Culture And International Marketing Management Marketing Essay

Barter (2008:37) in his newspaper says that the management of activities over international boundaries is of particular intricacy and can be an overwhelming activity. In growing business procedures to international countries poses numerous troubles and problems never experienced or observed in domestic markets. This complexity allows international organizations with knowledge and expertise to exploit the numerous opportunities provided by such markets.

The general knowledge of international marketing is an organization functioning in more than one country, whose marketing strategy usually formulated on the countries distinctions. A different point of view of the same will be a specific activity to plan, price, promote and escort the stream of ones goods and services to various locations for a income. Global marketing is very much different from international marketing in the fact being they perceive the world markets as an individual entity and their online marketing strategy is stagnated with the adoption of these standardized way in providing their products in the same way but in an alternative local.

The international marketing environment (Cateora & Graham, 2007) is a mixture of controllable and uncontrollable factors. The uniqueness of this combination dwells on the unfamiliar circumstances posed by foreign markets. Success attained by a business in these environments would need a variety of strategies that would enable them to understand and cope with the fluctuating levels of uncertainty in a overseas market to be able to affect their results to a positive one. The controllable and uncontrollable factors can be defined by into important elements by understanding the working of an organization in a overseas market. The controllable factors that an organization has direct control over and can be easily manipulated are elements such as price, product, marketing communication and circulation. On of the major uncontrollable factors for an organization in a foreign environment is "cultural forces".

When firm intends to trade in a international market they need to explore the countries underlying culture. Culture is the main element in the analysis of international marketing across diverse populations. A countries culture may embody a set of ideals and norms (building blocks) that are put into place for the common understanding of a typical cause, created for their living. A stereotypical description of a countries culture would be a collective encoding of your brain that separates various individuals groups from each other. Each culture once we see have different limitations which provide as a control system, what may be acceptable in one country may be denounced in the other. Thus to be able to achieve success within an international marketing project an organization has to first understand a countries ethnic boundaries.

Even though different experts have contributed ideas and developed models with Ries and Trout's description as basics, those existing models and ideas do not include the way a firm should consider social differences when positioning itself in different international markets. Since most researchers establish positioning as something relative to the competition position, entering a fresh market should involve changes in the placement strategy as well. Overall, little analysis has been made regarding the way a placement strategy changes depending which country the business is about to enter. International marketing literature (e. g. Kotler, 2002; Doole & Lowe, 2004; Griffin, 1994), however, stress on the ethnic differences in various nations and exactly how these dissimilarities in culture affect the way a firm should type in the new market. These ethnical differences are specially important in consumer markets, due to the great impact culture has on the buying action for the sole individual (Usunier, 2000). One way for a company to get market shares in several markets, is to find different advantages with the same product based on the different culture in the genuine market. This may hypothetically imply that a company uses a different position with a new strategy in the new market, even though the exact same product is offered and the opponents will be the same.

The Economic Environment

The economical environment is described by Gilligan (1986:35) he says that the monetary environment influences demand in several ways and its own potential effect after a global marketing program must be examined from two split but interrelated viewpoints. at the macro level the marketers must consider people want and needs the united states economic insurance policy its condition of development and the financial outlook. At the micro level he needs to focus upon the firms potential to fulfill.

The monetary environment that to large amount identifies the marketing chance for international operation and it is merely means of an in depth analysis of this facet of the aspect of the environment that the professional is able to answer two important questions firstly the length of the market is ready the market and secondly what is the market like it is the answer to these questions which then help determine the companies market potential and priorities and subsequently the type of marketing activity that is usually to be performed by we therefore by considering a number of the elements and that define the macro and micro financial environment and then move to discuss how they influence marketing strategy. There are a variety of steps that need to be studied prior to deciding to enter international markets.

Analyze the international marketing environment. A Infestation/STEP analysis needs to be conducted on the market you get into, to assess whether it is useful or not. Lets briefly take a look at some factors that could influence a global decision.

Political factors

The political stableness of the nation. Could it be a democracy, communist, or dictatorial regime

Economical Factors

Consumer riches and costs within the united states.

National interests and inflation rate.

Are quotas enforced on your product.

Are there import tariffs enforced.

Social Factors

Language. Will vocabulary be a barrier to communication for you? Does your host region speak your nationwide language? What is this is of your brand name in your web host country's terms?

Customs: what traditions do you have to be familiar with within the country? This is important. You need to be sure you do not offend while communicating your message.


The technological infrastructure of the marketplace.

Do all homes get access to energy (electricity)

Standardization versus ethnical adaptation

Heerden and Barter declare that "the controversy around whether marketing work should be standardized or modified to country details has not been totally resolved. Advocates of standardization declare that global market sections are emerging which marketing initiatives not only can, but also should be standardized across marketplaces (Melewar & Vemmervik, 2004: 863). They assume that the dissimilarities across markets and cultures look like lessening, which is reiterated by Herbig (1998:31) who states that there surely is a converging of most civilizations towards one common global culture, and this marketers should try to treat global (international) needs, finding regions of commonality and arrangement rather than concentrating on trivial variations between ethnicities. They advocate that organizations must figure out how to operate as though the entire world was one large market - ignoring superficial country variations (Toyne & Walters, 1993:422). Their quest is also prompted by the major benefits or advantages from standardization. Although product standardization is generally increasing, there are still substantial differences in company routines depending on the products promoted and where they are simply advertised (Czinkota & Ronkainen, 2007:328). They further add, "The discussion that the globe is now homogenized could possibly be true only for a limited amount of products which have universal brand popularity and nominal product knowledge requirements for use".

By using the same marketing strategy around the world, different markets will develop a steady image of a specific product or brand. A worldwide brand image will all the dilemma that customers may often face when travelling to different countries and discovering foreign mass media, if a business has local promotions in each country.

Standardization will cause advantages such as the creation of synergies across markets (Melewar & Vemmervik, 2004: 863) as well as economies of level, economies of range and creation of a worldwide brand image (Hill, 2001:544).


Advocates of adaptation, on the other hands, claim that the variations between civilizations are so vast that standardization is extremely hard and this standardization results lost competitive gain and lower sales (Melewar & Vemmervik, 2004: 863). This strategy includes that organizations bring in a unique product in each country, with the fact that tastes differ much between countries that it's necessary to get started on anew in building a marketing strategy for each market. Each country should be contacted separately as a different market and the S. Afr. J. Bus. Manage. 2008, 39(2) 39 marketing strategy customized for that particular market (Herbig, 1998:34).

Organizations have the ability to tailor the online marketing strategy to suit local marketplaces: and proponents of this philosophy are determined that cultural variations between nations are such that a strategy that works in one nation can fail miserably in another. They believe that it is exceptionally difficult to build up a single online marketing strategy that would have the desired impacts worldwide. Thus, version allows a marketing consultancy to use such differences into mind and provides the local market with a online marketing strategy that appeals to them and you will be effective in its function, so creating better sales and improving profits. By giving a particular international market, such as India, with what they need (e. g. a non-alcoholic beverage), an organization (such as SA Breweries) can create a definite competitive gain for itself since it is receptive to the needs and would like of that market. The absence of advantages that emerge from standardization is essentially the down sides of version, and visa versa where in fact the lack of the advantages of adaptation constitutes the drawbacks of standardization. Given the reality of significant ethnical distinctions between customer needs and market conditions in international market segments and, at exactly the same time, the advantages of more standard marketing strategies, a debate that focuses on polar extremes does not contribute to a remedy (Toyne & Walters, 1993:423). Observing the standardization versus version debate as a dark and white issue is not necessarily appropriate, as there can be an important middle surface (Diamantopoulos et al, 1995:38). A gray area exists between the two extremes which is called "Glocalisation. " This follows a philosophy of "think global, act local" (Herbig, 1998:43). It could be generalized and argued that absolute standardization is rendered unfeasible as a global marketing strategy and its product -, promotion-, price-, and distribution-related decisions (Baalbaki & Malhotra, 1993:20) cannot and really should not disregard the effect of culture. "

Cross - Ethnic Analysis

One of the most frequent used cross-culture theories is Geert Hofstede's culture sizes. It is made up or rather identifies five different proportions of culture; individualism, electricity distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and Confucian dynamism. These dimensions are helpful in discovering and detailing cross-cultural variations in consumer habit. It takes into consideration the variations people's notion system and patterns in various nations and civilizations.

Hostede's model is measured against a variety from 0 to 100 and is found to be predicated on quantitative research of different proportions of 75 of the world's countries and parts. Other models include social factors such as dependence on accomplishment and industriousness.

Kruger and Nandan state that "the ethnic classifications start with individualism versus collectivism. Individualistic cultures focus on home and the immediate family. The collectivist cultures include a cultural framework which includes the expanded family, communities, and the organization where the customers of an collectivist culture take care of each other. For example, China and India have a solid collectivist culture with incredible respect for customs, traditions, regulations that developed over ages (Melewar, Meadows, Zheng and Rickards 2004). For the Chinese and Indian civilizations, group membership revolves around the extended family which includes grand parents, aunts, uncles, and cousins as well as casual friendship groupings and formal organizational groupings. Both civilizations take pride in belonging to this in-group collectivism, which emphasizes the feminine aspect of the culture that can be involved with others and targets relationships rather than assertive, immediate and competitive habit.

Over the decades this in-group collectivism developed strong customs, traditions, informal rules and types of procedures to avoid risk or behavioral embarrassment. These traditions and traditions make clear Hofstede's concept of uncertainty avoidance. According to Hofstede uncertainty avoidance advocates predictable organized situations versus unstructured unstable situations. For example, Indian and Chinese families traditionally arranged marriages between people. These organized situations spill over into each country's value for authority, game titles and position. This respect is constant with the concept of Hofstede's Ability Distance, which is exemplified by the Indian and Chinese language respect toward the elderly members with their society. Regardless of the admiration for the elders in both countries, neither culture embraces the gender differentiation dimensions (Javidan and House 2001). This aspect measures the status and decision making obligations that women have within each culture. Within the Indian and Chinese cultures the position of women and their decision-making duties are historically limited. Although the Chinese equalitarian ideology focuses on modern culture equality and individual and group human relationships in China, gender position provides little decision-making autonomy for Chinese and Indian women in comparison to women in america.

The individual orientation aspect by Javidan and House promotes fairness and kindness, but is difficult to judge. The historic Chinese ideology helps bring about a caring and good approach toward world all together, but this socialistic ideology focuses on society equality to promote fairness and generosity. In the Chinese language and Indian cultural systems specific person or specific group rewards are not well developed or prevalent (Dessler 2007). Since China and India seem to be rapidly moving toward a semi-capitalistic method of their economies, a more humanistic orientation might be developing within each country that is more good more individualistic individual resource approach within western countries. Similar to the human orientation dimension the performance-oriented aspect in China and India, where a society rewards individuals and group participants for improvement, remains questionable. However, Hong Kong rates on top of the performance-orientation dimension, corresponding to Javidan and House, due to western affect from British rule. To allow the Indian and the Mainland Chinese language to develop a more complete performance oriented system requires each country to go toward a free market economy. Since the Indian Government and the Chinese Federal government encourage their companies to be competitive on the world market, a more performance-oriented culture should develop and adapt to the international globalization tendencies in both countries. However the fragile performance orientation present within China and India cultures has not allowed businesses within each country to more completely develop their individual learning resource functions and marketing strategies (Dessler 2007). This lack of ethnical assertiveness hinders Indian and Chinese language companies, and their capability to develop a worldwide aggressiveness strategy specifically in the marketing area, where building brand recognition and image linkage can determine the success or inability of something or service. "


Individualism is referred to as the partnership between a person and his community in the culture. When there is a high degree of individualism and self-interests in a contemporary society, a person is expect to look after himself and his immediate family, becoming 3rd party from different categories and organizations. In a few societies where people from an early get older are labeled into teams and these groups are their major source of their individuality, we see a low amount of individualism and are known as collectivism.

Power distance

People has unequal physical and intellectual capacities which some societies allows to inequality in vitality and wealth. All of the societies of the world has such inequalities but some will be more than the other Electricity distance occurs when sources of the society is not sent out equally. It reflects human inequality. A high power distance can be an indicator that folks assume that everyone has their rightful place and they recognize that not many people are treated similarly. Usually income is a relatively big element in these societies which cause these demarcations. In Philippines, India, France credit score high in ability distance on the other hands countries such as Austria, Denmark and Sweden somewhat low in electricity distance while the United States is placed below the mid-point A low vitality distance occurs in societies that assume that everyone has similar protection under the law and also similar possibility to change their sociable status.

Uncertain avoidance

Debate: "Marketing of new products takeoff faster in countries that are low in uncertainty avoidance when compared with those countries saturated in uncertainty avoidance. "

Uncertain avoidance refers to the level of anxiety about the near future. Societies which screen a higher in uncertainty avoidance make an effort to overcome any change in future possibility hence the creation of rules and regulations. Whereas societies where within is a low uncertainty avoidance consist of people available to risk, as they acknowledge and handle daily as it comes.

Countries that are saturated in doubt avoidance show a lag in takeoff when compared with those that are lower in doubt avoidance mainly for two reasons. First of all, societies that are low in uncertainty avoidance are usually more open and eager to take greater risks, hence, they'll more readily admit new products introduced to them on the marketplace. Secondly, societies high in uncertainty avoidance consider change as dangerous and are definitely more intolerant towards receiving change than societies in low doubt avoidance. Thus, we see that countries lower in uncertainty avoidance will adopt a new product more easily than countries that are higher in uncertainty avoidance.


Debate: "Products not used to the marketplace takeoff faster in countries having higher masculinity than those countries have a lesser masculine culture. "

Men, generally in most cultures tend to be assertive as compare to the ladies who are more nurturing. The male action is associated with autonomy, aggression, exhibition, and dominance, while feminine habit is associated with nurturance, affiliation, and humility. Masculinity and feminity make reference to the making love role patter in modern culture most importantly, to the scope it is characterized by female or male characteristics.

Masculinity is usually likely to take of mainly for just two reasons matching to Hofstede, firstly, masculine societies add more value to reputation and riches, while feminine societies connect more value to individual contact and living environment. The adoption of services allows consumer to demonstrate their riches and success, which may more compatible with masculine societies. Consumer in a masculine society may show higher innovativeness, as compared to consumers in more womanly societies. Subsequently, in a masculine world people tend to make decisions independently and admire the strong and the independent. Whenever a new product first emerges, adoptions are few and require self-employed decisions by innovators. Whenever we observe both societies we see that the masculine society is more acknowledging to a new product as their decisions are unbiased whereas in the womanly society the decision on a fresh product is made in an organization decision, which may result in a low acceptance degree of the new product. Hence masculine countries show a faster takeoff than womanly countries.

Confucian dynamism

Confucian dynamism displays culture to the amount these are universalistic and particularistic. Universalistic means that what is true can be applied everywhere you go and particularistic means that unique relationships and circumstances are more important considering in deciding what is right and good rather than abstract guidelines.


The aspect and complexness of the various religions an international marketer could come across is very diverse. The organization needs to ensure that their products and services aren't offensive, unlawful or distasteful to the local nation. This consists of marketing promotion and branding.

There was a controversy in China in 2007 (that was the entire year of the pig) all advertising which included pictures of pigs was prohibited. This was to maintain tranquility with the country's Muslim population of around 2%. The ban included pictures of sausages that contained pork, and even advertising that included an animated (toon) pig.

In the entire year 2005 France's Catholic Church won a court injunction to ban a clothing advert (by clothing designers Marithe and Francois Girbaud) based mostly after Leonardo da Vinci's Christ's Last Supper.

Need for Achievement

Debate: "Countries which have a high need for achievement screen a faster takeoff than countries low in the need for achievement. "

The need for success, Murray (1938) identifies the tendency or want to do things as speedily and/or as well as it can be. Need for accomplishment includes successfully and separately overcoming obstacles, fighting with and surpassing others, and high self-regard. Veroff et al. (1962) connect a high dependence on achievement particularly with working significantly harder, being less satisfied with current success, and being more oriented to the future fruits of work. Each one of these traits may give themselves to greater eagerness for adopting new products and greater willingness to experiment with new products as soon as they can be found.


Debate: "New products take off faster in countries with high industriousness than people that have low industriousness. "

Industrious people tend to work and tend to value the fruits of work more than less industrious people. The industriousness of the population can affect the acceleration of takeoff for source and demand reasons. Such people recognize that improvements can make work more productive as well as make their recovery from work more fruitful, so industrious people tend to be more receptive to inventions as well concerning work harder to build up innovations. Thus, whenever a new product can be obtained, industrious entrepreneurs, stores, and distributors will probably work harder to make this product open to the general populace. At exactly the same time, the individuals themselves are more likely to search for, try out, and take up the new product. Thus, the new product is likely to remove faster within an industrious culture than in one that is not industrious.

These different dimensions are of help for companies, who are along the way of widening and producing its business, as they provide an insight about how to do something in foreign civilizations. All the proportions can be helpful in winning customers by adapting the marketing activities to the precise culture. Especially, the masculinity sizing can be an important aspect for companies to consider as it pertains to marketing in various cultures and coming into new marketplaces.

Information Access

Prior research suggests that people's access to information strongly influences the speed at which they adopt a fresh product (Rogers 1995). Therefore, we may expect a new product will take off faster in countries in which inhabitants have easy access to information than in other countries. We identify three factors that take different sizes of information access: media intensity, mobility, and education.

Values and Attitudes

The importance of values and behaviour vary between countries, and even differ within nations. If you are planning to take a product or service overseas make sure that you have a good grasp the vicinity before you enter in the market. This may mean changing promotional material or refined branding emails. There may also be an issue when taking care of local employees. For example, in France personnel tend to take vacations for your of August, whilst in the United States employees may only take a handful of week's vacation in an entire yr.

The Chinese federal banned China restricted a Nike television set commercial teaching U. S. field hockey star LeBron Adam in a struggle with animated animation kung fu masters and two dragons, since it was argued that the ad insults Chinese nationwide dignity in the entire year 2004.

Technology and Material Culture

Debate: "The sales of new product depends on the level of technology and material culture"

Technology includes facilities such as there energy to power the products. Transport infrastructure to distribute our goods to consumers. The neighborhood port have large enough cranes to offload storage containers from boats How quickly does indeed technology diffuse is also of key importance, do consumers actually buy material goods i. e. are they materialistic.

A clockwork radio premiered byTrevor Baylis in the African market. Since power packs were expensive in Africa and power items in rural areas are non-existent. The clockwork radio innovation was a huge success that was scheduled to intro of new technology.

The car market grew 25% in 2006in China and it has overtaken Japan to be the second-largest car market on the globe with sales of 8 million vehicles. With just six car owners per 100 people (6%), weighed against 90% car ownership in america and 80% in the united kingdom, the prospect of expansion in the Chinese language market is enormous.

Media Intensity

Debate: "Countries saturated in media intensity display a faster takeoff than people that have low media level coverage. "

Mass press such as magazines, radio, and television set play an important role in creating awareness of a fresh product among potential adopters (Beal and Rogers 1960) and influencing acceptance of a new product (Katz and Lazarsfeld 1955). Media may also lead to increased capability of consumers to detect superior new products, and thus raise the rate at which, and the likelihood that, consumers will adopt them. Media also donate to the cosmopolitanism of consumers of the country, particularly if it concerns "cosmopolite stations" (Rogers 1995). Through cosmopolite channels, consumers in a target country can access information about improvements which have been introduced in other countries, even before the innovation is launched in the prospective country (Gatignon et al. 1989). Such information can hasten the takeoff of the creativity in the mark country.


Debate: "New products remove faster in countries saturated in mobility"

Various studies signify that the bigger the mobility of a country's people, the quicker new products penetrates the cultural system. Interpersonal connections affects the way and the rate consumers learn about various new products.


Debate: "Products takeoff faster in countries with citizen who have appreciated advanced schooling than those who haven't got any. "

Education as we know it exposes people to a constant and steady stream of embracing new ideas. Advantages of technology in education also sensitizes the importance of human improvement; therefore makes them more receptive to improvements. It is a favorite simple fact from research today that educated people are more responsive and quicker to adapt and accept a new product when compared with non-educated people.

Finland employs old German model of education the training after primary school is divided to the vocational and academic systems. University attendance is compulsory between your age groups of 7 and 16, the first nine years of education (major and secondary institution) are compulsory, and the pupils go to their local school.

In Uganda schooling includes 7 years of most important education, 6 years of extra education (divided into 4 years of lower extra and 2 years of upper extra college), and three to five 5 many years of post-secondary education.

Nine many years of education is compulsory for everyone Chinese students. circumstance of the People's Republic of China a nationwide system of general public education is in place, which includes main schools, middle classes (lower and top), and colleges.


Exploring the world international markets in a way where culture and marketing impacts and are influenced by ones other culture can be an attention opener to any organization contemplating to endeavor forth into international markets. The finding signifies that culture performs an essential role in the formulation of a global marketing strategy. Marketers cannot believe homogeneity of cultures across the globe which is surmised that there are not similarities and congruencies among the list of civilizations within and between countries.

Heerden and Barter declare that "the international internet entrepreneur needs to examine the mark market to learn what components of the strategy might be standardized to permit for economies of range to be performed, but at the same time, know which elements to personalize so as never to render the entire strategy unsuccessful. It is to be observed that the marketer needs to take into account local culture because they build it in to the marketing strategy, and not expect that the culture will modify and accept the strategy provided. Generally, the reactions suggest that a marketer's strategy should suit the neighborhood culture in order to attain them and have the desired influence on the mark market, rather than the other way around because such evolutions could take an considerable amount of time in order to accomplish marketing goals. If the marketer can create a relatively standardized and cross-cultural strategy that translates across most ethnicities, then the goals of marketing across countries would be achieved at a minimal spend. "

Krueger and Nandan state that "As financial and politics integration transpires through globalization, local and countrywide customs, traditions, expectations, and boundaries get started to dissolve, which contributes to an extremely complex diverse global environment, and businesses with the necessity and the chance to read, identify, and develop new ethnic competence.

To exemplify the risk and dilemmas associated with different ethnic implications. For instance, different cultures develop less noticeable formal and informal rituals. In Japan formal gift supplying is a greatly accepted ritualistic standard of courtesy. In the United States gift giving is perceived as a bribe in business. JAPAN have a minimal tolerance for ambiguity and are very formal, indirect and patient in their business dealings. On the other hand, america culture has a high tolerance for ambiguity and it is informal, immediate, punctual, and time oriented.

These cultural dissimilarities seem superficial, but can spell the difference between successful business methods and unsuccessful business endeavors. Over the decades the social, religious, psychological and political values have improved to produce different local and national values, customs, and customs. These patterns are not easy to decode, not limited to individuals within the culture, but even way more for those individuals not increased within the culture. These ethnic variances similarly provide cultural obstacles for businesses and on the other hands provide a whole new group of marketing sections and opportunities for businesses to identify. However, these new marketing opportunities come with a new set of dangers. Each local and countrywide cultural section has different prices. This variation in worth produces a deviation in cultural capital with different traditions, standards, boundaries, and symbols between and within countries. For instance, low context civilizations such as the United States concentrate on direct written agreements whereas high context cultures like the Asian cultures give attention to what's unwritten and indirectly implied (Hall 1976). "

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