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Convergence And Divergence Of Individual Resources

The convergence and divergence not only represent different ways in which the International HRM is conducted but also shows different traditions by which HRM is explored.

Convergence and divergence can also be explained as Universalist and contextual paradigm. Universalist paradigm specializes in the management of HRM across various national borders. This is the human resource methods and guidelines can be transferred from one country to some other by thinking that those which worked well in one country will continue to work in the other country as well. On the other hand, the contextual paradigm contributes to the need of considering all the organisational internal and exterior factors. The divergence HRM compares systems of 1 country with the other country and then identifies similarities and distinctions then forms the antecedents from those distinctions.

In the convergence and divergence perspective, trade unions play a vital role in the use of International HRM methods. These trade unions can be followed back practically 400 years back. During the end of 18'Th century, there can be an industrial trend which induced the employees to increasingly reliant on their employees resulted in the upcoming of trade unions to sort out those financial issues and providing insurance benefits.

Trade unions towards International HRM

The marriage between international HRM and trade unions is very complex and worthy. In the 18th century trade unions were created to help the suffering and unemployed in the organizations. However they were failed to survive the economic conditions in the later 19'Th century. Then in their place new trade unions were produced to accomplish respectability of staff, unemployment pay through centralised and de centralised bargaining with companies. These management concepts had challenged the functions of trade unions. Along with these concepts, employee relationship also took charge in industrial trend placing focus on individualism which observed an de-recognition of trade unions. Instead in UK more range of employees adopted versatile strategies through global and employee empowerment which enhanced good romantic relationships with trade unions.

Trade unions make important contribution to almost all the organizations which adopted partnership methodology through creating an commercial relations climate. Adopting partnerships with various market sectors improved the organizations to improve financial performance, provided global competitiveness and thicken the relations with others. In almost all of the circumstances Trade union repetitions and their HR contacts enjoy positive working connections. But gleam decline in the procedure of trade unions because of the growth of various needs and management techniques. It is most visible in the MNC's where different government authorities have their own methods and also the difference in the Human being resource policies of this particular federal government. Thus trade unions have a combined outcome on the International individuals source management.

Trade unions on Uk Airways crisis

Trade unions of English airways have been protesting against its cost reducing plans. In 2009 2009, the English carrier was hard struck by its downturn publishing a record loss of over 401 m to the annual year. There may be various known reasons for the deficits that are been incurred but these loss forced the United kingdom airways governing body to change its working ideas. So in order to act upon the loss, BA granted its programs to trim its working power which will result in putting the personnel into jeopardy of more than 40, 000 employees. In addition, it released a affirmation of lessening the pay slice of overwhelmingly 2. 6% to pilots and 4. 2% to staff.

Apart from these tactics BA chairman informed shareholders that the airlines are considering issuing bonds. Piecing together each one of these, these slashes are destined to save lots of the airways up to 26m annually. In regardence of most these issues, Steve turner of union unites thought to call out the punch of all the working professionals which would bring about a tragedy in BA current economic climate. This same situation is repeated in 2011 march where the agreements between the get-togethers broke down and forcing the union unite to name strike schedules. However, a softening of the rhetoric between both edges reflected in claims, didn't still come to a peaceful contract where the punch following the Easter period still remains.

Trade unions on Air France

Similarly in France, six trade unions have called with an airline affect on a concern of pension reform expenses in 2010 2010. The affirmation claims that the retirement of the personnel was 60-65 years and you will be issued an retirement living pension from the age of 65 years. However the trade unions required a big change in the proper execution stating a full express pension from the age of 62 years. Also about one-third of Air France staff lives outside France and uses their travel concessions and discounts that have been not being released. So your final decision was taken by the federal government stating too provide all the bonuses and pensions to the senior working personnel.

The main result from the riot between trade union and Airways is due to the difference in the human resource practices which can be been applied. Therefore the romance between trade unions and human being resource practices is very important to enhance the convergence or divergence of the organizations in a variety of countries on the same context.

National survey

Public has a very good procedure towards trade unions in Ireland. Irish congress of trade unions has represented its trade unions a social partner through negotiating organizational contracts. The context where the organizational recruiting were formed results in the manner where the agreements between your trade unions and that organization were maintained. The context of strong organizational market in terms of maintaining a coherent and regular strategy depends upon the union's behaviour. Trade unions also encountered a number of issues.

Disenchantment among low-paid workers

Workplace cultural partnership

Absence of statutory trade union system in the organization.

Though the problems confronted by trade unions, degree of union activism was found to be very low. Survey has various organizations perspectives of having trade union human relationships and vice versa. Finally the most crucial feature of the study is to own good negotiation skills among organizations to acquire best HRM methods universally.


A common theme in the International human resource management perspective has been convergence and divergence in HR practice caused by globalization. This question has been an antecedent monetary theory. There is a clear evidence of continued variety in habits of economical activity and career relations which contributed towards capitalism.

European HRM is difficult. Despite all the pressures towards convergence, dissimilarities in social and trade union framework produce divergent connections. Studies also suggest that the divergence of HR procedures in French economies do not constitute convergence to a global human tool model. Also the behaviour towards trade unions in different countries have similar impacts on similar issues like price cuts and so on.

Role of trade unions on International Human Resource management routines has an important impact on the organization's functionality. Trade union decisions can be mainly found fruitful generally in most MNC's where those follow an universalist approach. Inside the contextual paradigm, trade unions have dissimilar to be specific in their decision making as their decisions may hamper the normal working of a business. Hence from the framework of the above examples it could be very difficult to state the role of trade unions towards convergence and divergence of international HRM but accurately we can easily see universalistic strategy in their procedures.

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