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Contributory Factors To Creation Of ECOWAS

Economic of Western African Status ECOWAS and SADC Southern African Development are two of the numerous regional integration systems in Africa. While ECOWAS is one of the bodies that give attention to West African economies, SADC targets southern African Economies.

ECOWAS is a regional body created on 25th May, 1975 during its first seminar in Lagos, where it treaty was authorized. The thought of possessing a united western African body was first suggested by the then Nigerian mind of staff, Yakubu Gowon. His idea was to collectively achieve a self-sufficiency through integration of the sixteen West African countries into an monetary block with a single market managed around an monetary and financial union. the community began with a5 users. Down the road Cape Verde became a member of in 1976, but Mutituana withdrew it account in December 2000. At this time, the commission has 15 customers particularly Benin, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Senegal, Togo, Gambia, Cape Verde and Burkina Faso. Niger and Guinea have both been suspended as a consequence to coup d'tat incidences. at length, the main objective of ECOWAS is to promote co-operation and integration in order to set-up an monetary and financial union for stimulating economic growth and development in Western Africa, through:

  • The suppression of traditions duties and equivalent taxes
  • the establishment of the common external tariff;
  • the harmonization of economic and financial policies
  • the creation of your monetary area.

However, because of the slow pace came across in utilizing this treaties, the treaty was revised in Continuo in Benin on July 23, 1993. The brand new treaty implemented a less rigid cooperation. The new treaty subdivided ECOWAS into The Commission, THE CITY Parliament, THE CITY Court OF Justice, ECOWAS Bank or investment company for Investment and Development (EBID). These organizations are designed to be the various tools used to put into action their insurance policies.

Southern African Development Community (SADC), in like manner, is a local integration body that encapsulates Southern African countries. It is an intergovernmental organization that primarily aims at achieving increased socio-economic organization and integration as well as political and security collaborations among it 15 member expresses. The current day SADC is in fact product of the previously existing Southern African Development Coordination Meeting (SADCC), that was developed in 1980. As the name of SADCC suggests, it was only a seminar since 1980 until the treaty was agreed upon in Windhoek, Namibia, on 17th august, 1992 and SADC was formally created. After the putting your signature on of the treaty, it seized from being a coordinated meeting to being truly a development community. The users are mainly southern African countries, namely: Angola, Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

The core goals of SADC are:

Harmonise politics and socio-economic regulations and plans of Member Areas;

Mobilise the peoples of the region and their companies to use initiatives to develop economic, interpersonal and social ties across the region, and participate completely in the execution of the programmes and jobs of SADC;

Create appropriate establishments and mechanisms for the mobilisation of essential resources for the execution of the programmes and operations of SADC and its own institutions;

Develop policies aimed at the progressive removal of road blocks to free movements of capital and labour, goods and services, and of the individuals of the region generally within Member Expresses;

Promote the introduction of recruiting;

Promote the development, transfer and mastery of technology;

Improve financial management and performance through local cooperation;

Promote the coordination and harmonisation of the international relationships of Member State governments;

Secure international understanding, assistance and support, mobilise the inflow of public and private resources in to the region; and

Develop such other activities as Member Areas may determine in furtherance of the objectives of SADC.

On 14 August 2001, the 1992 SADC treaty was revised. The revision shows an alteration in the composition, policies and procedures of SADC. One of the transformations is the fact politics and security co-operation is included in the Body organ on Politics, Defence and Security (OPDS). To accomplish it objectives, the company was subdivided into 8 body. i. e. The Summit, composed of heads of state or heads of government, are in the very best. OPDS, the Council of Ministers, Tribunal, SADC Country wide Committees (SNCs), and the Secretariat.

The formation of both bodies (ECOWAS and SADC) have been necessitated and expedited by many factors ranging from social, geographic, financial, politics and security factors. In the subsequent chapter, we shall discuss these factors at length.

Discussion

Economic Factors

Economic factor is one essential aspect that added to the formation of ECOWAS and SADC. Normally countries where they form economical Integration they have stable and close economical condition. The aim of this chapter is to compare the economical condition of person in ECOWAS and SADC. In such a chapter we will check out about key financial Indicators such as GDP (PPP), GDP (real development rate), and Inflation Rate, Exchange rate, Current account balance and Central bank discount rate.

ECOWAS

GDP (Purchasing electric power parity )

First Key indication is GDP (PPP). Following graph shows the difference between users of ECOWAS. The average GDP of ECOWAS is 35. 63 Billion. Nigeria received the best GDP between member countries. bot rest of countries are bellow 50 billion USD per yr.

So we can say somehow they have got similar condition in GDP (PPP) and their GDP is nearly close to each other.

GDP - Real expansion rate

Second Economic factor is Real GDP progress rate, because of 2009 finical turmoil we cannot have clear picture of monetary growth of ECOWAS, however the graph shows that only one person in ECOWAS experienced negative development rate in '09 2009 and recovery of countries experienced positive progress rate. The common development rate is 3. 2

Inflation rate

Average inflation in ECOWAS is 6. 08% and Ghana got the best inflation rate in ECOWAS which is 19. 6%, and Niger got the lowest interest which is 0. 1%

Exchange Rate

6 customers of 15 users of ECOWAS use one kind of money which Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) and their exchange rate is 1 USD = 481. 35 XOF. So using a unitary currency make it easier for countries to form and an financial integration and person in ECOWAS have this gain and it make them to be more successful to reach their financial goals

Current Account Balance:

Following graph shows the existing balance of ECOWAS member. CoteDIvoire is the sole country which had positive current balance in yr 2009 that was 65 Million USD. Average current balance is negative - $16440 million.

Central Loan company Discount rate

8 associates of ECOWAS have same central loan provider discount rate which is 4. 75%. highest discount rate between member countries belongs to Ghana. Having same discount rate is positive tips for countries where they want to form an Monetary Integration.

SADC

GDP (Purchasing vitality parity )

First Kye sign is GDP (PPP). Pursuing graph shows the difference between members of SADC. The average GDP of ECOWAS is 76. 67 Billion. South Africa received the highest GDP between member countries. bot the majority of countries are bellow 25 billion USD per calendar year.

So we can say somehow they have similar condition in GDP (PPP) and their GDP is nearly close to each other.

GDP - Real progress rate

Second Economic factor is Real GDP progress rate, because of 2009 finical crisis we cannot have clear picture of monetary expansion of SADC, however the graph implies that 6 associates of SADC experienced negative progress rate in 2009 2009 and break of countries experienced positive progress rate. The average progress rate is 0. 33

Inflation rate

Average inflation in SADC is 10. 51%. Seychelles acquired the highest inflation rate in SADC which is 34%, In other hands Mauritius got the lowest interest which is 0. 1%. over all they have similar condition.

Exchange Rate

Average exchange rate between SADC member countries is 1 USD = 836. 1. The highest rate belongs to Lesotho and the lowest rate is designed for Zambia.

Current Account Balance:

Following graph shows the existing balance of SADC users. 3 countries have positive current balance in time 2009. The common Current balance is - $165 Million. Angola received the best situation which shows that Angola's export is higher than its Import. However the rest of customers got almost similar condition and their balance is nearly near each other

Central Lender Discount rate

Following graph shows central bank's discount rate of SADC customers the cheapest rate belongs to Mozambique which is 9. 95 and highest belongs to Angola which is 19. 57. the common rate is 13. 65%. If we look carefully we can see that the rates are incredibly close to each other. and financing condition is nearly similar in members country.

Social and cultural factor

By overview the factor of development of both African union (ECOWAS and SADC), similarity of culture can be claim among the factor toward the development for both of the union. Due to geographical reason, countries that identify in same regions will affect one another in any with their decision making. Additionally, contemporary society daily activity or culture may also spread easier in one nation to some other within an area scheduled to easier of contact in physical reason.

Economic Community of West African State governments (ECOWAS) was made on, may 28, 1975 by agreed upon of Treaty of Lagos. It really is a regional band of 16 Western African countries specifically, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d' ivore, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and lastly Togo. ECOWAS was form for the purpose to accomplish "collective self-sufficient" for the member state governments by means of economic and monetary union creating a single large trading bloc. Regardless of the wide selection of cultures in Western Africa, from Nigeria through to Senegal, there are general similarities in dress, cuisine, music and culture that aren't shared thoroughly with groups beyond your geographic region.

Islam is the predominant historical religion of the Western world African interior and the much west coastline of the continent; Christianity is the predominant faith in coastal regions of Nigeria, Ghana, and Cote d'Ivoire; and elements of indigenous religions are utilized throughout. Along with historical migrations, these religions have culturally associated the individuals of Western Africa more than those in other areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Usually, musical and dental record as conveyed over generations by Griots are typical of Western world African culture. Lots of the religious tactics are Islamic, but most are Christian. However, over 50% of the West African populations are Islamic.

Mbalax, Highlife, Fuji and Afro defeat are all modern musical genres which enjoin listeners in this region. An average formal outfit worn in this area is the flowing Boubou (also known as Agbada and Babariga), which includes its roots in the clothing of nobility of varied West African empires in the 12th hundred years. The Djembe drum, whose roots lie with the Mandinka individuals, is now a popularly played out drum among many Western world African ethnic groups. The Kora is a 21-string harp-lute of Mandinkan origins, played by various organizations in your community. The Djembe, Kora, the silk Kente material of the Akan. Individuals of Ghana and the distinct Sudano-Sahelian architectural style seen in the countless mosques of the spot are the most important symbolic symbols of Western world African culture. The overall game Oware is quite popular in many parts of West Africa. Soccer is also a pastime loved by many, either spectating or taking part in. The national groups of some West African nations, especially Nigeria, Ghana and the Ivory Coastline, regularly be eligible for the World Cup.

Britain manipulated The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, and Nigeria throughout the colonial time, while France unified Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Benin, Cte d'Ivoire and Niger into France West Africa. Portugal founded the colony of Guinea-Bissau, while Germany claimed Togoland, but was compelled to separate it between France and Britain following First World War. Only Liberia maintained its freedom, at the price tag on major territorial concessions.

Southern African Development Community (SADC) was shaped in 1980. The origins of SADC lie in the 1960s and 1970s, when the market leaders of majority-ruled countries and nationwide liberation movements coordinated their political, diplomatic and military battles to bring a finish to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security assistance calf of today's SADC was the informal Front Line Says (FLS) grouping. SADC do have 15 associates (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, Mauritius, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Seychelles, and Madagascar(suspended)) which all of them are from southern part of Africa.

Southern Africa is home to many cultures and folks. It was once populated by San, Namaqua and Pygmies in widely-dispersed concentrations. Due to the Bantu growth which edged the prior peoples to the greater remote areas of the region, nearly all ethnic groups in this region, like the Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Tswana, Sotho, and Shona people, BaLunda, Mbundu, Kikuyu and Luo, speak dialects which discuss common Bantu terminology traits. The procedure of colonization and settling resulted in a significant people of Western (Afrikaners, Anglo-Africans, Portuguese Africans, etc. ) and Asian descent (Cape Malays, Koreans, Indians, etc. ) in many southern African countries. The region has a broad diversity of ecoregions including grassland, bushveld, karoo, savanna and riparian areas. Even though extensive disturbance has took place in some regions from habitat loss due to human being overpopulation, there stay significant amounts of various wildlife types, including White Rhino, lion, leopard, impala, kudu, blue Wildebeest, Vervet monkey and elephant. Furthermore most of the southern Africa country does produce raw materials like gold, diamond jewelry, and iron ore.

Political and security factors

Besides trade and the benefit of the efficiencies of your regional market, the explanation for the establishment of the regional stop, is to market political progress, more especially for government which were installed anticipated to majority votes of its electorates and the populace in a democratic election. The record strains democratically elected administration for some reasons:

To ensure that bank checks and amounts are properly set up, thereby preventing from the concentration of ability in a specific politics office.

To ensure that the views of people are properly resolved, somewhat making certain the government is installed to ensure socio-economic development.

These plus some others will be the explanations why we concentrate on democratically elected government.

Furthermore, there are presently 16 countries in the ECOWAS, apart from Republic of Guinea and the Republic of Niger which lately were taken over by military services juntas ( more on these nations will follow ) the rest of the people of the ECOWAS countries are ruled by democratically elected governments.

REPUBLIC OF GUINEA

In Dec of 2008 a military services coup led by the junior officer in the Guinean army, Captain Moussa Dadis Camara, seized vitality in a bloodless coup following the death of president Lansana conte, after years of hanging on to power. As point out earlier, the record focuses on democratic governments and this was exhibited when people were wiped out by the armed service under the new administration. Human Protection under the law Watch accused users of the presidential safeguard of carrying out a premeditated massacre of at least 150 people at the rally and raping dozens of women.

REPUBLIC OF NIGER

The ousted leader of the republic is leader Mamadou Tandja, who dissolved parliament after the country's constitutional judge ruled against programs to carry a referendum on whether to allow him a third term in office. Based on the constitution, a new parliament was elected within 90 days. This touched off a politics struggle between Tandja, hoping to extend his term-limited specialist beyond 2009 through the establishment of your 6th Republic, and his competitors who demanded that he step down by the end of his second term in December 2009.

Besides the example of Guinea and Niger, the political situation in the western Africa sub region, have been marred by issues, civil, societal, political and violent changes in government and revolts.

In Sierra Leone, the Congo and Liberia, we have conflicts that erupted from the disagreements for the control of the nations vast debris of Diamonds. This work put these countries in a state of chaos, and also led to the enslavement of individuals, some of whom were used to mine for gemstones at firearm point. There have been also accounts of child soldiers in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The issue in sierra loane was apparently initiated by way of a ex - corporal in the sierra leoeneian army, Foday Sanko, and he was rumored to be reinforced by former rebel innovator and leader of Liberia chief executive Charles Taylor. After years of conflicts, these nations have however achieved relative calmness, with new and ideally stable democratic government authorities.

The politics situation in the southern region of Africa is one of relative peace and balance. With the exception of Zimbabwe which has got some unrest credited to an alteration in government guidelines and a transfer in the politics situation of the country. The exact same also is for Madagascar, which possessed a change of administration in a bloodless coup, by the mayor of the administrative centre (Antananarivo); the nation was subsequently suspended from the SADC following the fact.

Regional peacefulness and security

ECOWAS became concerned in early stages with peace and regional security which are essential factors in the socio-economic development of the Member State governments. Thus, the Expert of Mind of Point out and Government adopted a non-aggression standard protocol in 1978, a defence assistance process in 1981 and a declaration of political principles in July 1991. This declaration which is a plea for democratic guidelines in the sub-region condemns unequivocally any seizure of vitality by drive of hands. It must also be pointed out that in 1990 the Expert of Mind of Point out and Authorities created an ECOWAS cease-fire follow-up group called ECOMOG. This peace-keeping make got cause to intervene in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea Bissau.

LIBERIA

After it turned out deployed in the Republic of Liberia in August 1990, ECOMOG performed there to revive calmness, ensure security and law and order. It also employed in many humanitarian activities targeted at lowering the sufferings of the people. In total, ECOMOG helped significantly to produce favourable conditions for the positioning in Liberia of the free and democratic presidential and parliamentary elections of 19 July 1997.

Eleven Member State governments of ECOWAS provided contingents for the operations in Liberia these are: Burkina Faso, Cte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo. Two other African Claims also participated, Uganda and Tanzania.

SIERRA LEONE

The involvement of ECOMOG pushes in Sierra Leone took place following overthrow of the lawful federal government of the country headed by Leader Ahmed Teejan KABBAH. In February 1998, ECOMOG restored constitutional legality and reinstated the federal government of the democratically elected President.

All the antagonists in the discord, particularly, the lawful federal government, the RUF rebels and the customers of the (AFRC) armed forces Junta signed in Lome in September 1999 an arrangement protocol on the ultimate settlement deal of the Sierra Leonean turmoil. Following a appeals designed to the international community for this to give important assistance for your final restoration of calmness, a United Nations peace-keeping pressure "UNAMSIL" changed ECOMOG makes in Sierra Leone. The ECOWAS countries which provided contingents for ECOMOG businesses in Sierra Leone are Ghana, Guinea, Mali and Nigeria.

GUINEA BISSAU

In June 1998, systems of the armed forces of Guinea Bissau led by the past Key of Defence Personnel gone into rebellion. Due to the bilateral defence and security contracts that associated his country to Guinea and Senegal, Leader Joao Bernardo Vieira called for the treatment of the military of the two countries. On the demand of the lawful government bodies of Guinea Bissau and in order to reaffirm its support for the elected federal of Guinea Bissau, the ECOWAS Power of Heads of Talk about and Government decided to restore peace and reinstate Chief executive Vieira in specialist over the entire country. A system for supervision and control of the cease-fire was setup by ECOWAS with the contingents of military sent by Benin, Niger and Togo.

In spite of the numerous cease-fire agreements agreed upon between the functions to the discord in Guinea Bissau, the democratically elected administration of President Vieira was finally overthrown. Attracting lessons from this failure and in order to reinforce tranquility and security in Western world Africa, the Executive Secretariat of ECOWAS initiated the establishment of your device for the avoidance, management and negotiation of conflicts as well as for the maintenance of tranquility and security in the sub-region.

The ECOWAS System For Conflict Protection, Management And Image resolution, Peace-Keeping And Security

Our sub-region has been ravaged recently by violent upheavals which, each time, have led to the wholesale lack of human lives, wanton damage of property, and hurting and desolation for the innocent civilian population.

These civilians are frequently forced by famine and disease into taking refuge in neighboring countries or becoming displaced folks of their own countries.

It is lucky that on each occasion, the ECOWAS sub-region, unlike the other locations in Africa, has had the opportunity to create in motion random conflict resolution steps which have managed to get possible to circumscribe its crises. ECOWAS peace-keeping activities have in the main been considered commendable despite a few shortcomings known.

However, because of the heavy individuals, material and financial cost of such issues and their negative effect on the development of the states concerned and on the sub-regional integration process, it has now become necessary to alter emphasis from discord resolution to conflict prevention.

To this end, also for better management of full range issues as well as inside crises which are now the most common, the Minds of Says and Government chosen at their reaching in Lome on 17 December 1997, to determine a device for conflict avoidance, management and resolution and for peace-keeping. The opportunity of the system would be lengthened to include security-related issues.

With respect to conflict avoidance, management and quality, appropriate proposals were advanced regarding the establishment of any observation and monitoring system and lots of organs that would assist in including and defusing imminent issues. The observation system would are made up essentially in the establishment of your local network within which states would be grouped into zones. A Regional Observation and Monitoring Centre should be established within the Exec Secretariat to give alert of impending turmoil. All information using a bearing on regional tranquility an security accumulated by zonal bureaux would be sent to the centre. The centre will record and analyze all such data and do something on any signals of a malfunction in relationships between Member State governments or of alarming socio-political developments within Member Says. Four (4) observation centers were made up of head office in Banjul (The Gambia), Cotonou (Benin), Monrovia (Liberia) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). The required political implications can quickly be attracted and appropriate procedures taken. To assist in this technique, it is suggested a Council of Elders and a Mediation and Security Council should be established.

It was suggested to make use of African traditional practice as helpful information and set up a Committee of Elders consisting of eminent personalities from the sub-region, Africa and past, who use their great experience, good offices and competence with respect to ECOWAS to experiment with the role of mediator, conciliator and arbiter. Its associates would be chosen by the Executive Secretary in discussion with the Chairman of Council as so when the need arose.

A Mediation and Security Council comprising nine Member Areas will be empowered, on behalf of the Expert of Heads of Condition and Government, to take such crisis decisions as may be needed in crisis situations. It is proposed that the Mediation and Security Council should contain 9 Member Says elected for a two season mandate, and that the existing and immediate past chair must have automatic account on the Council. The Council may consider and make advice on issues within its part of competence within any or every one of the following systems: the Committee of Ambassadors of the nine (9) Member State governments; the Committee of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Defence, Internal Affairs and Security, and the getting together with of Mind of Point out of the ECOWAS Mediation and Security Council.

These different systems may solicit the view of defense and Security Percentage. Account of the Payment shall be dictated by the issues for discourse. Member Areas may therefore be represented by their Key of Staff, security chiefs, experts from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, heads of immigration, Customs, narcotics, or border patrols. The Commission shall analyze the technical aspects of defense concerns and suggest on the requirements of the administration and logistics support for peace-keeping businesses.

In cases of armed turmoil, ECOWAS shall utilize both political and military intervention. The term ECOMOG shall continue steadily to designate the military services tool of ECOWAS. ECOMOG will be based on a standby design involving the use of national contingents that will be earmarked, trained and prepared, and organised for deployment at short notice.

Another major development is the proposal that ECOWAS should intervene to undertake peace-keeping functions in internal turmoil where the situation:

- threatens to trigger a humanitarian disaster;

- pose a significant threat to tranquility and security in the sub-region;

- erupts following a overthrow or attempted overthrow of any democratically-elected federal.

The draft system lays down the task to be followed where in fact the decision is taken up to intervene. Proposals are also made about the composition of ECOMOG, its string of command, duties and functions and money for administrative and logistics support.

In order to improve the impression that ECOWAS has failed, in past operations, to adequately support its peace-keeping functions with humanitarian action, it's advocated that, in situations of conflicts or natural disasters, ECOWAS should ensure a higher profile with regard to alleviating the fighting of the populace and hastening the return of normalcy. A number of recommendations were made in respect of the and of peace-building.

The opportunity of the mechanism was widened to include security issues, in accordance with the directives of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Internal Affairs and Security.

A amount of suggestions in the draft device attempt to talk about the concerns of our leaders concerning the movement of light weapons and ammunitions and the increasing incidence of cross-border crime.

The Professional Secretariat has wanted to overcome small forearms proliferation more effectively by getting ready a draft declaration of your moratorium on light weapons based on the moratorium provided by Mali on the importation, exportation and make of light weapons and the Programme for Coordination and Assistance for Security and Development (PCASED).

The draft declaration has been followed by the Mind of Status and Authorities.

The European Union generously made available to ECOWAS some 1. 9 million Euros for commencing certain operational activities of the mechanism.

Having addressed the problem of any security clothing in american Africa, it is deserving to notice that the SADC doesn't have an established military outfit.

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

SADC

The community followed objectives to consider the welfare of the member states. In dealing with concerns of anything against this i. e violation of human privileges all must be placed in correcting and condemning such situations. However it has not been the case on the ongoing Zimbabwean catastrophe, in truth this is one of SADC s biggest failures. In going to to the problem where Robert Mugabe has been around vitality for 40years now, in which he unlawfully had taken land from white people who added a lot to the current economic climate through farming presenting it to poor dark-colored people who cannot even do anything with it, breaking his own dark-colored people's properties. The opposition required a stand against all the wrong that was heading wrong in the united states earning most of them brutal military problems, many perished, many imprisoned for no justification the opposition innovator even ran to Botswana after alleged rumors of plots to get rid of him by the Robert-led millitary. Everything SADC did was send the ex - South-African president Thabo Mbeki for peacefulness talks between your ruling ZANUPF and the opposition MDC. This effort could be applauded however Thabo Mbeki is actually one of Robert's close friends back again from the colonialism times they fought for freedom together, which is why he and SADC implemented the "silent diplomacy" way to go about the matter. This demonstrated very useless the problem worsened civilians were wiped out day-to-day for opposing the ruling get together, many people passed on of diseases a whole lot worse the market collapsed, taking things to the core the earth imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe. The planet spoke SADC kept saying we can do things our way. This is to state SADC needs better, effective and better methods in issues involving people's lives. They must condemn when democracy is not well employed only Botswana and Namibia took a strong stance to state 'this is inhuman and the problem should get more seriousness". Silent diplomacy is no longer working more power-backed methods must be placed in spot to ensure that people's protection under the law aren't violated, democracy an rule of law are seen to.

There is an ongoing loss of millions of lives to HIV/Supports but the concept is being spread on how to avoid infection. It then becomes a problem whenever a prominent leader in society like Jacob Zuma the existing South-African president promotes promiscuity otherwise. The person is married to five women but 2years back again he was involved with a rape scandal in which he was purported to have raped an HIV positive women knowing of her status but not caring to get infected and passing it to his wife. The person hid behind culture in his immoral habit but just last month new proof areas that he has just as before employed in another affair fathering a kid, the Southern African region people were outraged stating this habit works resistant to the message of products which says "break the chain, adhere to one partner!. It was people who went on him SADC placed quite a few presidents there and there arrived to say this is wrong for a innovator. This is one of the biggest problems of SADC leaders who want to keep quite they emphasize "peaceful negotiation of conflicts "when the city itself never even offered such a peaceful talk on this. The question is they condoning such behavior? SADC leaders need to handle such important issues and not care much about pleasing one another; it is the individuals who they provide.

A while again Southern Africa was remaining in shame South-Africans began xenophobic disorders on other Africans specifically those from american and eastern factors saying they are making their monetary situation worse by flogging in. It required the entire world shouting for the then leader Mbeki to even declare that people were been slaughtered like pets, SADC gave a brief speech the market leaders were in conflict about if it was the community' location to address the matter, question becomes how about human protection under the law!

Economic-wise Southern Africa depends upon South-Africa too much for everything this needs to change. Furthermore almost all of these countries operate more with the powers like America than amongst themselves this inhibits development, where possible SADC must see to it that they make sure that they trade amidst themselves. There is also an issue of quotas and free trade conditions the planet has offered them yet their not been fully utilised yet many people still live under the poverty and they don't have food. They are opportunities that need to be completely utilized for folks.

Economic Community of Western world African Areas (ECOWAS)

The free trade conditions under ECOWAS are definitely more favorable to the greater developed countries, which in turn leaves the others very skeptical and therefore makes integration very hard as economic coordination jointly requires that countries quit a part of their sovereignty. Skeptical countries will defiantly not easily do this hence they want to be sure that each country benefits equally from whatever they produce. Furthermore ECOWAS on the way realized that they need to try keeping speed in their region since it is crucial for their business to perform smoothly financial firms one of the most troubled areas to date, people in countries like Nigeria and Sierra-Leone are wiped out day-to-day at very troubling numbers more should be done to see to the basic safety of the member suggests' people's welfare. Addititionally there is matter that the ECOWAS users bargain with all of those other world individually but if would gain them more if indeed they came collectively for better trading terms.

CONCLUSION

SADC and ECOWAS were developed to see to both of these regions public and economic problems. SADC is more into democracy, tranquility, human privileges but also coordinates member claims macroeconomic policies. They have got achieved a lot but are yet to please many who still call it a "toothless bulldog". ECOWAS on the other hands is more in to the economy leads, coordination collectively is their ay forward and yes this has benefited many however some countries are developing much more than others that is why the market leaders are mostly considered corrupt.

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