We accept

Crystal Field Theory Versus Valence Bond Theory Anatomist Essay

Crystal field theory is a model that describes the electronic structure of transition material compounds, most of that can be considered coordination complexes. CFT successfully makes up about some magnetic properties, shades, hydration enthalpies, and spinel set ups of transition metal complexes, but it does not attempt to illustrate bonding. CFT was developed by physicists Hans Bethe and John Hasbrouck van VlecK in the 1930s. CFT was eventually coupled with molecular orbital theory to create the more natural and intricate ligand field theory (LFT), which gives insight into the process of chemical substance bonding in transition material complexes.

In the ionic CFT, the assumption is that the ions are simple point charges. When put on alkali metallic ions filled with a symmetric sphere of demand, computations of energies are usually quite successful. The approach taken uses classical potential energy equations that look at the attractive and repulsive connections between charged debris (that is, Coulomb's Rules connections).

Electrostatic Potential is proportional to q1 * q2/r

where q1 and q2 are the charges of the interacting ions and r is the distance separating them. This causes the right prediction that large cations of low demand, such as K+ and Na+, should form few coordination compounds.

For transition steel cations which contain varying amounts of d electrons in orbitals that are NOT spherically symmetric, however, the situation is quite different. The form and occupation of these d-orbitals then becomes important within an accurate explanation of the bond energy and properties of the move metal compound

According to CFT, the relationship between a change material and ligands arises from the attraction between the positively charged metal cation and negative fee on the non-bonding electrons of the ligand. The theory is developed by considering energy changes of the five degenerate d-orbitals upon being surrounded by an array of point charges consisting of the ligands. As the ligand approaches the steel ion, the electrons from the ligand will be closer to a few of the d-orbitals and further from others creating a loss of degeneracy. The electrons in the d-orbitals and those in the ligand repel the other person anticipated to repulsion between like charges. Thus the d-electrons closer to the ligands will have a higher energy than those further away which results in the d-orbitals splitting in energy.

This splitting is affected by the following factors:-

1. The nature of the steel ion.

2. The metal's oxidation status. A higher oxidation state leads to a more substantial splitting.

3. The agreement of the ligands about the metallic ion.

4. The nature of the ligands encompassing the steel ion. The more powerful the effect of the ligands then your better the difference between your high and low energy 3d teams.

The most frequent type of organic is octahedral; here six ligands form an octahedron throughout the metal ion. In octahedral symmetry the d-orbitals put into two collections with an energy difference, ‹oct (the crystal-field splitting parameter) where the dxy, dxz and dyz orbitals will be low in energy than the dz2 and dx2-y2, that may have higher energy, because the past group are further from the ligands than the second option and therefore experience less repulsion. The three lower-energy orbitals are collectively referred to as t2g, and both higher-energy orbitals as eg. (These labels are based on the idea of molecular symmetry). Typical orbital energy diagrams receive below in the section High-spin and low-spin.

Tetrahedral complexes will be the second most frequent type; here four ligands form a tetrahedron round the metal ion. In the tetrahedral crystal field splitting the d-orbitals again put into two organizations, with a power difference of ‹tet where in fact the lower energy orbitals will be dz2 and dx2-y2, and the higher energy orbitals will be dxy, dxz and dyz - other to the octahedral circumstance. Furthermore, because the ligand electrons in tetrahedral symmetry aren't oriented directly to the d-orbitals, the energy splitting will be less than in the octahedral case. Square planar and other intricate geometries can be defined by CFT.

The size of the distance ‹ between your several collections of orbitals depends upon several factors, like the ligands and geometry of the organic. Some ligands always produce a little value of ‹, while some always give a big splitting. The reason why behind this can be explained by ligand field theory. The spectrochemical series can be an empirically-derived set of ligands bought by how big is the splitting ‹ that they produce (small ‹ to large ‹; see also this desk):

I ' < Br ' < S2 ' < SCN ' < Cl ' < NO3 ' < N3 ' < F ' < OH ' < C2O42 ' < H2O < NCS ' < CH3CN < py < NH3 < en < 2, 2'-bipyridine < phen < NO2 ' < PPh3 < CN ' < CO

The oxidation express of the steel also plays a part in how big is ‹ between the high and low energy levels. As the oxidation status increases for a given steel, the magnitude of ‹ increases. A V3+ organic will have a larger ‹ when compared to a V2+ organic for a given group of ligands, as the difference in control thickness allows the ligands to be closer to a V3+ ion than to a V2+ ion. Small distance between your ligand and the metal ion ends up with a more substantial ‹, because the ligand and metal electrons are nearer together and for that reason repel more.

High-spin and low-spin

[Fe(NO2)6]3 ' crystal field diagram Ligands which cause a big splitting ‹ of the d- orbitals are referred to as strong-field ligands, such as CN ' and CO from the spectrochemical series. In complexes with these ligands, it is unfavourable to place electrons into the high energy orbitals. Therefore, the low energy orbitals are completely crammed before society of top of the sets starts based on the Aufbau rule. Complexes like this are called "low spin". For instance, NO2 ' is a strong-field ligand and produces a huge ‹. The octahedral ion [Fe(NO2)6]3 ', which has 5 d-electrons, could have the octahedral splitting diagram shown at right with all five electrons in the t2g level.

[FeBr6]3 ' crystal field diagram Conversely, ligands (like I ' and Br ') which cause a small splitting ‹ of the d-orbitals are known as weak-field ligands. In cases like this, it is simpler to put electrons into the higher energy set of orbitals than it is to put two into the same low-energy orbital, because two electrons in the same orbital repel each other. So, one electron is put into each one of the five d-orbitals before any pairing occurs in accord with Hund's rule and "high spin" complexes are created. For example, Br ' is a weak-field ligand and produces a tiny ‹oct. So, the ion [FeBr6]3 ', again with five d-electrons, would have an octahedral splitting diagram where all five orbitals are singly occupied.

In order for low spin splitting that occurs, the vitality cost of putting an electron into an already singly occupied orbital must be significantly less than the cost of placing the additional electron into an eg orbital at a power cost of ‹. As known above, eg refers to the dz2 and dx2-y2 which can be higher in energy than the t2g in octahedral complexes. When the energy necessary to set two electrons is greater than the energy cost of putting an electron in an eg, ‹, high spin splitting occurs.

The crystal field splitting energy for tetrahedral steel complexes (four ligands) is known as ‹tet, which is roughly equal to 4/9‹oct (for the same material and same ligands). Therefore, the vitality required to set two electrons is normally higher than the power required for putting electrons in the higher energy orbitals. Thus, tetrahedral complexes are usually high-spin.

The use of the splitting diagrams can certainly help in the prediction of the magnetic properties of coordination substances. A compound that has unpaired electrons in its splitting diagram will be paramagnetic and you will be captivated by magnetic areas, while a element that lacks unpaired electrons in its splitting diagram will be diamagnetic and will be weakly repelled with a magnetic field.

Crystal field stabilization energy

The crystal field stabilization energy (CFSE) is the balance that results from positioning a transition metallic ion in the crystal field generated by a couple of ligands. It occurs due to the fact that when the d-orbitals are break up in a ligand field (as referred to above), some of them become low in energy than before with respect to a spherical field known as the barycenter in which all five d-orbitals are degenerate. For instance, within an octahedral case, the t2g place becomes lower in energy than the orbitals in the barycenter. Because of this, if there are any electrons occupying these orbitals, the metal ion is more steady in the ligand field in accordance with the barycenter by an amount known as the CFSE. Conversely, the eg orbitals (in the octahedral case) are higher in energy than in the barycenter, so adding electrons in these reduces the amount of CFSE.

Octahedral crystal field stabilization energyIf the splitting of the d-orbitals within an octahedral field is ‹oct, the three t2g orbitals are stabilized relative to the barycenter by 2/5 ‹oct, and the eg orbitals are destabilized by 3/5 ‹oct. As samples, consider both d5 configurations shown further in the web page. The low-spin (top) example has five electrons in the t2g orbitals, so the total CFSE is 5 x 2/5 ‹oct = 2‹oct. Within the high-spin (lower) example, the CFSE is (3 x 2/5 ‹oct) - (2 x 3/5 ‹oct) = 0 - in cases like this, the stabilization generated by the electrons in the lower orbitals is canceled out by the destabilizing effect of the electrons in top of the orbitals.

Crystal Field stabilization does apply to transition-metal complexes of most geometries. Indeed, the reason that many d8 complexes are square-planar is the large amount of crystal field stabilization that this geometry produces with this quantity of electrons.

Explaining the colours of transition metallic complexes

The bright shades exhibited by many coordination substances can be described by Crystal Field Theory. In the event the d-orbitals of such a complex have been split into two pieces as detailed above, when the molecule absorbs a photon of visible light one or more electrons may momentarily jump from the low energy d-orbitals to the higher energy ones to transiently create an thrilled point out atom. The difference in energy between your atom in the ground talk about and in the thrilled state is equal to the power of the absorbed photon, and related inversely to the wavelength of the light. Because only certain wavelengths (») of light are consumed - those corresponding exactly the energy difference - the ingredients appears the correct complementary color.

As discussed above, because different ligands make crystal fields of different talents, different colours can be seen. For a given metal ion, weaker field ligands produce a complex with a smaller ‹, that will absorb light of longer » and therefore lower consistency. Conversely, more robust field ligands create a larger ‹, absorb light of shorter », and therefore higher. It really is, though, rarely the case that the energy of the photon consumed corresponds exactly to how big is the gap ‹; there are other things (such as electron-electron repulsion and Jahn-Teller results) that also affect the energy difference between your ground and fired up states

Crystal field splitting diagrams

Crystal field splitting diagrams


Pentagonal bipyramidal

Square antiprismatic

Square planar

Square pyramidal


Trigonal bipyramidal


CFT ignores the attractive makes the d-electrons of the metallic ion and neuclear demand on the ligand atom. Therefore all the properties are centered upon the ligand orbitals and their discussion with material orbitals are not explained.

In CFT model incomplete covalency of metal -ligand bond is not taken into consideration Corresponding to CFT metal-ligand bonding is purely electrostatic.

In CFT only d-electrons of the material ion are considered. the other metal orbitals such as s, Px, Py, Pz are considered into concerns.

In CFT -orbitals of ligand are not considered

The theory cant describe the relative strength of the ligands i. e. it cannot make clear that why drinking water is stronger than OH relating to spectrochemical series.

It will not explain the charge copy spectra on the intensities of the absorption rings.


In chemistry, valence connection theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital theory, that developed to use the techniques of quantum mechanics to explain substance bonding. It focuses how the atomic orbitals of the dissociated atoms combine on molecular formation to give individual chemical bonds. In contrast, molecular orbital theory has orbitals that cover the complete molecule

According to the theory a covalent connection is formed between your two atoms by the overlap of half filled valence atomic orbitals of every atom containing one unpaired electron. A valence relationship structure is comparable to a Lewis framework, but where a single Lewis framework can't be written, several valence relationship structures are used. Each of these VB structures symbolizes a particular Lewis framework. This mixture of valence connection structures is the primary point of resonance theory. Valence relationship theory considers that the overlapping atomic orbitals of the participating atoms form a substance bond. Because of the overlapping, it is most probable that electrons should be in the connection region. Valence connection theory views bonds as weakly combined orbitals (small overlap). Valence relationship theory is normally easier to use in ground point out molecules.


The overlapping atomic orbitals can differ. The two types of overlapping orbitals are sigma and pi. Sigma bonds arise when the orbitals of two distributed electrons overlap head-to-head. Pi bonds appear when two orbitals overlap when they are parallel. For example, a bond between two s-orbital electrons is a sigma bond, because two spheres are always coaxial. In conditions of relationship order, sole bonds have one sigma connection, double bonds contain one sigma relationship and one pi bond, and triple bonds contain one sigma bond and two pi bonds. However, the atomic orbitals for bonding may be hybrids. Often, the bonding atomic orbitals have a figure of several possible types of orbitals. The methods to get an atomic orbital with the correct persona for the bonding is called hybridization


Valence relationship theory now suits Molecular Orbital Theory (MO theory), which does not stick to the VB proven fact that electron pairs are localized between two specific atoms in a molecule but that they are distributed in sets of molecular orbitals which can prolong over the entire molecule. MO theory can predict magnetic properties in a straightforward manner, while valence relationship theory gives similar results but is more complicated. Valence relationship theory views aromatic properties of substances as credited to resonance between Kekule, Dewar and possibly ionic structures, while molecular orbital theory views it as delocalization of the -electrons. The fundamental mathematics are also more difficult limiting VB treatment to relatively small molecules. Alternatively, VB theory provides a much more exact picture of the reorganization of electronic digital charge that occurs when bonds are broken and formed during the course of a chemical reaction. Specifically, valence connection theory correctly predicts the dissociation of homonuclear diatomic substances into split atoms, while simple molecular orbital theory predicts dissociation into a mixture of atoms and ions.

More recently, several groups have developed what is often called modern valence connection theory. This replaces the overlapping atomic orbitals by overlapping valence relationship orbitals that are extended over a big variety of basis functions, either centered each on one atom to give a traditional valence bond picture, or centered on all atoms in the molecule. The causing energies are usually more competitive with energies from computations where electron correlation is introduced predicated on a Hartree-Fock reference point wavefunction.

Applications of VB theory

An important aspect of the VB theory is the condition of maximum overlap which contributes to the forming of the most powerful possible bonds. This theory is utilized to explain the covalent relationship formation in many molecules.

For Example in the case of F2 molecule the F - F relationship is developed by the overlap of pz orbitals of the two F atoms each filled with an unpaired electron. Since the nature of the overlapping orbitals are different in H2 and F2 molecules, the bond strength and bond measures differ between H 2 and F2 molecules.

In a HF molecule the covalent relationship is created by the overlap of 1s orbital of H and 2pz orbital of F each made up of an unpaired electron. Mutual posting of electrons between H and F results in a covalent relationship between HF


Some of the properties of complexes that could not be described based on valence relationship theory are satisfactorily described by crystal field theory. CFT is thus definitely a noticable difference over vbt they are the next merits of cft over vbt will prove that affirmation:

CFT predicts a steady change in magnetic properties of complexes as opposed to the abrupt change expected by VBT.

In some complexes, when ‹ is very close to P, simple temps changes may affect the magnetic properties of complexes. Thus the CFT provides theoretical basis for understanding and predicting the modifications of magnetic occasions with heat as well as comprehensive magnetic properties of complexes, this is merely in contrast of VBT which cannot predict or describe magnetic behaviour beyond the amount of specifying the number of unpaired electrons.

Though the assumptions inherent in VBT and CFT are vastly different, the primary difference lies in their information of the orbitals not occupied in the low spin state governments. VBT forbids their use because they are involved in forming cross orbitals, while they get excited about forming cross orbitals, while CFT strongly discourages their use because they are repelled by the ligands.

According to VBT, the bond between the material and the ligand is covalent, , while corresponding to CFT it is strictly ionic. The relationship is now thought to have both ionic and covalent charachter. Unlike valence bond theory

CFT offers a platform for the ready interpretation of such phenomenon as tretagonal distortions.

CFT provides satisfactory explanation for the colour of transition material complexes, i. e. spectral properties ofcomplexes, i. e. spectral properties of complexes.

CFT can semiquantitatevily clarify certain thermodynamic and kinetic properties.

CFT makes possible a clear knowledge of stereochemical properties of complexes.


J. H. Van Vleck, "Theory of the Variations in Paramagnetic Anisotropy Among Different Salts of the Flat iron Group", Phys. Rev. 41, 208 - 215 (1932)[1]

Zumdahl, Steven S. Substance Principles Fifth Release. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 550-551, 957-964.

3) Silberberg, Martin S. Chemistry: The Molecular Dynamics of Subject and Change, Fourth Edition. NY: McGraw Hill Company, 2006. 1028 -1034.

4 )D. F. Shriver and P. W. Atkins Inorganic Chemistry 3rd release, Oxford University Press, 2001. Pages: 227-236.

5) http://wwwchem. uwimona. edu. jm:1104/courses/CFT. html

Murrel, J. N. ; S. F. Tedder (1985). The Substance Bond. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-90759-6

6) I. Hargittai, When Resonance Made Waves, The Substance Intelligencer 1, 34 (1995))

7) Shaik, Sason S. ; Phillipe C. Hiberty (2008). A Chemist's Guide to Valence Bond Theory. NJ: Wiley-Interscience.

8)text reserve of cordination chemistry by dr. R. K. sharma pg 61, 62

9)engineering chemistry by A. K. pahari, B. S. chauhan.

More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment