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Consumer Behavior Is Essential For Effective Marketing Marketing Essay


A Consumer is somone who acquires goods or services for immediate use or possession rather than for resale or use within production and developing process. (Investor words, 2010). We are able to classify consumers in two categories: (i) personal consumers / retail consumers, and (ii) organisations as consumers. In each circumstance bahaviour is analysed diversely. I will focus in this essay on personal consumers and their behaviour and its own implications for effective marketing.

Consumer behaviour is the procedure individuals or groups go through in realizing needs, finding ways to resolve these needs, making purchase decisions (e. g. , whether or not to purchase a product and, if so, which brand and where), interpret information, make programs, and execute these programs.

Understanding customer notion and motivations has tremendous implications for retailing and marketing, process improvement and, subsequently, getting targetted consumers and make rewarding profit. Together with the Consumer-Centered era over, in the New Period orentation to enable long-term bonds with consumers it is vital to review consumer behaviour and to understand more of the customer's mindset, their inner and exterior motivations, preferences, limitations, and activities to have the ability to provide a personalized value proposition. As the discupline, this is known as customer marriage management (CRM).

Diagram displaying consumer behavior, procedures, and marketing activities.

(graph from: Norton, 2005)Consumer attitude:

The process of purchase is basically inspired by consumer attitudes. In the context of marketing, it is towards: product, brand, place (eg retail store), etc. Consumer behaviour are a composite of your consumer's (1) values about, (2) emotions about, (3) and behavioural motives. ''These components are viewed together being that they are highly interdependent and mutually embrace the forces that influence the way the consumer will react to the thing''. (Perner, 2008)

Beliefs: Consumer beliefs can maintain positivity (e. g. chocolates flavor good) as well as negative (e. g. , chocolates makes me fat). In addition, some beliefs may be neutral (chocolate is a delicacy), and some may differ depending on person or the problem (e. g. , chocolates gives a great deal of energy and stimulates--good when you need to review or increase your energy level, however, not good right before rest time). Often consumer thinks can be inaccurate (e. g. pork is better than poultry).

Feelings/Have an effect on- is the consumer's emotions toward a brand's product or service. Sometimes these thoughts are based on the beliefs (e. g. a person feels nauseated when considering a hamburger as a result of amount of extra fat it includes), but there may also be feelings which are relatively self-employed of beliefs (e. g. I like ice cream)

Behavioural objective. Is exactly what the consumer programs regarding respect to the object (e. g. , buy or not choose the brand). This can be a logical result of values (or impact), or may mirror other circumstances--e. g. , although a consumer does not enjoy a pub/restaurant, he or she should go there since it is a hangout for his or her friends. (Perner, 2008)

Changing behaviour of customers can be challenging because people prefer to think that their behavior is rational; thus, once they use our products, chances are that they will continue unless someone can encourage them to transition (Perner, 2010).

Consumer Options: The comonly accepted and examined way of consumer alternatives, also illustrted in Elliot (1997), includes 5 main steps:

Need/ opportunity recognition

2. Information Search

3. Analysis of alternatives

4. Purchase

5. Result of purchase/feedback

Need/opportunity popularity.

Consumers understand a need for a product/service when they percive a distance between their present state and their desired express. This can be either because of a change for the worse in their present state (need acknowledgement) or when the desire seem to be to be further away (opportunity acceptance). ( Elliot, 1997).

That is often as easy as concluding that people need milk because we've just go out and can't make a cake without it. Or when a mother chooses that buying an Armani top on her behalf son may possibly make her family more recognisable and admirred.

Information Search.

After identifying a product which will meet the need or opportunity difference, it is assumed that a customer will seek out information to help him decide. Here it's been established that there are two ways that information search occurs. Those are inner and external queries.

Internal vs. Exterior Search(Perner, 2008)

Internal search entails the consumer discovering alternatives from his / her ram/experience. Internal search is influenced by motivations, attitudes, personality, age, lifestyle, understanding and learning/ experience. This is the sole search method used for low participation products or fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs), thus building top of mind awareness is crucial task for marketing and sales communications especially in hose low-involvement products categories (Elliot, 1998).

External search consists of information from environment that affects the purchase decisions. Those exterior factors influencing decision process include situational affects, such as, physical environment and time, and cultural affects such as advertising as well as culture, subculture, sociable class, group account, family, friends, work/institution peers, co-workers, people from the same sports/hobby clubs, friends and neighbors etc.

There are various referent groups that people consciously or unconsciously consider during their search. Those include; account, aspiration, avoidance, person to person, opinion, management. Despite consumer hobbies and beliefs, they'll strive to conformity and so usually the internal search must compete with their external affects because they want to belong to, and be accepted by, folks from their immediate environment.

Consumers are more likely to use an exterior search for high involvement products. For example before buying a house, the consumer is more likely to ask friends' ideas, read reviews in Consumer Reports, consult several web sites, and visit several property offices. Thus, it is extremely important that organizations that offer products that are preferred predominantly through exterior search spend money on advertising and marketing to ensure having information open to the buyer in need-e. g. , through brochures, internet sites, or information coverage.

Evaluation of alternatives:

''The evaluative criteria are the product attributes, useful, symbolic and mental, which the relative performance of the competing alternatives will be likened'' (Elliot 1998).

Decision guidelines can be:

I. Compensatory, when a poor performance using one feature can be offset by good performance on other feature. (e. g. one car is not as fast as other but it's cheaper. If the purchase price is sufficiently inexpensive, the buyer may then choose it over an automobile with better acceleration that costs more)

II. Non-compensatory, when only one standard is used and alternatives which don't measure up are eliminated. (e. g. whenever a customer wants to have a UK-branded product, lets say cereal, although there will be a great many other cereals with same materials and good taste they won't be considered)

Considering that human beings seek to lessen cognitive efforts, often the way for choice evaluation are 'rules of thumb', e. g. cheapest is best, or known brand is definitely better than unknown, etc. Unfortunately this type of thinking often lead to organized bias in comparison to the rational decision making style of monetary theory. Those would be feels that e. g. if an item is available it must be considered a good deal, or ''all top quality products are of the same quality''.


Purchased is often inspired by time, the more time between the motive to buy and the choose the more opportunity for change in original intention. However in many circumstances a conscious purchase intension is not developed prior to the purchase action and in cases like this a screen of product may result in impulse purchase. US studies show that 83% decisions to purchase of snacks happen in the supermarket itself somewhat than previous to shopping. Certainly higher participation products are more likely to be pre organized than lower engagement products. (Elliot, 1998)

Outcomes of Purchase:

These have important implications for future years purchase decisions. The cognitive approach points to need for prior objectives as a identifying how well consumer will measure the purchase experience. The low the goals the less dissatisfaction on poor product performance, and the more satisfaction on good product performance sometimes appears.

Consumer Involvement:

The amount of work a consumer places into searching is determined by a number of factors. There's a traditional model to measure consumer involvment in purchase decision. This model demonstrates involvmnet will depend on largly on: price, kind of product, regularity of purchases, symbolic meaning, sociable visability, time determination, potentiality for injury, potentiality for poor performance of product/service etc. (Elliot, 1998)

In practice the price or high relevance will mostly impact the participation of consumers. E. g if we buy vessel or house we will put more work in research than when we buy washing powder. The same holds true for highly life significant products such as computer or medications, which tend to get more attention than suppose notepad or pen. (where you shop, ease / proximity of car parking, ambience, security, provision of child good care, etc)

Influences on Consumer Habit(Perner 2008)

The Life Pattern.

Individuals and households tend to go through a "life circuit:" The simple life cycle should go from

http://www. consumerpsychologist. com/images/cb/Simple_FLC. png (Perner 2008)

In real life however, there are many more problems possible, such as lovers undergo divorce, single parents run house or remarry or get involved in other non-marital connections, or stick to their own etc. Integrating all the possibilities gives a depiction of the Family Life Cycle to the main one below:

http://www. consumerpsychologist. com/images/cb/Family_Life_Cycle. png (Perner 2008)

Obviously ''young singles'' with still little cash and highly inspired by their peer environment will have different needs, and make different purchases to young couples, and young couples will greatly vary in their customer behaviours to full nest households. Then again there is a factor in amount, type and variety of products purchased between Nest I, Nest II and III households, since different age of children in the family will have various needs / needs, and the more mature the children the greater influence they will have on parents and their purchase decisions themselves. Empty nest family with no children in the house often are able more luxurious items than before. They'll frequently look for comfort and sturdiness and high quality of goods. Older singles will have similar needs, but if retired or lonely might not be able to manage as high requirements of products as vacant nest and therefore minimalistic approach is seen in their purchase behavior.

Apart from dissimilarities in customer behaviour arising from Family Life Routine additionally it is important to mention that behaviour changes with age, health, job and financial position.

Older people tend to have greater income but also greater obligations such as home loans, children, and spouse. Different age range are worried with different financial rewards and obligations. That often causes different consumer behaviour.

Figure 2. 5 Consumer life events

''Understanding the life span event sets off behind the top decisions that consumers make, aids information providers in focusing on information at the times and places in people's lives when they most need it''. (Australian federal, 2010)

Family decision making model:

Another relevant factor includes the Family decision making model. It's important to realise that it's not only your choice maker(s) in the family that count during the decisions functions of the family. Although they decide where and which product, brand to buy, there are also initiator, ultimate users, the information gatherers/holders- who seek out information about products of relevance, Influencers- who do not finally have your choice power, nonetheless they could make their wants known by asking for specific products or triggering humiliating situations if their demands are not fulfilled. And then again all those have different role compared to that of the customer. (Perner, 2008)

It was assessed that parents under children's (time 4 -12years) affect in US purchase products worthy of apporximately $4, 400 per year per child. This comprises practically $150 billion annually in US market together. (McNeal, 1997). This statistic is even more visible if we look at China and heir one child policy and the six-pocket symptoms (where all 4 grandparents and parents can cherish and spoil 1 child only (Goll, 1995)

From the marketing viewpoint, family decision-making model presents some problems since the purchaser can be targeted by point-of-purchase (POP) marketing initiatives that can't be aimed at your choice maker, or influencer. It will also be noted that family decisions are often subject to significant amounts of conflict. The reality is that few individuals are rich enough to avoid a solid tension between demands on the family's resources. (Perner, 2008)

Family decision making model can be viewed in almost any shop. This will need place whenever a family is out and about maybe doing food shopping and then out of the blue one of the kids will point to a toy or Holiday tree that courts its attention (which will be the initiator). There will be various requirements to consider: maybe some information provided at that moment relating to this particular Christmas tree; the fact will the family have already one or not and in what condition it is, also time of the year will have impact on your choice making process. An individual or a Xmas tree is the whole family but especially children. Mom of the family will often be the decider who will try to satisfy everyone and purchase something that is sensible and safe a s well as will look representative in the home surrounding. Father will most likely pay for the tree and make the purchase thus in this situation would be the buyer. This issue is addressed by many retailers by offering intensive displays of child-attractive items, together with parent-satisfying product descriptions to fulfil needs of the decision maker, and not infrequent value offers to finally convince the ultimate buyer.

The Means-End String.

Is another style of consumer behavior where consumers buy products not for their attributes by itself but rather as a result of ultimate benefits that these attributes provide, in turn resulting in the satisfaction of ultimate beliefs. A significant implication of means-end chains is that it is usually most reliable in advertising to concentrate on higher level items. (Green Publication, 2005)

This can be illustrated on exemplory case of UHT milk. A consumer may well not be thinking about the procedure and chemistry of ultra high temperature procedure for dairy preservation, but might reason as follows:

Self satisfaction/esteem

Kids will continue steadily to get all calcium mineral and vitamins necessary for progress and strong bones, and he milk is there whenever needed

Children can easily use the milk when they need it without a need to return to a shop for weeks at the same time.

Milk can be stored much longer without tastes and properties change,

Long life properties of UHT milk

UHT milk companies utilize this model and emphasise the long life properties of dairy, and therefore in consumer notion this is the main focus point. They often times don't make further research to learn that UHT milk has sufficiently less vitamins and minerals then fresh dairy, and sometimes make decision to buy long life milk rather than fresh milk.

Diffusion Curve Model:

And lastly we should remember that not all consumers will choose to buy services at exactly the same time. Dependingly on their education, experience, capacity to get and desires we will be in a position to identify Innovators who buy first but comrpise less than 5% of consumers, e. g. people who follow the latest releases of technology/fashion executive and will choose the products when they reach the marketplace even if they don't necessary require it, and this means paying high grade price for those goods. After the first purchases by Innovators, the Early adpoters will show their interest. They profit form using the merchandise and want to maintain an advantage over the rest of these peer group / consumers at large. However the vast majority of the curve ignores most marketing work at the earliest periods until they are convinced that the merchandise or idea is not a fad. Successful services, the 'strikes', are most desired by Innovators and Early Adopters immediately after benefits: and then Early on majority will observe the trend to purchase. Over time the later bulk will make your choice to buy, and then when the products/ services are no longer considered new by most human population the laggards will come to belive it is ecessary for them to aquire this product. Possibly that will take place following the older model they managed is no more functioning and it is necessary for them to displace it. Those clients frequently benefit from large special discounts, since new more desired models tend to be already in the marketplace. The explained above model is commonly known as Diffusion Curve model or 5 sections model, and can be illustrated as bellow (actual percentages will change according to the product / sector / consumer mix):

Viral Marketing and Consumer Behavior

(Graph from; Braziel, 2007)

This model doesn't similarly apply to all products, it's mostly used for electronics, pcs, fashion clothing, house gadgets such as AGD (white goods) and RTV (audio / aesthetic electronics) products. That's because we can't really discuss innovative products when it comes to FMCGs like loaf of bread, milk, butter. And yes it would be hard to discuss laggards when the merchandise of concern was something everyone needs in day to day life.

Knowing about the diffusion curve model and the actual fact that services are usually at first adopted by the few consumers in support of disperse later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, companies found that to introduce services they need to be well financed in order to stay afloat until their products become a commercial success by producing self-sustainable profit. In addition they realize that it is vital to please primary customers, since they will in turn influence many following customers' brand selections. That's the reason many brands use post-purchase evaluation forms and ensure quick response to any dissatisfaction, so consumers feel grasped, respected and powerful. This helps in creating good overall impression about the merchandise or brand, which may very well be offered to Early adopters and beyond.


There are two main applications of consumer habit in marketing: (Perner 2005)

Using consumer habit to make smarter marketing promotions. For example

by knowing that individuals are more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, food/treat companies learned to schedule treat advertisements late in the day. Due to increased receptiveness individuals are much more likely to memorize the items and either buy there and then or next time when they see the product on the supermarket shelf.

by knowing that new products are usually at first adopted by the few consumers in support of multiply later, and then only slowly but surely, to all of those other population, companies found that (1) to create- services must be well financed in order to stay afloat until their products become a commercial success. (2) it is vital to please preliminary customers, given that they will in turn influence many succeeding customers' brand alternatives.

Social marketing will involve getting ideas across to consumers rather than reselling something. E. g.

To reduce the incidence of transmitting of diseases through unlawful medication use the best solution, naturally, would be if we could get illegal medication users to avoid. This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It had been also driven that the practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be quit. As a result, using understanding of consumer behaviour, Dr. Fishbein created a advertising campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needles in bleach before writing them, which marketing campaign was hugely successful (Syed, 2009)

Attitude research has shown that consumers often tend to behave more favorably to advertisements which either:

Admit something negative about the sponsoring brand (e. g. , the Volvo is a clumsy car, but very safe), this approach makes consumer understand the advert more reliable, and can pay off by their better frame of mind towards brand/product publicized.


Admits something positive in regards to a competing brand (e. g. , a contending supermarket has just a bit lower prices, but offers less service and selection).

Two-sided appeals must, contain overriding arguments why the sponsoring brand is finally superior-that is, in the aforementioned illustrations, the "but" part must be emphasized. (Perner, 2008) Again this two side appeal gives consumer perception of rational, stability and this type of advert is much more likely to be listened, presumed in and kept in mind.

Knowing it is generally very difficult to change beliefs that people maintain, some companies make an effort to change the value of values by reducing them or by strengthen them by advertising e. g. milk company can emphasise on the importance of milk substances such as; calcium and flat iron for the health being of people, and thus improve the perception worth focusing on for milk in consumer vision, that will then lead to increased milk sales.

Companies can also increase consumer beliefs, e. g. Cereal creators can add values that their cereal are more convenient and healthy than other cereals, which seems quite plausible to a lot of people if the advertisement uses enough credible conditions for elements. Thus consumer understand those cereals appropriate for breakfast time than others and are more likely to purchase them when next time see them in the shop.

Using consumer alternatives model described in the launch, some companies will seek to create in the eye of target consumers a perception of need of e. g cooking food spice, by advertising it as a miracle combine which will make every dish you make delicious and appealing by all family members. That conception of opportunity may cause the consumer purchase decision.

Knowing that information seek out FMCGs is mainly internal, food companies make an effort to make impression on the consumer e. g by making tomatoes look much healthier and appealable to potential consumers e. g we can easily see tomatoes with green stems or big 'naturally grown' sign on the packaging that will trigger the consumer desire to eat healthy and even though those tomatoes may not be any healthier than the other 5 types that sit on the shelf. The belief of healthy / organic and natural will arise in consumer head and thus he will become more likely to purchase them.

In relation to acquire decisions of consumers, many companies, especially those offering low engagement goods, use a online marketing strategy which is directed at one of human's basic motivation:- curiosity. By packaging a product with interesting and/or ground breaking pictures and images, they try to ''wake up'' consumer curiosity and in this way win the buyer interest and encourage impulse to buy.

Knowing that fulfilling original goals of consumer will most likely lead to duplicate purchase some products e. g Heinz Ketchup by adding a claim of ''great thickness'' and delivering onto it better compare to other brands, can win consumer because consumer attention is attracted towards thickness only and satisfying this attribute only give consumer overall perception of good performance.

Emphasising consumer brand loyalty, many shops add loyalty credit cards, which give additional credits for shopping specifically shop, such as entitlement to savings and promotions. Commitment cards databases on the other hand enable understanding the clients better and present offers that best suit their tendencies/habbits. Its a win-win situation for seller and buyer: the buyer has a perception to be special/valued and can see the prize for loyalty, as the shop has more information about the customers.

For example, it was founded that a buyer of full fats dairy is 2. 5 times more likely to purchase children orientated products. That is because a whole lot of father or mother buy full fat milk because of their kids, and having kids means we buy for them more than simply milk. Understanding that, a shop/company can send kids products brochures only to those people buying full excessive fat milk somewhat than spend money on approaching parents who don't possess kids and are unlikely to get children's products.

All the models referred to above are important to learn and consider; to help place emerging patterens and trends relative to the marketing and branding process. Nonetheless they seem to be to be marginally overcomplicated and we need to realise that each day consumer patterns as well as useful marketing often ranges from the theoretical models. To support this view we don't need to look very good, we read from countless articles e. g McCole (2004) shows that there exists a sizable gap between the worldviews of academics and experts. And Brennen (2004, p. 492), in his editorial commentary in a special concern that explored the type of the academic-practitioner divide, records that "a consensus appears to be emerging very much, or perhaps most, of work done by academics is of limited relevance to practitioners. " (Syed H. Akhter, 2009). Also there are numerous studies which show that a sizable ratio of consumers don't research their buys or limit the study to minimum amount, e. g. typically 52% of people in US obtained no impartial information on products/services purchased and even for purchase of a fresh car, more than 30% of people visit only 1 car supplier. (Elliot, 1998).

A lot of these theoretical models, together with sensible / anecdotal experience, show that decisions made by customers are generally emotion-driven or impulse motivated. The purchase decisions often rely upon curiosity, value notion (an approximation of reality), brand loyalty or 'rules of thumb', alternatively than research, and that's the reason marketing, branding and advertising need to enhance value notion for the customer and take care of a good purchase experience rather than just concentrating on the purchase product/service.


To conclude this paper on dynamics of consumer behaviour in practical marketing, I decided to consider Early Learning Middle (ELC) brand and their marketing strategies. Using their consumer base mainly being 0-6 year old children, specifically I looked for proof ELC's marketing initiatives reflecting a sensible understanding of the behavior of the target customers, the adults who buy those goods on children's behalf

Early Learning Centre (ELC) ~ Toy Sale Now On

Early Learning Centre (ELC) is actually a marketing and distribution company, but one that also designs and commissions the produce of its own-branded products. It had been founded in 1974 as a email order company, and was an early on adopter of direct sales through the Internet - the website www. elc. co. uk was initially launched in 1999 and became successful in its first 12 months in terms of profit generated on internet-driven buys. .

In 2007 Mothercare plc acquired Early on Learning Centre for 85m (49m plus 36m debt). Mothercare is one of the very most familiar brands in UK retailing, and is probably the first store that comes to mind when thinking about the needs of women that are pregnant, infants and children up to the age of 10. There's a great deal of overlap with ELC in the post-natal market and so their merger and co-location of stores makes sense from an enterprise perspective. Today there are over 225 ELC stores in the UK, and 115 stores internationally managed by franchise associates in locations including UAE, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia Ireland, and Poland. Catalogues sales have remained a core part of the business. [Early on Learning Centre prints and distributes over 4 million catalogues in the UK alone every year. ] Over 80 percent of the merchandise sold by Early Learning Centre are own brand. ELC operate through three distinct channels to market; UK stores, Direct (internet-based businesses and catalogue email order), and International. (ELC, 2008)

The Early Learning Centre brand provides eight major types of toys and games primarily for children in the 0-6 12 months a long time. They segregate their items predicated on sex and years of children for whom the playthings are designed. This process helps greatly during customers read through the products. As a result customers can put less effort in to the search process and it increases their overall shopping experience.

Knowing that changing frame of mind of consumer is generally very difficult. Instead ELC try to influence feelings, either by advertising itself to create pleasant, warm feeling about products, and desire that will be enough to make customer like the product, or they use traditional conditioning by e. g. showing happy, stress free children playing with ELC playthings.

the great outdoors!!! acctive play and fresh air fun!

(pictured copied from: http://www. kidstart. co. uk/partner/ELC. aspx)

Another strategy of ELC includes exposure effect. By providing advertising campaign and pictures beyond your store and in periodicals known to be popular amidst parents of 0-6 year old children and those adults likely to buy presents for such children, ELC ensures customers are more familiar with the merchandise and thus much more likely to buy it.

Aware that changing behavior of customers can be challenging, one strategy employed by ELC is to introduce seasonal price special discounts to justify in consumer brains the switch, based on a 'good offer' principle. After the switch if a person was more satisfied with the ELC product than with a previously used brand, there is a large possibility that he / she will stick to the ELC products for future acquisitions even when the price goes back on track.

Another marketing strategy utilized by ELC is participating the 'convenience' mindset of their target audience. ELC stores are usually found in big stores, specifically in those locations in the mall that are frequently used/handed by customers on their way in or out. Not merely are toys shown, many gadgets at the access, but also throughout the store, are out with their packaging to enable better investigation of product prior to get. That is also a terrific way to attract the kids of passing consumers - mothers, family members - into the shop to try out. At these times parents will be required to enter into the shop and throughout that time possibly will purchase a number of of the playthings that their children were attracted to, or indeed other toys in the store therefore of impulse purchase. Parents will buy a toy witnessing their children using it happily than if looking at it in the shut box. In addition, it tends to display the robustness of the toy to harm, another key 'tempter' with their potential customer. Few parents wish to deal with their children's reactions to busted toys, let alone the prospect of having to return it to the store in - as is so often required - its original packagingEarly Learning Centre

Ambience: ELC stores are filled with cheerful colors, but predominant shade is renewable that generally in most people mind is associated with mother nature, vibrancy, and sustainability, and progressively important image in consumer's brains. There is lately a typical believe among parents that natural gadgets and products are best for children, and thus this green colour scheme of ELC shops has a huge potential to make a notion in consumer sight that products purchased in part this green colored shop tend to be more natural and also much better than those purchased in other places. Also many stores play a researched playlist of music at a modest volume made to subliminally appeal to children and the ones who may buy items for them. Another attempt of creating positive atmosphere in their shops is ELC personnel, who are recognized for their determination to help, be informed about the merchandise they are selling, and also have a pleasant frame of mind towards children and clients. This was championed by ELC management on various levels, not least by providing for their employee's bonus schemes, employee savings, childcare voucher system, and selection of policies which include job share, flexible working and job breaks to increase the task life balance of their employees. ELC staff do seem to be to care about their workplace, their products, their clients, and tend to do a great job transferring that 'we caution' frame of mind to prospective customers. Happy employees are happy employees who very evidently favorably influence the buyer shopping experience. And customers who feel they may be cared for by their brand have a tendency to be highly brand loyal. ELC personnel:Responsibility

(picture copied from: http://www. mothercareplc. com/corporate-profile).

Branding: Whilst ELC will not define one brand promise, the business has an extended established relationship using its stakeholders - customers, shareholders, employees, and consumers: the worlds children - of how ELC would like those to feel. That 'mental strategy' is that ELC treatment, and it is placed in the centre of its 'useful strategy' - its products and services. All brand initiatives move from the 'we caution' approach: specialism, quality, security and advancement in providing products and services for mothers, mothers-to-be, babies and small children. ELS employees buy ELC playthings. Established moms recommend ELC personnel and playthings. ELC staff regularly reinforce the brand, and ELC itself enriches and enshrines that implicit 'health care' brand awareness between consumers by numerous advertising campaigns. This is an important component that helps keeping consumer loyal to the brand.

Overall ELC advertising strategy encompasses providing a sound, safe, fun, useful and durable product associated with customer friendly service and attractive atmosphere. That atmosphere and the 'we care' brand is immediately used in the reader of your ELC catalogue or website, which generates high relative perceived product value in the imagination of targeted consumers. That, as well as positive external affects and customer relationships is grounds why ELC may charge normally 30 to 50% more for same or similar toys and games found in ''Carrefour'', 'Toy R us'' or ''baby shop'', and still the consumers of Early on Learning Centre go back for repeat buys.

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