Keywords: crowne plaza strategy, repositioning hospitality industry
Hotels generate the revenues by providing the tangible and intangible possessions and services to the clients. They are different from other commercial businesses such as real real estate which is often regarded as following the same business model however very broadly. The commercial real real estate similar compared to that of hotels benefits their revenues by providing mainly their tangible property. However hotels are significantly different from commercial real property as they are extremely complex to manage. While commercial real estate has long-term deals using their customers which ensures income over a longer period, hotels earnings have significant fluctuations and is also more dependent on the economic circuit (Bennett and Strydom 2009).
The asset of a hotel considered by Ferrell and Hartline (2010) is its location, the attributes that are tangible, and the services provided by the company which is intangible. The worthiness addition by the brand image and name of the hotel is significant as apart from the location and physical characteristics, the brand image has a role in influencing the consumer's choice. This brand image, location and the capabilities together can be viewed as as the marketplace position of the hotel (Hassanien et. al. 2012).
As identified recently, the hotel's revenues are considerably dependent on the larger financial factors. A online marketing strategy which provides significant dividends at one point of time may well not be sufficient when the external environment and the financial factors change. These exterior environmental factors can be the micro and macro environmental conditions. The positioning of an hotel with respect to the market can be an important factor to be analysed as it contributes to the development of the online marketing strategy. It isn't easy to change the placement of the hotel, as the tangible factors (location) and a large magnitude the physical characteristics cannot be altered to the marketplace conditions.
Repositioning is known as when the brand image and the services provided are not matching with the needs and requirements of the clients. Though it has been recommended by Cant and Styrdom (2009) and Nykiel (2008) that repositioning is utilized when the brand (service or product) is not undertaking to the prospects, there are several situations where repositioning has been performed to increase the revenues and success. Hence one important requirements for the dimension of an effective repositioning strategy would be the performance especially the financial things to consider.
The goal of the research is to analyse the strategies and methods being followed by Crowne Plaza hotels in its repositioning to focus on the upper-upscale market.
To critically measure the literature on repositioning of an company and hospitality sector in particular
To analyse the repositioning strategy followed by Crowne Plaza hotels
To recommend improvements to the repositioning strategy of Crowne Plaza hotel brand
- To critically evaluate the books on repositioning of any organisation
- To analyse the literature available on setting and repositioning
- To evaluate the strategy used for repositioning in the hospitality industry
- To analyse the primary approach to hotel repositioning
- To analyse the strategies implemented by Crowne Plaza hotels in repositioning to focus on upper-upscale market
- To analyse the characteristics of the upper-upscale business segment
- To analyse the general targets of repositioning of Crowne Plaza hotel
- To analyse your competition for Crowne Plaza Hotel after repositioning
- To recommend improvements to the repositioning strategy of Crowne Plaza hotel brand
- To recommend tangible changes to be put in place by the hotel
- To recommend positioning information for the hotel
The pursuing section plays a part in the completion of the first goal namely the examination of the literature on repositioning of organisations. The first aim is split into three stages as below.
To analyse the literature available on setting and repositioning
The first section plays a part in the evaluation of the general setting and repositioning strategies and practices from the books.
To evaluate the strategy used for repositioning in the hospitality industry
The second section evaluates the strategy of repositioning especially in the hospitality industry.
To analyse the main method of hotel repositioning
The third section analyses the main approach to hotel repositioning mainly renovations of the hotel properties.
Positioning is described by Bennett and Strydom (2009) as involving a complex set of perceptions, impressions and emotions that the clients have about the product or an organisation, often set alongside the competitors. A lot of the authors have similar meanings about product placement hinging on the principles of perception of the mark market with regards to opponents. One important contribution by Chon and Maier (2009) who analyzed product placement is the final outcome that customers would position an organisation, service or product, always with the market and even if the company is not doing any tactical positioning. Different varieties, options and methods of placement have been advised by several research workers. The success of setting depends upon the uniqueness of the product-service makes and the advertising (Ng 2009). The concept of "unique advertising proposition" provides the management with a differentiator from your competition and hence a competitive advantages.
The various definitions analysed by the researcher, some of which are provided above indicates that setting is the concept rather than a fact and pertains to influencing the client perceptions. A lot of the positioning concepts in the analyzed articles are about products rather than whole organisations. Furthermore placement of the merchandise or an organisation is relative which is the combination of these factors and information that the marketplace segment has about the merchandise or the organisation.
Based on the principles of understanding and the relativeness of the positioning of an organisation or product, Hassanien (2008) has discovered that marketing and advertising communications attempt to provide the information and train people about how precisely to perceive a brand. Alternatively Ibrahim and Gill (2005) have provided in contrast opinion which suggests that the foundation of all advertising campaign and marketing communication is to split the competitive landscape and relate the marketer's product or company with specific factors which are unique. Hassanien (2006) who examined brand positioning have come to the conclusion that positioning strategy of any company is a battle for the consumer's intellects and when an organisation helps bring about a particular type of position, the opponents are also situated in the intellects of the consumers. Although almost all of the experts has considered setting from the point of view of advertisements and marketing and sales communications, Tinnil and Vepslinen (1995) have mentioned that consumer's viewpoint and perceptions in regards to a product or an organisation is derived mainly from the performance or the experience. The positioning announcements through advertisement and marketing communication should maintain range with the performance and experience characteristics.
The above discussion indicates that setting is relevant to the ideas relating to advert and marketing, however as promoted by Hassanien (2006) positioning can be defined from the perspective of customers evaluation of the product or the organisation. The other researchers have identified the various methods available for positioning. By far the most apt meaning for placement is provided by Hassanien (2006) predicated on the idea of recording the consumers might and in relation to competitors.
Lo et. al. (2012) have determined that positioning text messages are significantly different from the brand communications and marketing communications. Many organisations according to McGoldrick (1992) ignore the need to provide a positioning concept. The implementation of a specific positioning strategy would depend upon the ability of the communication strategy of the company about the product or service. Ibrahim and Gill (2005) have analysed marketing campaign results of failure to plan and implement a setting of the product or an company thus necessitating a well planned repositioning. The inability to plan and a strategic miscarriage of implementation can cause the product or the service relegated to the positioning facing competition which is unwarranted, brings about the positioning with little customer demand, contributes to confused setting, over positioning and under setting (Lo et. al. 2012).
Based on this one can say that setting of an company is not conducted in vacuum and somewhat than creating one company or product, placement is encouraging an alternative solution view of the product or the company. Although it is considered that branding and marketing and sales communications will vary from product placing messages, the previous section have contributed to the conclusions these messages are incredibly much in-line to the placement messages and hence should have a high degree of correlation.
Repositioning has been considered by Wong and Merrilees (2007) as a technique to align the company/product/service with the prevailing or future market conditions. Since positioning has a considerable effect on brand management, marketing communications, strategic management, recruiting etc, Bruyn and Freathy (2011) have figured placement can be analysed and examined from all the activities of the company. Even when an organisation's service or product is located at an improved position than the challengers, it is natural to carry out repositioning to enhance the competitive advantages. Hence the repositioning matching to Saxena and Khandelwal (2010) is not only because of failed setting strategy but also to increase the future potential customers of the product or service. The different reasons discovered by several researchers for repositioning are given below.
As per Ibrahim and Gill (2005) repositioning is conducted to improve the competitive advantage or even to avoid and develop a hurdle for new businesses entering into the same position. Saxena and Khandelwal (2010) from empirical research of several organisational and product repositioning have recognized that repositioning is usually conducted to target a new portion of customers even while holding onto the old ones. However Kalafatis et. al. (2000) have suggested that expanding the prospective segment may lead to confused placement even if the company can improve the income and the marketplace share. Expansion of the market share by targeting a new section would need satisfying the current and potential consumer bottom which might have varying levels of needs and requirements.
Apart from the organisational or inside factors contributing to a repositioning decision, other analysts such as Bruyn and Freathy (2011) have analysed the need for repositioning predicated on changes to the larger environment. A fresh trend on the market, emerging technology, improving the corporate image and conformity to legal laws are some of the bigger environmental factors necessitating the repositioning. However, almost all of the repositioning of products and services has gone to correct the perplexed positioning, over setting and under positioning according to (Boric 1998).
Several requirements or the factors adding to repositioning of products or organisations determined above signifies that there could be external and internal factors facilitating your choice on repositioning. Even though Saxena and Khandelwal (2010) have conducted an empirical investigation, the researcher seems that it is not sufficient as the research is dependant on a small variety of samples where repositioning was conducted and hence it isn't clear how an company can target a new segment even while holding onto the old ones. The expansion of the mark segment as determined by Kalafatis et. al. (2000) may lead to confusion on the market which is contradictory to the position of Saxena and Khandelwal (2010). Further Kalafatis et. al. (2000) did the research using several circumstance studies and has appropriately provided several certifications about distress of placement and expanding the prospective segment.
The idea of repositioning in marketing literature will come in tandem with the branding and product development. Although branding and placement of products and organisations have several common and distinctively accepted explanations, repositioning seems to have little uniqueness in conditions of the definitions suggested by several authors.
According to Foxell and Trafford (2010) repositioning is a change in the image of the product by creating a change of the belief of customers. Nevertheless the ways in which the perceptions of the customers are altered have obtained different explanations. Corresponding to Chotipanich (2004) repositioning has been considered in a vague manner by changing the existing positioning however the researcher hasn't provided any specific platform for the execution. In the same way Groucutt (2006) couples repositioning with the advertisement strategy of any organisation, executing the image makeover and hence a big change in the belief. A more comprehensive concept determined by Hassanien (2008) implies repositioning as a process involving six stages depending upon the newness of the merchandise to the market. Similar viewpoints are accepted in the works of Foxell and Trafford (2010) where repositioning is recognized as an activity of using same or differentiated products to new focus on markets or segments.
Most of the concepts of repositioning of products are in colaboration with product development and branding. This might reveal that repositioning is a kind of changing the course of the prevailing products to new market segments. The repositioning process recommended by Hassanien (2008) concerning six phases is very much indeed pertinent to the hospitality industry and can be employed for products as well as organisational repositioning however other research workers have been focused on product repositioning somewhat than organisational repositioning and hence not significant relevant to the techniques adopted in the hospitality industry. Nevertheless the general concepts associated with change of image and the perception of customers are very much relevant.
Another frame of mind to repositioning is used by Recreation area and Smith (1990) recommending it as a technique developed to enhance the performance of your company or product. The view indicated by Pierce and Moukanas (2002) however in conjunction with product development is the product repositioning for adult markets. According to Pike et. al. (2010) new product development is alone a repositioning strategy and the coupling of repositioning with the books on the new product is actually predicated on the factor that the new products are a modification of the prevailing products.
From the aforementioned you can consider that repositioning has received less attention in the form of creating a unique framework whereas it is being recommended in many areas especially related to new product development. However the majority of the repositioning in practice has happened for existing products rather than services. Based on these overview of different resources on the principles of repositioning and its own associations with different facets such as target market, market portion, new product development and branding strategy, one can identify the extensive distance in the literature about the implementation of repositioning. In addition repositioning is usually associated with product development and therefore the literature signifies certain confusion in the way where it is associated with products and brands. Further even the implementation strategy identified from different sources has focused on advertisements and has disregarded several other factors.
Another method to repositioning which is often considered as comprehensive is suggested by Gupta (2012) which touches upon the functions, controlling variables and its own effects. The concept recognizes the repositioning as part of the marketing process. It's the process involved in marketing either to partly or totally change the perceptions of the customers about an company by causing amendments or adding value to the marketing blend. The marketing factors are modified to adhere to the factors associated with consumers or competition with a goal of retaining, broadening or changing the mark segments.
The above view can be considered as detailed as it indicates the processes, figuring out them as a incomplete or total change in the make-up of a product or an company, predicated on the marketing factors to improve the perceptions of the prospective segment to be able to increase the performance. Furthermore this idea can be differentiated from other meanings as the goals are uniquely identified as retention, growth or even the change of market segments.
Most of the strategies of repositioning suggested by the researchers have similarities with little change or distinguishing features in one to some other. As suggested by Hassanien (2008) and Chotipanich (2004) the first process is the conviction of current setting, accompanied by the examination of the marketplace to decide on the expected position. Further modifying, planning or renovating the product/service to match to the desired position is also projected by Nykiel (2008). One distinguishing factor recognized by Gupta (2012) through the case study analysis of several repositioning tactics is the way of measuring of the desired positioning and further rectifications. Although positioning strategies seem to be relatively simple in composition and model, Bennett and Strydom (2009) and Foxell and Trafford (2010) have evaluated the reliability and trustworthiness of the strategy through empirical and qualitative studies. This factor is deliberated by Ferrell and Hartline (2010) and shows that it is very good difficult to eliminate the old perceptions from the consumer's mind rather than moving to a fresh idea with an existing service or product.
Furthermore based on certain case studies Chon and Maier (2009) have concluded that eliminating the old perceptions with an alteration of idea for a preexisting product is significantly different and promotes the idea of rolling out a brand-new product or service thus differentiating it with the old ones. However this may well not be possible with all the products and services especially those in the hospitality sector. The repositioning of the hotel would need a move to a fresh proposition and removing those factors from the consumer's brain which were discovered with the old setting strategy (Pike et. al. 2010).
When taking into consideration the bigger picture, the strategies provided by the research workers as above, seems to be very similar to the steps in positioning a product in the first place. One difference especially in the hospitality sector would be the difficulty in moving to a new position highly relevant to the marketplace and removing the old perceptions from the clients head. Hence Chon and Maier (2009) have aptly remarked that removing the old perceptions is difficult specifically for hospitality organisations such as hotels and restaurants. The product may be repositioned by changing the presentation or even marginally the brand whereas an company can't be repositioned as easily as the products.
Repositioning strategists have used the theoretical basis of resource-based examination as the main factor. Among the basic considerations associated with an organisation or a brand repositioning is the imperfection of the marketplace and the heterogeneity of the merchandise available for sale (O'Fallon and Rutherford 2010). Therefore the market individuals are having asymmetric information about the characteristics influencing the market. Repositioning regarding to Zaransky (2009) is the strategy adopted to increase the competitiveness of the brand or an company. Based on the resource-based view point Merrilees and Miller (2008) have concluded that repositioning of the brand or an organisation should think about the inefficiencies existing on the market and also to capitalise on such inefficiencies and market spaces. As any strategy could have external and interior implications, Enz (2009) recognized that repositioning would maintain relation to your competition (exterior) mainly emanating from the changes in the inner factors.
The resource-based view point would be highly dependent on repositioning of organisations somewhat than products as mentioned by Zaransky (2009). Organisations have particular resources and when considering the hospitality companies, they can be providing the resources as the assistance to the customers. Although the assertion by Merrilees and Miller (2008) about factor of inefficiencies on the market and capitalising from the market spaces is a valid point, the researcher hasn't provided how such a repositioning of the organisation can be carried out.
The idea under resource-based view characterises each organisation as having different capacities and therefore a certain level of uniqueness which are believed as "resources". These resources are the underlying factors which provide a competitive advantage for an organisation on the market (Buttle and Bowie 2012). In the case of organisations in the hospitality sector, there are resources that are tangible and intangible. Because the hospitality sector is basically service-oriented, lots of the brand identities and perceptions of the clients would be dependent on the intangible factors like the service and the brand image (Pierce and Moukanas 2002). It has additionally been examined by Beri (2009) that the functions of a firm can be considered as the resources specifically for service-based organisations.
When analysing the resources of an company, especially the tangible resources, the positioning is a unique factor combined with the physical possessions. However Chon and Maier (2009) designates that all the physical assets cannot be considered as resources as almost all of them are expected by the clients. There are specific unique factors which distinguish a hotel property from another such as a large swimming pool, the grade of the area, room environment, atmosphere and similar factors which is often differentiated or compared with the competitors. When contemplating repositioning, some of the tangible property cannot be modified, especially the positioning and the bigger environment associated with the location (Merrilees and Miller 2008).
The intangible sources of an organisation would be the features of the organization and more importantly the brand image (O'Fallon and Rutherford 2010). It's been identified from the concept of resource-based view that the organisational features and brand image can change over a period. The brand image will depend upon the client perceptions and the organisational functions be based upon the management. The managerial capabilities are a significant determining element in the success of the repositioning strategy as the versatility of the company contributes to responsiveness to the marketplace conditions (Zaransky 2009).
As identified previously, repositioning will involve the first step as the id of the tangible and intangible investments and hence the resources of the organisation. Since a few of the resources cannot be changed plus some others can't be encouraged to increase the performance (Hassanien et. al. 2012), it is necessary to recognize those resources which provides value on the long-term and therefore competitive advantage. Based on this perspective Ng (2009) have considered that a resource can donate to long-term competitive advantages when there may be demand, the competitors cannot replicate the resource and when the organisation can invest in the source of information and generate long term profitability.
Hence it is necessary that an company should think about the resources that can be leveraged and compare it with your competition. This would require a careful evaluation where some of the resources are chosen for modification plus some others which have to be taken away. Although the marketplace demand must be considered, the emergence of new players in the market also must be analysed as the repositioning strategy would take some time to put into effect. Overall from the above it could be figured repositioning is an external change associated with an organisation especially an alteration in the understanding of the customers in comparison with the competition by leveraging the initial resources of the company which can't be replicated by the competition.
As indicated previously, the tangible factors associated with an company in the hospitality industry, especially hotels cannot be evolved significantly to align with the market characteristics. Hence the repositioning of the brand in the hotel sector would be to change the intangible factors from the organisation to ensure competitiveness. This is advocated by Hassanien et. al. (2012) and established by a study of repositioning of varied hotels. The analysis has identified that repositioning was conducted for growth of market show, repositioning to service another market segment, getting into new marketplaces by developing services and services. However it's been found from the studies of repositioning of hotels that the majority of it includes improvising on the already existing property both tangible and intangible. Furthermore the studies piloted by Cant and Styrdom (2009) specify that the key thought for hotel repositioning is to improve the existing impression about the brand.
Based on some genuine practical types of repositioning and the study studies that have analysed them, one significant realization is that lots of of the repositioning engaged only notion changes rather than genuine.
Gupta (2012) have established this suggestion that many of the brand repositioning have consisted of changing the outward design which are the intangible elements that would create the feeling in the imagination of the buyer about the change. Pike et. al. (2010) has recognized the change in rates and market orientation in an effort to reposition the brand. Nevertheless most of these changes did not have a substantial impact or a big change in the genuine tangible factors which the customers could gain after the repositioning. However, almost all the study studies and thus the analysts are in contract in their view about repositioning of hotels and its own association with restoration.
Although it's been suggested recently that little tangible advancements happen in repositioning of hotel properties, virtually all repositioning has been researched from the perspective of hotel renovations. Hence a change in the tangible components of a hotel is the key basis for repositioning even though the theoretical ideas provide otherwise. Further this is considered in line with the resource-based view point where in fact the resources (tangible and intangible elements) are transformed to develop an alternative solution perspective for the clients. Hence the resource-based view point about repositioning can be considered as very relevant for hospitality organisations.
Renovation is recognized as the primary tool for repositioning of a hotel property. Renovations of the hotel relating to Simms and Trott (2007) are the improvement in the tangible elements. This is often a complete adjustment of the entire property, new extensions, renovating fittings, equipment, improvements and changes of furniture. As recognized in the last sections, repositioning has been considered along with new product development and development. Invention or new product development is the task involved in developing a new idea and strategy. Regarding to Aldin et. al. (2004) creativity and product development is a continuous process involving differing degrees of vary from the existing. Technology can be highly discontinuous presenting rise to entirely services which require different positioning strategies. Matching to Kalafatis et. al. (2000) an progressive service or product can be described from the perspective of the company and the market. The concept of new product development and creativity has been linked with restoration of hotel properties and repositioning. Repositioning in the hospitality sector especially hotels has been regarded as tactical (Lo et. al. 2012), adding to operational and practical requirements (Simms and Trott 2007). Reconstruction is also essential to maintain the competitive benefits, sustain the marketplace share, improve operational efficiency (Wong and Merrilees 2007), enhance the brand image, compliance with new restrictions, technology and market conditions (Saxena and Khandelwal 2010). Matching to Bruyn and Freathy (2011) reconstruction is recognized as the most important practices followed by hotel are in the repositioning.
Since there is a need for a tangible change which needs to be recognized by the clients, hotels have implemented reconstruction to either enhance the setting or repositioning. From the above it can be concluded that the concepts involved in product repositioning, especially through invention and new product development is the key underlying factor in the restoration of hotel properties. Just like inventions and new product developments, hotels can reposition by changing the tangible aspects that can be felt and perceived by the client.
The above books provided the overall concepts about setting and repositioning, reasons, procedures and the strategy accompanied by a specific idea of resource-based view point about repositioning which is very much essential to the hospitality industry. Although repositioning can be viewed as as the change in the perceptions of the customer, it has been recommended that product repositioning is a lot easier than an organisational repositioning. Hence organisations especially in the hospitality industry would need to consider the tangible and intangible elements which are resources of the company. Certain resources cannot be altered (like the location) in support of an external modification can transform the perceptions whereas most of the repositioning in the hospitality sector doesn't have transformed the tangible elements. Hence even with the change in the intangible elements, the hospitality company can help a repositioning on the market.
The following sections provide an knowledge of the methodological platform employed by the researcher especially linked to key data collection and the evaluation, to answer the research questions. Any research should have a properly organised method which can be confirmed and validated. Further the information of the methodology supplies the reader with the ability to analyse the research proper; especially relating to trustworthiness and validity.
The initial parts of the strategy revolve around the larger frameworks relating to the philosophy adopted by the researcher and the study approach. Further portions move to the practical factors and factors adopted by the researcher to accumulate data, interpreting and analysing to build up the conclusions. Each section supplies the description of varied feasible and possible opportunities available with the researcher under each proceeding and the reason why the specific opportunities or framework was selected. The strategy section follows based on the research onion platform produced by Saunders et. al. (2003) where in fact the composition of the methodological platform is provided. This composition is provided in the below shape.
Source - Saunders et. al. , (2003, p138)
The initial goal of the researcher was to analyse the strategies and methods being followed by Crowne Plaza hotels in its repositioning to focus on the upper-upscale market. Predicated on this the next targets were also created.
To critically evaluate the books on repositioning of any company and hospitality sector in particular
To analyse the repositioning strategy implemented by Crowne Plaza hotels
To recommend advancements to the repositioning strategy of Crowne Plaza hotel brand
The above aims and goals have largely continued to be the same; nevertheless the initial purpose is completed with the completion of the literature review in the last section. The focus of the methodology is to build up a platform for completing the next and the 3rd research objectives which can be enlarged below.
To analyse the strategies adopted by Crowne Plaza hotels in repositioning to target upper-upscale market
To analyse the characteristics of the upper-upscale business segment
To analyse the general targets of repositioning of Crowne Plaza hotel
To analyse your competition for Crowne Plaza Hotel after repositioning
To recommend improvements to the repositioning strategy of Crowne Plaza hotel brand
To recommend tangible changes to be carried out by the hotel
To recommend placing communications for the hotel
It is to complete the above-mentioned research aim and targets that the present methodology is produced and therefore all the propositions of the researcher is permitting the completion of each of the research objective.
The philosophy adopted by the researcher in the context of the study is described as how knowledge is developed in a organised manner Saunders et. al. , (2003) which as per Chapman (2005) is highly dependent on the viewpoint adopted by the researcher about the study and also about the bigger context within the analysis is conducted. Going for a particular research beliefs would highly count upon the research question as well as the mentality of the researcher. Various research philosophies are positivism, realism and interpretivism (Walliman 2010).
Positivism considers communal fact as the observable, abstract and hence to be studied predicated on specific principles and rules and hence adopting an extremely strict methodical method (Jackson 2010). Regarding to Saunders et. al. , (2003) includes the era of hypothesis, tested using the info accumulated often in a quantitative manner (Kothari 2009) however qualitative data is also utilised. On the other hand interpretivism approach targets context specific analysis and interpretation of the topic reality and hence stresses on the importance of the framework in which the review is conducted rather than the specific concepts and guidelines (Saunders et. al. , 2003). Hence the researcher deviates from the stringent scientific concerns and evaluates the research questions, the assignments of the individuals or the topics under the analysis and hence developing a deeper knowledge of the research subject matter, further adding to context founded conclusions (Bryman and Bell 2007). Realism on the other hands considers social fact to be researched based on methodical principles, however specifies that it's also dependent after the thoughts and processes of the research subject or the individuals connected with the study (Cooper and Schindler 2006).
The researcher has implemented an interpretivist research idea as the aim of the research is to analyse the repositioning strategies, methods and practices used by Crowne Plaza hotel brand. The repositioning strategy can be an on-going one, quite simply it is being operationalised as the research is conducted, the researcher don't have sufficient data which can provide conclusions about the suitability of the adopted strategies and methods by Crowne Plaza brand which may be concluded as successful or unsuccessful. The success or failure of the repositioning strategy would be obvious only after it is carried out and analysed by the customers.
However at this stage the researcher intends to judge the present functions, working and development in Crowne Plaza hotel and therefore using the specific situation and the framework. Furthermore an in-depth review of the strategy, tactics and practice is required to be conducted, furthered with a qualitative function of research. Hence the researcher has used interpretivism somewhat than positivism and realism which if considered could only bring about generalisations. Further positivism and realism, to be used, would always require quantitative data to make generalisations about the strategies adopted by Crowne Plaza brand.
Two types of research solutions considered by Sekaran and Bougie (2010) and many other authors are deduction and induction. Deduction is the utilisation of pre-existing ideas, theories which are used for development of hypothesis or a conceptual platform which is then analysed by making use of data (Burns and Burns 2008). Induction is the slow process or utilises the data to analyse the prevailing theories, principles and models and either to validate the same for to develop new ones (Chapman 2005).
The researcher has used a deductive rule or approach considering that several frameworks and conceptual types of repositioning is obtainable and the majority of them are having very much practical implications especially in the hospitality industry. The literature review provided deeper insights about the strategy of repositioning, generally conditions as well as for hospitality context. It was analysed that the resource-based consideration of repositioning is very important to hospitality companies and specifically for hotels were location can't be modified and the other resources especially the intangible factors can be customized. Further repositioning was examined as a modification of the customer mentality mainly to capitalise on a better placement of the organisation.
These are the frameworks which are being used by the researcher; or in other words those ideas and ideas are being used throughout the study research, especially in the data collection, the development of the questionnaire for the interview and even the research of the data. The researcher will not plan to develop new strategies, principles or frameworks for the repositioning. Somewhat the researcher targets the present setting of repositioning especially the strategy used by Crowne Plaza brand and relevance and close match to the theoretical construction evaluated in the literature review. Upon this basis it could be considered that the deductive platform is utilised by the researcher.
Strategy of research can be viewed as from different perspectives and undeniably an analysis of various literature provide different facets and information regarding a research strategy. Indeed the study strategy is approximately the applied aspects of research especially data collection, analysis and when heading further about the accessibility of data, trustworthiness, validity, limitations and so on. Several types of research strategies are gained by different types of groups. Regarding to Sekaran and Bougie (2010) the research strategy can be qualitative or quantitative. Alternatively Cooper and Schindler (2006) direct research strategies to be experiment, survey, research study, grounded theory and ethnography.
When taking into consideration the quantitative and qualitative strategies, the primary factor to be realized is how the data is gathered and analysed. Quantitative research strategy regarding to Saunders et. al. , (2003) targets large data, often numerical, condensed and hence can be examined using statistical or numerical methods. Quantitative data is often organised, easy for analysis; however possess the limitations they are for developing generalisations rather than to concentrate on the specific aspect. Qualitative studies on the other side goes in depth into a particular research subject and hence provide a shorter selection of valuable and in-depth data specifically about the core of the study subject (Bryman and Bell 2007). Qualitative data is subjective whereas quantitative data is subjective (Jackson 2010).
Considering the modifications in the research strategies mentioned above, the necessity as an in-depth analysis, the researcher has utilised qualitative kinds of data collection and examination. This engaged a subjective account of the entire data collection and analysis process wherein an interview was utilised, by using a semi organized questionnaire to gather valuable and context specific data about the restructuring of Crowne Plaza hotel brand. A quantitative review need large amount of data from different sources which was not available due to the limitations of convenience. The researcher experienced only usage of certain individuals in another of the Crowne Plaza hotels in London, who were willing to participate in the study and therefore the need for adopting a qualitative review. Moreover the study philosophy used is interpretivism, necessitating and further validating the use of qualitative research strategy.
On the foundation of the thought that research strategies can be experiment, survey, research study, grounded theory and so forth, the researcher examined the options of utilising almost all of the above and the disadvantages of the same. After a short analysis about all the study strategies, it was finalised that a case study model would be best ideal for answering the study question. A case study model is chosen due to the fact an organisation is the mark or the main topic of the study; however the concentrate is on the strategy used by the particular organisation through the individuals (professionals). Quite simply the research is about the repositioning strategy of Crowne Plaza hotel brand, but it isn't limited to a definite hotel but to a more substantial brand. Because of the problems and limitations of convenience, only certain managers in one particular hotel within the brand family was accessible to the researcher for executing the data collection. From the data collected, researcher discovered that a research study type of strategy is the perfect to build up the answers to the study questions.
Population relating to Walliman (2010) is the topics or the members of the analysis. The present review is concentrating on the strategies employed by Crowne Plaza hotel brand and its own implementation through the various professionals in the brand family. The populace or the research subject matter would be individuals associated with the implementation of the repositioning technique for Crowne Plaza hotel brand: yet, in the several properties spread across the world. These are the persons who can offer in-depth data about the repositioning strategy. Alternatively population can even be regarded as those hotels that are undergoing repositioning currently.
A sample according to Jackson (2010) is developed because of the impracticality of performing a research on the entire population. A sample according to Kothari (2009) is a subset of the population; however should be representative of the population. Different types of sampling methods are divided as possibility and nonprobability sampling method (Cooper and Schindler 2006). Probability has the statistical detail which plays a part in the consistency and validity of the conclusions (Burns and Burns 2008). However in many circumstances nonprobability sampling methods are used due to limitations, accessibility and so forth.
In the present circumstance also, researcher was struggling to develop a test framework for a possibility sampling method wherein a subset of the bigger population could be used for the collection of data. As mentioned the population could be the professionals of Crowne Plaza hotel who are involved in the development and the operationalisation of the repositioning strategy. Because of the problems of accessibility, a non-probability sampling method was chosen.
A convenience sampling method was chosen as the perfect alternative of all the non-probability sampling methods. A convenience sample as per Saunders et. al. , (2003) would be based mostly at first on the capability of researcher in being able to access the respondents and further by the convenience of the respondents in providing the info. Further the researcher also examined the ability of varied persons involved with the repositioning strategy of Crowne Plaza hotel in providing reliable and valid data. In other words researcher evaluated the knowledge, experience and the involvement of several professionals of one particular hotel within the brand family - Crowne Plaza London - The City hotel. The researcher spent some time working in this hotel for a time period and hence has option of a few of the managers.
Upon evaluating the experience and involvement with the existing repositioning strategy, the researcher concluded the availability, accessibility and the data of three professionals in the hotel concerning provide in-depth information regarding the repositioning strategy of the hotel. These three professionals were involved in the operationalisation of the repositioning strategy although there have been also mixed up in creation of the strategy at the higher levels. The professionals straight reported to the project teams involved in producing the repositioning strategy at the bigger levels of Intercontinental hotels group. Hence they have got better and deeper understanding of the various elements of the repositioning strategy and its own operationalisation in not only the particular hotel but also in several other hotels in the same brand family. Upon this basis it can be considered that the test is the three professionals who are involved with the repositioning of Crowne Plaza hotel. Due to several ethical concerns especially about the necessity for keeping the confidentiality of the respondents, the researcher struggles to provide full details of the respondents, either the labels or even their designations.
As indicated in a variety of phases of the same section (technique) a qualitative strategy was followed which necessitated the utilisation of a particular data collection technique. Although there are several tools used for key data collection, such as interviews, survey, observation and so on, faced with the necessity of growing qualitative data, the researcher finalised on interviews as the info collection instrument. Even in interviews there will vary types like a face-to-face interview, telephonic interviews and so on and since the researcher didn't have direct accessibility to the test (three professionals), a phone interview was conducted. A phone interview also has the restrictions of too little personal touch, was the only feasible option available to the researcher mainly due to limitation of location and distance. However the researcher has completely well prepared for the interview and got conducted a mock interview or a pilot screening of the research instrument (interview questionnaire).
The interview questionnaire was semi organized permitting the researcher to go around the research questions to develop more data taking into consideration the knowledge and connection with the three different professionals. The interview questions were largely based on the theoretical construction about the repositioning strategy on the whole conditions as well as in specific terms. The interview questions also revolved round the framework analysed in the books review, especially about the resource-based account. The researcher also utilised several other secondary data options especially from websites and other articles and journals, mentioning the repositioning of Crowne Plaza hotel brand.
The researcher primarily conducted a mock interview with one of the professionals of the hotel in India to analyse the stability and validity of the research instrument (semi set up questionnaire). Further for the telephone interview, the researcher set the time for the interviews with the three professionals and completed the interview over a period of three times. Through the interview, the researcher observed down the answers to different questions that was further used for evaluation.
A kind of data examination technique-contextual, content research technique where the qualitative data was primarily coded and the specific conceptual factors were analysed within an interpretative method was used by the researcher. Quite simply researcher evaluated the info noted down during the telephonic interviews and used the same for comparability and triangulation. The three respondents provided different perspectives about the strategy and its operationalisation with respect to Crowne Plaza repositioning that was used by the researcher to build up the framework specific aspects related to the specific interview questions and develop the normal themes or templates from the three interviews. The interview data was used in conjunction with other supplementary sources and the traditional framework from the books review to develop the conclusions.
The main restriction confronted by the researcher was the option of the respondents. The researcher confronted with the hurdle of geography and distance did not have immediate contact and therefore was struggling to carry out a face-to-face interview with the respondents. Although in the original phases it was thought that the test respondents (the three managers) would not be able to provide sufficient data; in the end and after the data evaluation was completed, discovered that the data provided is highly reliable and valid predicated on the triangulation method. Even if the researcher was faced with the limitation in terms of the barrier of geography and distance, it has not affected the dependability and validity of the evaluation and the conclusions.
Ethical factors especially associated with a specific subject matter would be the level of confidentiality to be retained about the respondents and about the study study itself. Since the study is focusing on today's strategy implemented by Crowne Plaza hotel which is under operationalisation and therefore not completed, can only be analysed on a larger framework. But the researcher has developed in depth details about the strategy implemented Crowne Plaza hotel, some of the details were omitted in the next analysis section because of the confidential dynamics of the info collected. Despite the fact that the respondents provided the same, the researcher due to the necessity to be completely ethical and therefore safeguarding the respondents and the organisation understudy, regarded it suitable not to include a few of the data gathered. However it has not limited the researcher in growing considered conclusions and hence to complete the study satisfactorily. Furthermore the researcher has considered the consent of the three managers involved in the interview to publish the data predicated on research. The researcher has also undertaken to keep carefully the confidentiality of the respondents to the full extent and therefore unable to name them or provide any details.