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Correlation definition - describing two or more substances

Correlation definition is a statistical measure which shows the extent to which two or more variables alternate one another. When the fluctuation of one unknown reliably predicts a similar fluctuation in another variable, there is often the likelihood to think that it means the change in one can lead to the change in the other. However, correlation does not mean it caused the change. There may be, for example, an unknown factor that influences both variables similarly

Correlation definition can be of two types and they include the following:

Positive correlation - this correlation type indicates the extent to which those variables either increase or decrease in parallel. A positive correlation exists when the high values of one of the unknowns are associated with the high values of the other variable(s). A positive correlation has a value that is close to +1, which indicates a high degree of positive correlation. A positive correlation means that two things are likely to exist together

Negative correlation - this type of correlation indicates the extent to which one unstable substance increases as the other decreases. A negative correlation means an association of high values of one substance with the low values of the other. A negative correlation has values that are close to -1, which indicates a high degree of negative correlation. A negative correlation means that they are not likely to exist together

An example of this terminology can be “the number of studies report a positive correlation between the amount of television some group of children watched and the likelihood that they will become future bullies to their mates at school and the university”. It frequently has been noticed on media that such investigations are being used to suggest that watching a lot of television can make some kids to become bullies at their respective place of education. However, the studies only report a correlation and not the cause of why some kids are bullies at school. It is likely that some other reasons or factors such as the lack of parental supervision as well as control might also play an important role

The word correlation was gotten from the Latin words: cor- which denotes 'together' and -relatio – which means 'relation' and in full, the word is all about things that go together. Furthermore, the fact that a study shows a correlation between two variables does not actually mean one of these variables necessarily causes the other. Another interesting example to explain the true meaning of the word correlation is with an expression such as: “there is a significant correlation between going to school as well as being a teenager”. This sentence does not really mean that going to high school portrays you as an adolescent”

Again, correlation can also be defined using this popular expression: ‘correlation of some organs’. This expression simply means that the state of mutual dependence of one organ to the other organ in the body, just after their division of labor has been brought about through a process known as evolution thereby making each of the organ to have its own specific function to discharge, but fulfilling this function would not be sufficient for its survival since such organ will be unable to perform its own function without the help it derives from the other organs

The word correlation can as well be used in many fields of study such as:

  • In air defense
  • In intelligence usage
  • Statistics
  • Physiology
  • Geology
  • The degree of relationship that exists between any two or more quantities in which they differ from each other over a period
  • The type of relationship between any two or more quantities in which they vary with each other over a period

In air defense - the determination that an aircraft that appears on a detection device or can be seen visually is the same as that on which statistics are being received from another source

In intelligence usage - this is known as the process which associates and combines information on one entity or subject from independent observations, in order to improve the reliability of the information

Statistics - the degree to which two or more measurements on the same group of elements show a tendency to exist together as one. The extent of correspondence which exists between the ordering of two or more variables. Correlation is said to be positive or direct when two variables progress in the same direction and negative or the reverse when they move in opposite directions

Geology - the demonstrable uniformity, in age or morphology, of two or more geologic units, as members of such. An example can be “From correlation of the rock series that is uncovered at different localities, geologists can revamp a geologic history over a billion years long”

The degree and type of relationship that is between any two or more substances in which they vary with each other over a period. An example is saying that variation in the level of money savings with the variation in the income level

Mutual relation between two or more things, parts, their examples, and the misconceptions about correlation

From research, it was made known that a positive correlation between severity of a particular illness and the nutritional status of the patients. There is also no direct interrelationship existing between hardship and violence as well as co-existence between dispute and terror domination. Barack Obama, “in Strasbourg city hall. Researchers measure the correlation coefficients when they want to know how two unstable elements are related to each other or how they can co-exist

The association between ambient and crime also stems from the correlation that exists between insomnia and depression. Although, depression and insomnia can make a person want to commit crime but also this still doesn’t mean both are the main reasons or main factors for higher crime rates in some regions

Correlations are useful because they can indicate a foreboding relationship that can be exploited in practice. For instance, an electrical utility may produce less power on a mild day based on the correlation existing between electricity request and weather. In this example there is a causal relationship, this is due to the fact that extreme weather causes people to use more electricity for heating or cooling, however, statistical dependence is not enough to show the presence of such a causal relationship i.e., correlation does not imply causation

The conventional saying that "correlation does not imply causation" means that correlation cannot be used to infer a causal relationship which exists between the variables. This proclamation should not be taken to mean that correlations cannot indicate the possible existence of causal relations. However, the causes underlying the correlation, if any, may be indirect and unknown, and huge correlations also overlap with individual relations, where no causal process exists. Consequently, creating a correlation between two variables is not a sufficient condition to establish a causal relationship in either direction

A correlation between age and height in children is fairly causally transparent, but the correlation existing between mood and health in people is less so. Does improved mood lead to improved health, or does good health cause a person to have a good mood or both? Or does some other factor underlie both? In other words, a correlation can be taken as proof for a possible causal relationship, but cannot indicate what the causal relationship, if any, might be

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