Posted at 11.18.2018
Since the invitation of the term of 'positivism' in the late eighteenth century, this concept has been trusted and discussed. This method stresses on the use of quantitative research and is mainly used in the analysis of natural objects. As positivism provides people who have a method to avoid speculation but to make medical and reasonable prediction by the study of hard facts and clinical knowledge, the technique is more and more used in the study of human world. The use of positivism in the study of society has brought benefits and has advertised the introduction of society study. At exactly the same time, there are a few doubts about the power of positivism to study society efficiently in the same way of learning natural things. The essay is to critically discuss the contribution of positivism to the analysis of culture.
Positivism is firstly used in the study of natural science. With the assistance of positivism, the natural sciences have experienced great development and changes. Many new discover and conclusions have been made. At that time, the analysis of human contemporary society is still at a level of the analysis of the abstract ideas and something metaphysical. The introduction of the culture needs a better and deeper understanding about its characteristics and laws and regulations (Althusser. 1970). The study of society needs to be more controlled, systemized and scientific. The intro of positivism has helped the analysis of research to get out of the old trap.
Personally, the most important contribution of positivism to the analysis of science is the rejection of speculation. The introduction of positivism in public study leads visitors to make studies and predictions predicated on empirical data and hard facts. People make law-like regularities based on the study of the hard facts and generalize the final outcome to a wider range in contemporary society. Comte is the first one to bring up the idea of sociological positivism. Actually, he raised this concept under the influence of Enlightenment. The advantages and expanding of knowledge have shocked the earth. Comte has studied the sciences and the circular dependence of theory, and then he brought up the first sociological version of positivism (Gordon. 1991). He advised that the contemporary society has three periods. The first stage is the theological word when people will get the knowledge and notion from God. Individuals culture is governed by God and evaluated in colaboration with the divine world. People will need the doctrines and words of the cathedral rather than the rational science. The next stage is named metaphysical level. In this era, human will be aware of their innate rights and democracy and dictators should appear to defend the mankind rights. The ultimate stage is the clinical one. It can be called positive one (Craib. 1997). Within this stage, the individual right will be most valued than in virtually any other times. Each you need to have the to get what he or she with his or her free will and capability.
The doctrines and thoughts given by Comte are much not the same as people in modern sociological positivism. The theory is not absolutely right. The explanation and use of positivism are not fully developed in his work (Halfpenny. 2001). However, his raised of positivism has made a great contribution. Personally, the important important contribution of his version of sociological positivism is his gratitude of human right, the value for objective natural rules and medical knowledge. Positivism is born with a work to fight the past blind faith. It offers people with a new way to get to know the world and the planet. At that time, it is a great fight against the dominion of people's head by God and the church. He shows that the effective way to evolutes from the substandard theological stage to the superior positivism level is through the objective and study of days gone by of the society and other things. In this way, positivism leads visitors to quit the reliance on God and the cathedral for knowledge about humanity and the society and convert to the target social disciplines. The analysis of society commenced a change from speculation to reason and reasoning (Pleasants. 1997). The further development of positivism has more and more used hard facts and empirical data to fight against the metaphysics and speculation.
Another great contribution of positivism to the analysis of culture is its supreme valuation of the utilization of clinical methods like statistic examination to study the world and the modern culture. In the field of positivism, all the data is generated based on the study of earlier experience and data acquired in observation (Rabinow. 2006). Hard facts and empirical data are more powerful than any fancies. The philosophers of positivism make an effort to use the methods which are being used to review natural sciences to study the technology. They try to make laws and regulations for the changes and development in population, conduct experiment to mimic the situation in the real world and try to use different factors as alternatives to make prediction of the outcome.
One of the most crucial meanings of the use of medical methods in the analysis of society is the fact that it allows visitors to visit a reasonable casual justification for the actions happen in the modern culture. Otherwise, the communal phenomena are most usually explained by the reason why of accidence and the will of God or another thing (Smart. 2001). In the same way has been brought up, speculation is common for the reason that situation. The use of medical methods can help people to evaluation all the external and internal factors in a technological manner and also to explore the causal romance between these factors and the arising of a specific outcome. There is certainly one fact should be aware that though positivism stresses much on the importance on the use of facts and information, that does not mean the study of world is the natural study of these things. The best aim of the use of the scientific methods is to conclude laws based on the analysis consequence of the facts and the empirical data.
Another important contribution of positivism in the deployment of the clinical methods to study society is the fact that, it helps to remove subjective thinking and thoughts which might lead to bias in the outcome. One of the most evident characteristics of the analysis of knowledge is the target behaviour and methods in the analysis. The use of these scientific methods in the analysis of social knowledge, in a way, compels visitors to look directly by any means the facts, no matter if the fact is satisfying or disgusting. Any lays which may make one feel better when looking at the facts can not are present in these scientific methods, as they can not be accounted as a statistical parameter (Cohen. 2007). The subjective opinions can not work to distort the outcome, as the objective data can't be influenced. That's the reason there are so many cruel but true sociable laws are discovered by positivism philosophers.
However, there are also some shortcomings in the utilization of the methodical methods. In a sense, the study of social knowledge is more technical than the analysis of research. Most factors in the study of knowledge can be evidently defined and assessed. If not absolutely all the factors can be defined at present, they could be further completed as research develops. In the study of social technology, many factors can't be clearly described and measured. The factors are too complex to name them all (Ashley. 2005). The function of these is also very complicated. An excessive amount of reliance on the utilization of the methodical methods will lead for an extreme situation for the experts. After all, social science is a lot different with natural knowledge. People especially the experts can not overlook that fact, or they could lose the ability to think about the modern culture in a human being way. To work such as a machine will be a disaster.
As has been talked about within the last part, the best aim of the use of the technological methods are to find the social laws and regulations covered behind the diverse but similar interpersonal activities. Unlike the doctrine distributed by the cathedral, the social laws and regulations given by sociological positivism derive from the numerous facts and data. Theses cultural regulations are concluded not for the aim to guide people's patterns and life, but merely to reveal the objective laws that are working in the contemporary society (Rashed. 2007). The uncovering of the hardened social laws and regulations helps people to get to know about the nature of the contemporary society. In this way, the analysis of human contemporary society has get deeper from an abstract but superficial level to a concrete deep level. Durkheim is a great sociological positivism researcher in European countries. He has researched about the regulations of social framework that will guide the analysis of the world and determine the surge or fall of a certain society. Thus with the laws and regulations, you'll be able to define when a contemporary society is healthy or not. The laws can also make the researcher to bring up reform or remedy for the modern culture on the line.
The laws about the type of the contemporary society are uncovered by the analysts by the study of the hard facts and the empirical data. Then theses laws and regulations are used atlanta divorce attorneys branches of the real human social technology. Many reforms about the contemporary society and the making of new laws and regulations from then on are made under the guide of the social laws. For instance, John Austin introduced his utilitarianism theory in his base of jurisprudence. He found that the origination of administration laws and guidelines is not the social contract, but the utilitarian thinking about human being. Some pleasing masquerades about the type of the society have been laid bare. That's no bad. As if the society is to develop, the development can't be made on basis of the lays. The Noble Lies of Plato is improbable to be beneficial in the present day society.
There is one thing very frustrating about the final outcome of laws and regulations in sociological regulations. It really is known that combined with the development of sociological positivism, there have emerged many branches of the research. Different branches will often have different beliefs and different chosen of study method. The conclusions or the communal laws they have got made also differ much. It is not justified to say who is right or who's wrong. The social science is more complicated and has many different possibilities. Even with the use of objective technological methods, it is hardly to reach a single right law. In person, these laws can not be applied atlanta divorce attorneys situation but should be utilized in consideration of the different context.
Overall, the intro of positivism in the analysis of society is a superb development. It includes helped the study of social science to break the limit of abstract metaphysical methods. Positivism has provided the social science with a new way to understand the world. The main contribution of positivism is the fact it helps people to break the limit of head by God and the cathedral. People turn to the study of hard facts and data from previous and experiment to get knowledge alternatively than only from the educating the church. The use of the scientific methods, people can understand the culture in a far more affordable way. The subjective bias is prevented in the study. Sociological positivism research workers also have made many comprehensive laws predicated on the scientific study which provide people with more initiative to control the world. However, there a wide range of problems troubling the utilization of positivism in the study of society. To study society just like a natural research is under great debate. Human society is much more technical and full of changes. Too much reliance on the clinical method but overlook the individuals thinking will utilize people into machines. The conclusions made will are not be reliable.