Traditionally, crime reduction worked with structured and mechanised strategies. Organized strategies are considered the use of individuals like law enforcement, patrol, community watch groups and security personnel to control crime. The mechanical strategies customarily are concentrate on hardening strategies. This consists of whatever is electric and mechanised like alarm systems, camera systems and locks to deny usage of an offender. However, this traditional approach overlooks the way the environment can offer opportunities. CPTED uses organized and mechanical methods as a secondary model. Its primary focus is on natural design strategies. A natural approach enhances safety without setting up a jail like environment while reinforcing an atmosphere of comfort.
What makes a specific location susceptible to opportunities for criminal offense? Why does this location jeopardize the basic safety of people? Why here? These are all questions crime elimination through environmental design asks when problem solving. For example, say there's a recreation area in a close by neighborhood that is known for medicine sales, thefts and assaults. The recreation area has four different entrances from a nearby, no fencing, low light, and no maintenance of shrubs and trees and shrubs. What can CPTED bring to the desk in response to the problem? The town installs a fence about the park to create a barrier between general public and private property. A gate is also included beyond the fence with a camera fastened for extra surveillance. They limit the amount of entrances into the park down to one which restricts access control in to the park. Lamps gets revamped with higher wattage bulbs. Lastly, a maintenance crew must come in a certain quantity of times monthly to maintain the shrubs and trees and shrubs to completely clean appearance. As a result to these changes, we now have better access control (limited entrances), better natural security from residents (preserved shrubs to see in the playground), and better territoriality towards to park showing it's a general public area (fencing). The residents is now able to see in to the park, survey a offense when they see one and perpetrators will now think twice about committing offense for fear of being observed. Asking the question "why here?" implies that opportunities for criminal offense can arise due to environmental conditions, the place and exactly how that place is used (Zahm, 2007).
CPTED consists of three types of actors. These stars involve normal users, unnatural users, and observers (Paxton). These celebrities are people who connect one way or another to a space. The sole reason for CPTED is to create a host where normal users can use a space as desired while unusual users are inspired to go past it (Paxton). This design also makes it easier for observers to keep an eye on the space around them and record criminal acts (Paxton).
There are four basic overlapping key points of CPTED as shown in the previous example: natural security (will I be seen), natural gain access to control (may i get in and out), territoriality (will anyone care what happens here), and maintenance. The first process of CPTED is natural surveillance which uses design to see and be seen. This concept takes advantage of worries of unnatural users of being observed, known and detained (). That is turn, reinforces the sensation of safety and security to an individual. Criminals don't desire to be seen which explains why natural surveillance is a great for keeping them under security. Different design features play a role in increasing presence of a house or building. Normally, surveillance is done by law enforcement patrols and camera systems within structures and businesses. This is the traditional strategy which takes a back seat to CPTED. Therefore, natural surveillance can be accomplished by several techniques. Strategically positioning of windows, light and landscaping will heighten the standard user's ability to see irregular users (White, 2000). Natural security can also take the role of normal users taking note of strangers (unusual users).
Environments have to be designed where normal users have sufficient amount of chances to go about their day while observing the area around them (Crime). For example, a small day treatment installs house windows on the trunk wall because of this they can screen the children participating in in the playground while they make lunches inside. Windows are very important because they enable you to see the outdoor perimeter of your space as well. From in the home or business you can watch out the window to observe homes and business across the street (observers). These observers can watch auto parking areas and sidewalks for abnormal behavior. Additionally, windowpane monitoring only works when landscaping design outside it well-kept and lamps is good. If you have bushes to high near your window it will provide offenders with places to cover up. It blocks the view of non-abusers targeting your space. Outdoors landscaping must be maintained so observation can happen. Convenience stores that have a bunch of clutter and signs or symptoms on their windows are obstructing the view to beyond your store. Robbers will target that store because the normal users did not see them arriving.
Lighting is very important for natural security. Efficient illumination is vital for individuals to see and be seen. Second of all, the placement of lighting is vital to observation and the reduced amount of fear of criminal offense. Light must be focused on roadways and possible entrapment areas like restrooms and vacant areas under stairwells (National Crime Protection Council, 2003). When equipment and lighting are used for the night time time the positioning can make or break whether an offender will be viewed. All paths, indicators, walkways, exits, entrances and so on should be properly lit up or opportunities of crimes may arise. Being able to maintain light is the glue to the effectiveness of visibility. All of those overgrown scenery of blooms, bushes and trees that are preventing the light have to be clipped. (Country wide Crime Elimination Council, 2003) Finally, light bulbs break, pass away and get vandalized. Retaining that those light bulbs are constantly replaced and set will show the offender that place is well taken care of. This place is constantly under observation so they will be captured. Without maintenance of light, offenders will come take benefit of that chance to commit unlawful activity.
Natural Surveillance attempts to deter crooks by planning other ways for people to observe possible criminal behavior. "In an assessment of studies relating to personal burglary, Sorenson (2003) observes how criminals avoid goals that are quickly overlooked by neighborhood friends and/or passers-by. Properties with low levels of lighting during the night, high fences, or thick shrubs can provide concealment opportunities for thieves particularly when close to points of access such as windows and doors (Weisel, 2002)" (Paul, Saville & Hiller). When natural security is employed for an utmost extent, it does increase the chances to avoid crime by making the offender plainly obvious to a standard users or police force (Criminal offense).
The second theory is natural gain access to control which really is a strategy used to control access to an area, deny gain access to, reduce criminal offenses opportunity and create a notion of risk in thieves. "The "National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities" job reported that during 1980-1985, 13 percent of all occupational fatalities were a result of homicide" (Thomas, 1992). Another study done is 1992 on injury and fatality found evidence of OVC in career institutions (Thomas, 1992). Nearly all business that are highly vulnerable to OVC have a very important factor in keeping: work activities arise in what is usually an unsecured environment.
"Control access by creating both real and perceptual barriers to entry and movement. The environment must offer cues about who belongs in a place, when they are supposed to be there, where they are permitted to be while they are there, what they should be doing, and how long they ought to stay" (Zahm, 2007). Barriers identify property lines (consumer to private) and prevent trespassers. Thus, natural gain access to control is accomplished by using fences, gates, signage, pavements, lamps and landscaping. Fences and gates are real barriers where signs, lighting, landscaping and pavements are perceptual obstacles. Both types of obstacles protect the outside of an area by guaranteeing that unauthorized individuals don't get inside and create a notion to offenders that there is a risk in selecting the prospective. A good example of a real barrier would be getting a fence around a whole house. This fence relays a note to abnormal users, that the home is restricted. It also shows territoriality that people who live there care and attention. By strategically inserting entrances, exits, gates, and fencing, to regulate or limit gain access to, natural access control occurs (Lancaster Community Safeness Coalition). Inside the example from preceding, multiple entrances in to the park were changed by an individual entrance that includes fencing and a gate.
On the other side, when moving outside private property to public or semi-public spaces, utilizing gain access to control devices needs more health care (Iranmanesh & Etaati, 2009). Planned placement of signs offering information, barriers, landscaping design and lamps "can direct ft. and vehicular traffic with techniques that decreases criminal opportunities" (Iranmanesh & Etaati, 2009). That's where perceptual obstacles could be used to meet the goal of access control. These barriers consist of: signs, pathways, walkways, paving floors, or anything that announces the uniqueness of a location. Many of these barriers guide movement throughout a location. Signs guide movement and provide who the designed users should be. So if an indicator says employees only then abnormal uses will be easy to recognize. Public buildings should have paths heading to desired location within the space that way people are not wandering and come upon an opportunity to commit a criminal offense. The best example of perceptual obstacles is Disney Land. They may have colored streets directing you from one ride to another ride or to the restroom and food court docket. There's a way for wherever you need to be. The reason for a psychological barrier is that in case a target looks difficult, it will become unattractive to potential criminals (Iranmanesh & Etaati, 2009).
When contemplating the way you want to control gain access to of your space, the value of surveillance should not be overlooked. These strategies overlap so you can't think about one without the other. These two concepts can on occasion conflict with each other. For example, a low- level row of thorny bushes under the glass windows circulating a residence. The low degree of the bush ends up with good surveillance as the thorns effectively reduce gain access to control. In addition, fencing defines boundary lines that deter and wait intruders. When putting in a fence, it ought to be a type of fencing where you can view through it. Therefore, you are protecting against access control by adding a fence but also maintaining natural surveillance. In addition, the level of the fence can make a large difference as well. If you have the fence too much, you won't have the ability to see past the fence to what is on the other side.
The third principle is territorial encouragement which uses design to show ownership.
"The look should provide cues about who belongs in a place and what they are allowed to do" (Zahm, 2007). The look features should obviously show uniqueness towards the house or building. Potential offenders will look at the territory and what they see will determine whether they will offend there or not. There are various areas where places do not look like they are cared for. Maybe it's as a result of insufficient maintenance on unkempt landscaping, or dark light. Whatever the reason, there is a clear message that this place is unimportant. If the owner does not caution why should outsiders? Unusual uses take this as an chance to conduct criminal activity. "A report by Dark brown and Bentley (1993) revealed how some burglars used territoriality to judge risk (Perkins and Taylor, 1996). Eliminating any unassigned areas and guaranteeing all areas have a clearly defined and selected purpose, are routinely cared-for and monitored is also a component of territoriality" (Paul, Saville & Hiller).
There are many things to consider when exhibiting territorial encouragement. Territorial methods include natural surveillance and natural gain access to strategies. Each place should be unique in who belongs there. We need to keep excessive users out of these normal end user areas. A company indication is something that shows uniqueness to a business as well as establishes possession towards that building. Other reinforcements include: landscaping design, flags, fences and pavements. Many of these things point out proprietorship and the vested interest the dog owner has over their property. Possession creates and environment where strangers stand out in the audience.
Using design structures like fences and landscape you can not only show ownership but also define property lines and areas (community, private, semi-public). The use of forward porches creates a transitional area between your Public Block and private home. These zones are area of the use of defensible space that was devised by Oscar Newman in 1972 (Remy). As described in his publication Design Suggestions for Creating Defensible Space, defensible space is "a personal environment whose physical characteristics, building structure and site plan function to allow inhabitants themselves to be key realtors in guaranteeing their security. "
All of these functions are not designed to stop anyone from actually intruding into a person or companies space. The point of territoriality is to convey a note to excessive users that the house belongs to somebody and they should stay away. For buildings and businesses it directs a note of dread to offenders. Territorial reinforcement blended with natural security and gain access to control, induces more awareness by normal users in protecting their place.
Maintenance is the last concept of CPTED which includes all the other principles. It pertains to the neighborhood's sense of admiration and territoriality (Country wide Crime Reduction Council, 2003). The more rundown an area, the more likely it is to draw in unwelcome behaviors. This is because it looks like no one can be involved about what continues on. However, if the area is well maintained it will demote the region as a concentrate on because it shows people are worried with the area. The maintenance and image is the primary impact on whether a space is targeted. This is also called the Broken House windows theory by Wayne Wilson and George Kelling. The physical appearance of a place can boost or detract how its community sees it as well as outsiders. Additionally, its goal is to heighten the visibility of natural monitoring by keeping trees and shrubs and bushes trimmed and to make sure outdoor lighting is all working for the night time. Lastly, the upkeep of your access handles (no chipped paint on the fences) will show that the community and residents value this area and what happens to it.
"Home security measures relates to burglary victimization. Burglars are logical actors. When these offenders decide to hit, they calculate the costs against the huge benefits. Home security methods increase these costs and decrease the possibility of victimization" (O'Shea, 2000). The study surveyed people (victims and non-victims of home burglaries) on security options that they use. When asked if they have a neighborhood watch the victim's category was. 9 as the non-victim was. 30. "Does at least one neighbor have a specific view of the front porch" demonstrated that the subjects experienced. 68 and the non-victim was. 89. The exact same question was asked about their back again porch and the victims were a. 38 while the non-victims were a. 65. (O'Shea, 2000). CPTED strategies should be incorporated when making and securing a small business, institution and home. When designing a business/home you will need to consider questions about security. What is the purpose of the space? How do I inform you that I own this and will take proper care than it (CPTED principles)? Finally, when the design is done check it to see if the look reinforces the purpose of your space (Iranmanesh & Etaati, 2009).
Crime avoidance through environmental design assesses criminal offenses problems and the many ways that the environment presents opportunities for criminal behavior. This criminal offense prevention strategy confirms the situation areas and strives to eliminate or reduce opportunities. Changing several characteristics of an area and exactly how that place is seen is how CPTED tries to eliminate and reduce opportunities. CPTED is not only utilised for businesses but also for structures, landmarks and neighborhoods. Physical security was always based on concentrate on hardening; make the location hard to get inside through obstacles and mechanical items. However, they never got into consideration that those barriers have to be maintained for it to really work.
http://www. usak. org. tr/istanbul/files/cr. pr. environmental. design. pdf
Effectiveness of Offense avoidance through environmental design in lessening robberies