates the importance of concentrating on the knowing of cross cultural variations between the 2 country for the joint venture between Wahaha and Danone to be always a successful one. In the event research, Danone, the French company may not understand the ambiguity in the way the Chinese language operates in Wahaha and so misinterpreted their good motives. Furthermore, for Hangzhou Wahaha, it is founded by the Chairman Zong who started out the business from a small company which might be very much more family-owned. Chairman Zong may not have a huge understanding of how international joint ventures works and can end up leading to bigger misunderstanding and issues which results in failure of the jv or business tries.
An example from the case study; Zhang & Cheryl(2001) stated that "the interpretation of getting rid of control is different between the european society and china". Inside the western modern culture, "losing control may not be treated at an individual level". However, getting rid of control in china is intended as "losing face", which would make reference to losing the power to make decisions which sets Chairman Zong of Wahaha in a disrespectful situation among his employees. Wahaha therefore demand to goes normally in their daily operations in order to keep their face. To aggravate the problem, Wahaha perceived "it was burning off face when Danone set up other IJVs with the competitors" leading to Wahaha being less encouraged to settle their issues and disputes between one another. " From your case study, we have seen how important cross cultural awareness is within shaping and cultivating a good business try out.
Figure 3. 0 - Hofstede's Social Dimensions stand for France and Japan
In comparability of France and Japan, there is a factor in the 6 sizing index from Hofstede's theory. Within the "Nissan Vs Renault" circumstance, the difference in management style, breakdown of communication, different ethnical values and language barrier are factors which might have triggered a conflict between your two companies.
One of the major problems may be the various management style; where Nissan is works in a family like atmosphere. However, Renault targets specific performance where a person only cares about their own results. Nissan can even be seen as a more masculine contemporary society which managerial positions are just wanted to male employees while Renault snacks all employees as identical and it could be shown that "several managerial positions were taken up by feminine employees". In such a different social environment, it's important that both companies should have cross cultural consciousness for the business enterprise venture to reach your goals.
Therefore, it is very important for MNCs to be exposed to the several international cultural distinctions such as their daily businesses they are exposed to multiple national ethnicities. This suggests that managing across edges introduces significant complexity because it forces multinationals to attune their tactics and approaches to each and every cultural context they operate in.
Apart from Geert Hofstede's 6 measurements of determining culture, there may be another famous culture theorist, Edgard Schein that devotes all his work into looking at and determining the organizational ethnic differences. Corresponding to Edward Schein(1992), "Organizational learning, development, and organized change can't be realized without considering culture as the principal source to change". Schein has classified culture into 3 different levels: Artifacts, Espoused Ideals, Basic assumptions and beliefs.
Figure 4. 0 - Three Degrees of Culture
(Schein, 2004, Organizational culture and command, 27)
Schein identified that culture is first seen through artifacts such as aesthetic organizational buildings or tangible items. Root artifacts is the principles such as strategies, goals and philosophies. The main of the 3 levels would be assumptions such as overlooked beliefs, perceptions, thoughts and feelings through experience.
Through the situation studies, they have implied that all country has a distinctive cultural point of view and approach to certain situations and hence it is important for companies to make an effort to understand and support relevant programs or strategies in each region. Failure to appreciate and account for them can result in issues like stress relationships in job relations, communication malfunction between management team and pull down business performance.
Newman & Nollen (1996) also declare that "there exists no one simplest way to manage a company. Differences in countrywide cultures demand differences in management practices". One of their conclusions also expresses the importance of the congruence between management procedures and the countrywide culture should be in harmony in order to produce better performance effects, therefore pinpointing in another way the importance of cultural distinctions. Therefore, the management of your company should pay extra attention to national cultural variations as it may influence the potency of the strategies and decisions that the business makes.
Based on Geert Hofstede's research on nationwide culture, he has confirmed that organizations can also no more disregard the impact of national ethnicities on organizations' civilizations especially for MNCs. Therefore it is clear that in current times, the implementation of positive organizational ethnicities and effectively merging of nationwide civilizations into organizational culture is critical for positive business performance.
Therefore as a start, MNCs should comprehend and be aware of the different types of countrywide culture as well as implementing a fitting organizational culture themselves to take into account international culture distinctions in employment relationships.
Greenberg and Baron (1997) define organizational culture as "a cognitive platform consisting of attitudes, principles, behavioural norms, and targets". These ideals stated have a strong effect on employees' behaviours, thinking, and behavioural patterns which in changes encourages variety and adaptability to support its performance. Organizational culture is also a highly effective control mechanism for managing employee behaviour. Within an corporation with different nationalities, the company would have to foster a standard variety culture in the business to create a mutual respect for each and every and every different staff; which may subsequently improve their full potential. A strong organizational culture is female generator of real drive and commitment and has a unique absorptive capacity to congregate people (Mobley, Wang and Fang, 2005).
Therefore, this is a dependence on an organizational culture that matches to the needs of the company and its own employees. Now, utilizing a case study on "Google" in this essay, it will try to evaluate how "Google" makes use of countrywide culture and their organizational culture to bank account and form for international variations using Edgard Schein's Three Levels of Culture theory.
Third Case Study: Google
Google is an internationally company that has strong routines in variety. Google culture revolves around their objective: to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful. (Corporate and business Information, 2011) Yahoo involves a variety of staffs, helping various ethnical norms. Through this social norm, they encourage and support the diversity of its customers and employees.
Google contain bilingual employees wedding caterers to their diverse consumer basic. In fact, Figures shows that over fifty percent of the results Google provides to its customers are outside of the united states. (Corporate Information, 2010). Variety is unique in Yahoo such as their workers, office buildings, products, and customers. By understanding national culture and agreeing to the several nationalities differences, Yahoo leverage and use the various skill sets of each employees.
As Google consist of a diverse personnel group, it shows the importance of having a strategically appropriate culture, a culture that will 'suits' the needs of the organization, its employees and industry.
"At Yahoo, we don't just accept difference - we thrive on it, we observe it, and we support it for the benet in our employees, our products, and our community". (Yahoo Annual Article, 2010) Google has embraced variety and included it to their culture and to their core culture affirmation.
The manifestations of Google's culture are examined by assessing the artefacts at Yahoo (Gagliardi, 1992). Through considering the various areas of Yahoo, it is shown that Yahoo has an designed and informal culture (Martin, 1992), which consists of four important elements.
Using Edgard Schein's Three Levels of Culture, it is first identified and seen through the artefacts such as visual organizational structures or tangible items. Google supports diversity of norms in each office by utilizing their office and cafes. They are made to encourage relationships between employees within and across clubs, and to spark dialog about work as well as play. Community relationships stimulate knowledge and learning breakthroughs. Without communication, there is no way to express thoughts, ideas, manage variations and thoughts. Communication plays an important role in keeping and retaining values and human relationships necessary to keep carefully the system of the company united.
The next level of culture would be the exposed prices which are the strategies, goals and philosophies. Daft (2003) stated that owning a global environment requires managers to really have the ability to control change through development and creativeness. Therefore, the employees in Yahoo are motivated to add their suggestions and ideas. The majority of Google's work are project structured hence employees are required to team up and go after the job. The team may contain a diverse band of members. Through the idea of a group task, associates would then need to learn to accept one another and work together. This improves the communication between Google's employees and therefore they talk about a unified common goal and vision. However, conflicts between the employees are bound to occur in project established work. Therefore, turmoil management between employees and value for cultures must be structured and arranged for the many ethnicities and diversities.
One strategy that Yahoo implement is to produce knowing of international national distinctions is by organizing national cultural situations such as "The 6th Sense: Diversity Week in India" and "Diwali and Yahoo Mela" to develop cultural cleverness to the employees and international cultural competence. The goal of these cultural occurrences is usually that the employees would create a culture-specific knowledge of the other and positively regard of the other. Through these situations, it'll groom and educate the employees on social awareness.
During such situations, Google's employees are able to communicate and appreciate each other's culture; as a result, an accommodating culture and organizational behaviour is then established within the organization.
The next level of culture will be the assumptions such as overlooked values, perceptions, thoughts and emotions through experience. Google's employees are ardent and self-motivated, and the company empowers them to a certain level to make in charge decisions. Therefore, employees could easily get the same and fair opportunity to innovate and unleash their thoughts and ideas through their meetings.
After analyzing most of Google culture characteristic, using Package and Kennedy style of organizational culture (Package and Kennedy, 1982), Google most likely falls in to the "work hard/play hard" culture. Characteristics of the culture include high degrees of activity and where worker has to take few dangers and these characteristics are evidently reflected in Yahoo.
Through the idea of organizational culture on how these are establish and reinforce, it'll make a big difference in the manner employees work and in the manner the organization act as a complete when moral dilemmas are encountered. Through cultivating a appropriate culture right away, the business and the employees will have a distributed group of understandings about what is correct behavior and how ethical issues will be completed. Therefore, when a company would to adopt and be recognizing to international culture right away, this will bank account and form the employees to be more accepting to social differences and therefore improve employment relationships.
Therefore, it is suggested that companies should ensure mentoring their employees through guidance coaching of the culture and encourage bonding and communication between levels of management and their employees.
Also managers that have to work across different countries must understand the value of countrywide culture and organisational culture as well. Gabriel (1999) expresses that professionals have to also recognise and build on social particularities, adapting organisational products and insurance policies to local ethnicities and handling employees in a way appropriate with their culture.
It is beneficial to understand the country culture and the organisation's culture. The united states may have its set of framework and culture where they operate in. This may impact and forces multinationals to attune their techniques and methods to each and every cultural framework they operate in. Different companies may operate things diversely due to their home country's culture and therefore causing an impact on regulations, communication strategies, organizational structure, and recruiting management. By understanding and taking care of these cultural variations, it'll be a vital component of organisational success.
In this essay, it has mentioned the importance of national culture and organisational culture in that they account and shape for international variations in employment relations. However, other factors such as economic, social, political, and scientific factors may also constitute a direct effect on international cultures. Amongst different factors, economic, political and scientific factors are identified to be one of the main factors that affect international distinctions.
Economic factors like globalization are one of the factors impacting international employee relationships. Through effects of globalization where companies could become more advance, the management has to ensure that the abilities processed by the employees are compatible with those required in the market to meet the customer needs. Globalisation will raise the competitiveness and inequality among the countries. Under globalisation, sectors and services move from one country to another, thus restricting opportunities for permanent employment connections to the benefit of economic performance. To improve their competitiveness, many MNCs wanted to relocate their business functions to countries where labour is cheaper and employees are less safe and hence neglected employment regards to concentrate more on the performance of the business.
Sometimes companies that go through technological advancements have destroyed careers as they undertake aggressive progress and rapid enlargement. This may make it essential for its recruiting department to concentrate on recruitment and staffing internationally and locally. Therefore a firm may have its problems to increase and recruit new employees, as it might need to target its recruiting initiatives beyond your region if the labour pool is not large enough. Companies may also make specific requirements for a job where in fact the applicant is required to own a certain degree of skills or nationality which in turn affect employment relationships.
These rules can impact a company's decision on human resources management. It's been argued that some have observed the role of the government and its regulations as an 'external context' alternatively than an integral aspect in the job connection system (Newell and Scarbrough, 2002). In some instances where the federal government intervene in employment relations, these will subsequently affects the way the company's management is able to undertake the job relations initiatives. This also affects the labour routines over the countries.
Despite all our research comparing cultures, constraints get excited about our research studies and theories we've used. Brendan Mcsweeney(2002), argues that Geert hofstede's 6 sizes of theories are not reliable. In Geert Hofstede's IBM survey, 117, 000 questionnaires were administrated in 66 countries. Mcsweeney furthers argues that "Using a sizable quantity of respondents will not of itself assure representativeness, but in any event a closer examination of the number of questionnaires utilized by Hofstede reveals that the average quantity per country was small" which can ends in inaccuracy.
According to Mcsweeney, he argues that Hofstede's assumptions which how the final result is situated are "all flawed". The assumptions which Hofstede made was each respondents were made up of 3 discrete components; Organizational, Occupational and national". But Mcsweeney does not agrees as it was quoted from his journal that Hofstede only "assumes one IBM culture, not civilizations which own all employees and every occupations has the worldwide occupational culture". Mcsweeney will not will abide by Hofstede of determining culture as on a common basis of the IBM culture, which is bias towards the marketing and sales employees, thus which might brings about inaccuracy of the info figures produced.
In addition, using Edgard Schein's Three Degrees of Culture, Schein also pointed out that difficulty of understanding culture and we could only make assertions about components of culture and not culture entirely. "Basic primary assumptions" is one of the three levels in culture and it is the hardest to decipher as it is is made up mainly of perceptions, thoughts and thoughts. Being an unseen element and is also difficult to determine as they can be found within an unconscious level.
Also it is assumed that organizational culture is a subset of national culture. Some expresses that organizational cultures are based on national cultures while some disagrees with this. A few published results, coupled with anecdotal evidence, claim that while there is a strong relationship that organizational ethnicities are also shaped by a great many other affects like the personality and preferences of its founder or founding team rather than always the country's culture.
To conclude, this article aids and agrees that culture (countrywide and organisational) is important in accounting and shaping international differences in employment relationships. Below would be a summary of the key points raised in the article.
Each country has a unique cultural perspective and approach
Through culture - A need to look at fitting strategies and way for different countries
Failure to take into account cultural differences can result in conflicts
Organisational culture styles and affects employees behaviour and behaviour
In the near future, where globalization will continue to increase the move and interactions of people across cultures this will surfaces even more international variations. Understanding the several sizes of culture provides an initial knowledge bottom part to develop ethnical intelligence and competence for effective employee relations management.
Global managers will be required for further cross-cultural training to advance their learning and progress in cultural intellect and competence as they undertake international assignments. More importantly, organizations will have a growing need for global managers to develop and keep maintaining effective international relationships. In addition, federal leaders have opportunities to shape their nationwide culture and support international competitiveness with new multiculturalism procedures that promote both the inclusion of multiple ethnic identities and the introduction of local communities within an period of globalization.