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Cultural Studies Essays - Sociable Integration in India

Social Integration and Communal Harmony in India

In India from forever, people belonging to various religious faiths resided in tranquility and tranquility. There are fundamental values and traditions inside our culture that promote integration among different communities. This was helpful for the growth of any great civilization in the Indian sub-continent. It'll be our endeavour as the residents of the country to protect the rich traditions of Social Tranquility among diverse spiritual and ethnic categories and pass it over to the future decades. Even though communal tensions in India are well under control, there is absolutely no place for complacency as many internal and exterior forces are hanging around using their ulterior motives sowing the seed products of ill-will.

Human needs are available as the same all around the world if we look at it from natural and emotional perspectives. Irrespective of the geographic, linguistic or spiritual differences humans just about everywhere have common biological needs like cravings for food, thirst, gender etc; the satisfaction which is essential for their survival. Similarly man has mental health needs like, need for recognition, dependence on companionship, dependence on security, need for prestige etc. the fulfillment of which is inescapable for maintaining sound mental health. Man cannot gratify the majority of such needs through his own specific attempts. He requires the help of his fellow participants of the group in this regard. That's the reason human beings are believed as social pets. A cooperative included population is most congenial for leading a wholesome sociable life.

Religion is one of the interpersonal institutions within all human being societies. It facilitates man to establish and keep maintaining harmonious romantic relationships with the supernatural pushes that are believed to have direct effect in the fortunes of man. Furthermore faith is one of the realtors adding to the integration of population. Religious beliefs provides 'we feeling' among its people. Performance of spiritual rites, contribution in festivals, management provided by priests and spiritual functionaries, following many common values and worth, etc reinforces the unity among the list of members of any religion. Despite the fact that holy books and teachings of every religion claim that they help man reach God, do not require propagate hatred against other faiths. All religions in their fact assist people to live in harmony with users of the world. Corresponding to Jawaharlal Nehru, the first primary minister of India " the communal problem is not a religious problem, it has nothing to do with religion. " Nobody can blame the occurrence of diverse religions for the emergence of communal problems on the globe.

Even though all religions proclaim the general brotherhood of man, background is packed with bloody, violent conflicts between people of different religions. Many battles were fought between Muslims and Christians, Jews and Muslims, Hindus and Muslims and so on in the past. Many such battles are going on even now like the turmoil between Muslims and Jews in Palestine. A deeper analysis of the causative factors of these conflicts demonstrates in all these situations non-religious, often political and economic hobbies were instrumental to these problems. Spiritual id was used as a mask to hide the vested interests of the conflicting gatherings. Therefore the root cause of communalism is not the presence of many religions in the united states. When religious sentiments are exploited with an monetary or political purpose the resultant result gives climb to the genesis of communalism. Corresponding to Madan (2001) communalism is the politics expression of religion. He identified communalism as an ideology, which envisages the spiritual community as a politics group focused on the safety and campaign of its public and economic hobbies and cultural prices.

While communalism is a sense or state of mind existing at a internal level, communal turmoil or riot is its overt appearance. Once made, communalism remains in the brains of individuals always, and communal issues emerge only once in a while when there's a total breakdown in the good relations between two areas. From a sociological perspective social discord by its very character cannot continue indefinitely. During communal assault each community used it as a celebration to harm the hobbies of the rival community who may be socially or financially sound. The emotions of relative deprivation noticed by one community is often changed into violent disorders against a proper placed community. This is exactly what occurred in 1984 when there were violent attacks up against the Sikhs in various places following the assassination of the then Best Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi by her body guards who happened to be from the Sikh community. Investigations conducted later by sociologists and a great many other social scientists turned out that Sikhs who had been economically well placed were attacked and participants of other communities who were jealous of the success looted their outlets. People who have vested interests to attain their ulterior goals exploited this specific framework by exploiting the religious sentiments.

One must not confuse communalism with communal assault, rioting etc. Poorly conceived Communal ideology causes communal assault. Communal violence is a consequence of the pass on of misunderstood and ill-conceived communal ideology. But it is not the crux of the communal situation at all. Communal ideology cannot only are present, but can increase for many years before it requires the proper execution of violence.

This book is made up of a few of the selected documents shown in the Country wide Conference on Friendly Integration and Communal Harmony arranged by the Kerala Sociological Culture from 1st to 3rd Dec 2006 at Sree Narayana School, Thiruvananthapuram.

Prof. N. R. Madhava Menon in his newspaper Constitutionalism and Management of Variety in Multi-cultural Societies handles the significance of Indian Constitution to manage various problems in a multi-cultural society. He highlights that secularism is a simple feature of the constitution which cannot be modified even by parliament. There is no state religious beliefs and their state is prohibited against discrimination on the basis of religion. He feels that for multi-culturalism may survive and communal tranquility can prevail only when we ensure equality of position among people and equal chance of everyone as conceived in the Constitution of India. In the next area of the paper, the author focuses his attention on the concept of social integration. He notices that the constitutional technique to promote fraternity is effective to attain communal integration. With this context the writer recommends a Standard Civil Code for the complete nation. However, politics get-togethers do not support this view because no politics party is preparing to talk about it, due to vested interests involved especially as a result of vote loan company politics.

In her paper, Public Integration and Communal Tranquility, Prof. M. Indukumari presents the multiple factors and contexts that influence public integration and communal tranquility. To begin with she explains the importance of the theme in today's Indian context. Regarding to her view, the primary matter of any country aiming at development ought to be the attainment of social / national integration.

Moreover, she argues that despite some dissimilarities at ritual, communal and cultural levels among different religions, there may be conspicuous commonality at the level of values that helps bring about communal harmony. The author lists many examples of inter religious co-operation that exist in Kerala for an extended period. However, she also points out that rosy picture of Kerala is changing little by little and this world has started displaying symptoms of religious intolerance and communal violence. This paper provides due consideration on the debate on the need for a Uniform Civil Code for India. Another matter of this newspaper is to show how communal assault affects the passions of the susceptible sections like women, spiritual minorities, tribals, dalits etc. The author expresses self confidence that NGOs can play a crucial role in retaining communal harmony. Inside the concluding part of the paper she identifies certain strategies to promote communal harmony. On the whole this paper provides a complete picture of social integration and communal harmony in India.

M. K. George in his article on "Tolerance is various faiths" attempted to focus on how various faiths and religions can donate to the building of tolerance in the world. He stresses that each religion contains the different parts of belief, rituals, information and knowledge, behavioural effects and the prospects that guide the whole system. The author briefly talks about Bhuddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Hinuduism and observes that in speaking about religion as a musical instrument of serenity and harmony one must make this distinction between religiosity, which only can separate, and spirituality which can unite all believers. Religiosity targets differences, while spirituality emphasizes what's common. Spirituality provides meaning alive and reality. Spritiuality links, with the do it yourself, others, god and native. He strains that the interpersonal scenario in India and the world over demands a dynamic Youth population trying for serenity and tolerance and hence the Youth must take this plan.

The paper Secular Legacy and Communal Paradox - The case of Kerala added by Dr. Antony Palackal reveals some unconventional interpretations of the communal situation in Kerala. The writer observes that secularism, the characteristic facet of social life in Kerala world happens to be under severe stress. According to him nowadays there seems to be an alarming get spread around of communal and fascist forces in the State. This article signifies an enquiry in to the characteristics and dynamics of the emergent communalism in Kerala and tries to track its secular legacy and the communal paradox. The first part of the paper seeks to unfold the secular legacy and the contrary truth of communalism that has engulfed it. The next part is a conversation on the unique kinds of communal manifestations in Kerala. The third part is an exploration into the development of the growing communalism in Kerala. The concluding section briefly sketches the relation between communalism and spirituality vis- -vis religion and the possible manner in which the growing menace of communalism may be dealt with. The paper unveils that communalism provides rise to an elevated sense of identity and belongingness as it manages based on the theory of 'polarization'. Polarization leads to psychological, mental or physical mobilization of people and groups to cause cohesion within a group. Nonetheless it divides people as people of larges areas. The author feels that religious and/or caste sectarianism and communal pursuits dominate the majority of our political life today. The paper conclude with a good note that a viable alternative to the prevailing communal paradox is apparently the resurgence of societal consciousness given birth to out of neo-renaissance activities capable of regaining the lost secular legacy of Kerala.

The paper Hindu Reaction to Conversion Menace: Questions on Change and Public Equality written by Shaji. A is executing a historical analysis of the communal situation in 20th Century Kerala. The major concentrate of this newspaper is on The Temple Entrance Proclamation of Travancore, 1936 that was a turning point in the annals of modern Kerala. This proclamation put an end to the inhuman practice of untouchability and it exposed a fresh future to the oppressed classes in Travancore. The writer notices that before 1936 several low caste folks of Travancore including Ezhavas changed themselves into other religions especially Christianity given that they found it as the simplest way to escape from the caste tyranny.

However, Sree Narayana Guru, leader of SNDP movements was successful in avoiding this tide of transformation to Christianity or even to Buddhism. The Ezhavas were also considering Islam and Sikhism. When the reduced caste Hindus including Ezhavas started out large-scale conversion to Christianity, it became an eye-opener for intensifying Hindu reformers. Attempts were made to bring back the transformed Hindus to Hinduism under the initiative of the Hindu Mission. By permitting access to all or any Hindus to the temples, low caste Hindus including Ezhavas were retained in their faith. This paper plainly clarifies how Temple Entrance Proclamation assisted the Hindu leaders to meet the challenges of transformation.

Through her paper Factors behind Communal Conflict and Violence, Pushpam. M tries to spell it out the multitude of factors that are instrumental in communal issues and violence in India. The writer points out that communalism is a continuous hazard to the unity and integrity of our own country. She clarifies this is of communalism in the context of this analysis and presents different proportions to it. Next area of the paper handles the explanation of the meaning of communal assault and its causes. Large number of causes like public, economic, religious, political, legal, psychological, administrative, historical etc is shown here. The role of media in the context of communal violence is also quickly mentioned. She highlights that many of the leaders who fight against communalism aren't sincere in their initiatives and offering only lip service towards this cause. The author concludes her paper by declaring that communal violence is area of the total violence in the contemporary society and therefore whenever we develop ways of prevent violence all together in the society, the occurrence of communal assault is likely to drop.

The newspaper Communalism and communal riots in India added by Sajitha J. Kurup provides detailed description of the communal situation prevailing in India and the occurrence of large numbers of communal riots in the recent period. She starts her research by describing the etymological so this means of communalism.

The author highlights that public factor play an essential role in the genesis of communalism. She supports the view that communal problems started to emerge with the establishment of English rule in India therefore communalism is a modern phenomenon and not a medieval occurrence. However, communalism which we'd inherited from the United kingdom period achieved new dimensions during the post-independence period. All neighborhoods and political celebrations used it for obtaining their economical and political goals. After describing this is of communal assault the author also deals with the theories of communal violence such as Community Obstacles Theory and the Theory of Polarization and Cluster Impact. A significant part of this paper is devoted to describe the large number of communal riots that occurred in the year 2005. The paper further gives a concept of the recent tendencies in communal assault and the occurrences of some stray occurrence occasionally. In the concluding part of the paper the writer suggests some long-term and short-term measures to meet up with the challenges of communalism and communal assault.

The paper, Social Capital and Community Mobilization of Women for Communal Tranquility - The case of Marad, added by Jyothi S. Nair, invites the interest of the visitors towards a significant communal turmoil in Kerala. This paper is based on the primary data collected from the ladies of Marad in Kozhikode region who are the victims of this communal assault. This study looks for to analyze how far the mobilization of women through Do it yourself Help Organizations (SHGs) has withstood the turbulences of communalism in Marad. Furthermore, an effort has been designed to understand if the public mobilization of women through SHGs, and the sociable capital created by them become an alternative solution in ensuring communal harmony. The major finding of the paper is the fact that sociable capital is an effective instrument for keeping communal harmony. The author suggests that the civil society and Local Do it yourself Government Corporations should sign up for hands together for encouraging the women to form SHGs which can be inter-religious in mother nature to create a harmonious society.

The paper of Dr. Anishia Jayadev on Communal Riots and Minorities in Kerala: The truth of Muslims, examines how communal riots impact the pursuits of the minorities in Kerala. She points out that the Constitution of India provides freedom to practise and propagate any religion. The Indian federal government is also not indifferent to religion. The Constitution provides for special protection to the spiritual minorities.

However, the majority community persecutes the minorities, including Muslims on many events. Though there are fewer communal problems are in Kerala, still there are occasional conflicts. Hence, she emphasizes the necessity to take precaution any steps precautionary.

Bushra Beegom R. K. in her newspaper Role of civil contemporary society in promoting communal harmony in Kerala deals with a vital matter that is neglected by many scholars. She points out that in the present day society it's the responsibility of each individual to protect communal harmony. The writer highlights the importance of civil society, democratic ideology, decentralization of vitality, welfare programs etc for attaining communal tranquility. This newspaper also sets forward the need for a countrywide advertising campaign for reconciliation and tranquility. The author explains that organizations in the modern civil society like NGOs, media, professional associations, trade unions, spiritual groups, educational community etc can play their respected roles in fostering communal tranquility. She also advocates the necessity for cultural reform and legal methods to attain this goal. The writer has genuine beliefs in the features of civil culture in this regard.

In her paper Communal Violence in Gujarat - Perspectives on the Causative Factors, Jayasree. G, discusses the various factors resulting in issue between Hindus and Muslims in India. Insufficient well-timed action by the State Govt was discovered as the most crucial factor that resulted in the getting rid of of large numbers of innocent people in Gujarat. With the help of secondary data the author argues that minorities suffered disproportionately in almost all of the communal riots on India. At the same time she points out that Hindu - Muslim conflict can be viewed as as an extension of the wider sociable conflict that includes inter as well as intra communal riots, caste violence and other forms of sectional upheavals. Overall Jayasree is successful in supplying some new interpretations for the eruption of communal violence in India.

The paper of Maya P. V, Role of Women Councilors to advertise Social Harmony, offers special focus on women participants of Local Personal Government Establishments in cities. In the introductory area of the article the writer explains the social and political proportions of communalism in India. Predicated on an empirical analysis conducted among the women councilors in Attingal Municipality of Thiruvananthapuram area the author argues they can play a substantial role to advertise communal tranquility and public integration. She features the role played out by Home Help Categories in combining women of different communities

The paper of Rajani R. V on Theoretical perspectives on communalism and communal violence in India, deals with the various theoretical interpretations on communalism and communal violence in India. In the beginning she explains the idea of communalism and lots of definitions. The writer then approaches the condition from a historical point of view. Moreover, the newspaper unearths the sociological, anthropological, and psychological sizes of communalism. The paper also explains the type and factors behind communal violence with special give attention to the problem in India. According to the author the condition of communal violence seems an competitive articulation of the dissimilarities between the two major areas - Hindus and Muslims - or a manifestation of the inability to live together, and this subsequently serves a tool for the short-term political gains on the part of the communal politicians of both the communities. The newspaper also deals with the ideas of communal violence like Social Obstacles Theory and the idea of Polarization and Cluster Result. In the long run of the paper, the author emphasizes the need for using various procedures to check communal violence.

Biju Vincent, through his newspaper, Consumer Modern culture and Communal Tranquility - A Materialistic View, endeavors to make clear the dynamics of religious beliefs in consumer world. The author keeps the view that growth of materialism diminishes the impact of spiritualism that binds a group or community collectively. Relating to him people in the modern consumer society undergo an activity of homogenization, so that they develop similar ideals, values, practices and passions. He also identifies the understanding and matter on the list of agrarian, professional and postmodern societies, in order to substantiate how homogeneity developed in the postmodern consumer eva. The writer facilitates the view of Baudrillard that individuals are brought alongside one another based on what objects they take in. Then faith becomes not so important to any group. In the consumer society no person is interested in others' things including faith. The newspaper concludes by saying that state can ensure religious tranquility by promoting free current economic climate that will assist in creating modern consumer society.

Sajeena Beevi. N, in her paper Hindu-Muslim Communal Violence in India: Genesis and Historical Roots examines the historical framework where communalism emerged in India. With historical facts she argues that Hindu - Muslim issues are essentially modern phenomena and communal riots were uncommon till the finish of 19th century. According to the author, the British isles policy of separate and rule resulted in fostering communal clashes intentionally for keeping intact their hegemony. Additionally, the market leaders of the Indian National Congress weren't successful to promote Hindu - Muslim cooperation in struggling imperialism. The weakness of the Indian National Congress added to the emergence of Muslim Little league as a strong political party and said the to speak for many Muslims. After presenting a stunning picture of communal riots from 1947 to 2002 the author suggests prescriptive actions to meet communalism. In conclusion, she rightly says that multi-pronged options are needed to contain the communal tensions also to cause communal harmony in the country

The newspaper by Kavitha. V on Communal Assault and the Role of Printing Media attempts to examine the emotional sense of a reporter who covers a communal discord affects his reporting. She also analyses how far the reporters enjoy liberty of manifestation while reporting communal issues. The writer strongly advocates for certain constraints in this respect as it could help to support the communal eruptions. However, she notices that often local newspapers publish sensational tales on communal issues to be able to optimise the sale of their papers. This informative article also raises the problem of biased reporting by papers to guard the hobbies of certain vested interests. Within the concluding part, the author stresses that the print marketing must be vigilant to keep themselves from communal pursuits.

In his article on "Sarva Dharma Sambhav for Friendly Cohesion-Gandhian Perspective", Ajith Venniyur analyses Gandhian thoughts on conflicts, violence and its solutions. He points out that Mahatma Gandhi challenged all those conditions which damaged peace and tranquility in social life. Gandhi wanted to establish serenity between man and man, religion and religious beliefs, group and group and nation and region. For Gandhiji there may be no tranquility without understanding no understanding without calmness'. Ajith Venniyur further clarifies the idea of Sarva Dharma Samabhav, and their process of integration viz, the integration of personality which reconciles the individual to his own local, integration with his fellow men and integration with god, the supreme nature. He concludes that Gandhian approach to life is really the only solution for attaining peace and harmony in culture.

The pith of the communal problem in India did not so much rest either in the actual fact of indigenous dissimilarities, or in the fact of varied historical factors like immigration of Muslims or the insurance policies of British isles colonialists. On the other hand, the crux of the challenge lay in the manner where it was dealt by the various governments and politics parties who were handling them. "Communalism is an ideology and also to some degree politics sorted out around that ideology" (Chandra, 1991). Therefore the alternatives for mitigating the communal problems also must come primarily from the political parties.

The economic, mental and socio-religious factors are the primary movers of communalism. It is on these three planes of real human existence that we can truly discover means by which the evil area of communalism may be defeat and we might can be found with less anxiety amongst the areas.

For defeating the vicious plan of communalists the communal ideology needs to be consciously combated. No automatic results follow in this field as a result of indirect steps. For instance, after 1947, many people got the fact that with economic development or spread of education, etc our country would be rid of communal ideology. However, the fact is that once communal ideology has surfaced in a crystallized form, it's very necessary to wage a conscious anti-communal ideological have difficulties against it. You won't go on its, whatever other steps might be taken.

The state comes in, in one value, in this framework, since it can either promote communal ideology or ideological struggle against it, or it can take a weakened stand vis- -vis communal ideology. In India communal riots emerged within an unprecedented manner in claims like Gujarat where the state recognized the communalists of one religious community against the other. At the same time in areas like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh etc the there are no large size assault reported as respective state governments are vigilant.

To deal with communalism there should be a mass movement and the intellectuals and all sections of the culture must take part in this mass activity. However, today the communalists are more successful in their programmes. The need of the hour is to build up a mass motion of the order of the shilanyas prepared by the Hindu communalists in 1992.

If communalism can be an ideology; then education formal or casual or through the marketing acquires an essential importance. Education by itself can mould young heads to build up a secular frame of mind that can promote communal harmony and cultural integration.

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