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Concepts of Politics and Economics

  • Ramon Hernandez

The Dictator's Dilemma

The dictator's issue is when an authoritarian ruler's oppression is so great that the public greatly worries him/her, which then leads to doubt as to how much support the ruler actually has. This leads the ruler to spend more resources than is needed to try to expose who potential competitors maybe or to try to buy out the actual opposition. Then they begin to invest more and more money seeking to keep everyone devoted and often end up spending way too many resources on one particular group like the army. This creates more problems as the groupings that aren't being represented or are not being funded start to feel more oppressed and less represented. Thus begins a new pattern of people that the ruler must now try to win over.

The dictator's problem triggers the dictator to become paranoid and pushes said ruler to make radical changes to his/her agenda. For example authoritarian rulers who wish to enhance their home parts usually do make advancements at the start of their plan but as soon as they commence to fear a potential overthrow they begin to spend resources on other areas to keep the popular support. The dictators' problem leaves the ruler in regular expresses of paranoia because they are never truly sure how much support or opposition they face.

Social vs Liberal Market Economies

A sociable market economy can be an economical system that combines a highly productive market market with an comprehensive and good welfare point out, as well as unusually dynamic engagement of both business and labor in economical plan. It combines private enterprise with legislation and state treatment such that it may create good competition as well as maintain a balance between high rates of monetary growth and low levels of unemployment. It really is made to promote good working conditions, public welfare, public services and lower inflation. It offers many of the foundations of a free market current economic climate such as private property, free overseas trade, and free creation of prices. You will discover procedures to confine the free market such as antitrust codes that help reduce the occurring problems within a free market.

A liberal market market is something that provides the power for companies to interact with other companies, their employees, customers, and suppliers in whatever mechanisms they like, within the broad regulations implemented by way of a government. They add a free prices system however they limit the prospect of monopolies to form as well as the rates they can charge during certain areas of the current economic climate. This enables for competition on the market place to increase. Liberal market economies include administration intervention to be able to make a basis for home and international business between businesses in the form of legislation that will require business transactions to occur within specific limitations.

Market Externalities

Market Externalities occur when the cost or benefit of the creation process is not fully included in the price of the ultimate market exchange, which reduces efficiency. A good example of a market externality is the production of a container of water. When producing bottles of normal water, pollution is also produced. However the price of clearing up the pollution is not really a element in price of the bottle, nor is one factor in the supply and demand chain.

Environmental damage is the most typical form of market externalities. When factories pollute mid-air when they make their products, the expenses of the permanent damage the local residents as well as the surroundings receive are not paid by the factory owners. The expense of the container is not taken out of the price for pollution harm. The factory would pollute more if indeed they had to pay for the damages however.

Welfare Policy Types

Universal Entitlements are benefits that governments provide to individuals pretty much evenly, usually funded through taxation. An example would be general public education in the US. All communities in america must provide public education to all school age residents without any exemptions including those who are not born in america. Public education will decrease the likeliness that a person will conclude in poverty, which is why general public education is a common benefit. In many European countries households are given child or family allowances to help them increase their children. The allowance is adjusted for home income or on the number of children. Some the criticism to these entitlements is that many people who don't need them still receive the entitlements.

Social Insurance provides benefits to categories of people who have added to open public insurance fund. Good examples in america are social security, impairment benefits and unemployment. Staff and employers donate to the fund and only those who contribute to the fund may benefit from them when they need them for occasion when a worker retires.

Means-tested general population assistance are programs offering benefits to people who fall below a particular income level. Food stamps, subsidized general population housing and temporary assistance to needy people are the most typical examples in the US. The amount of assistance from these programs usually is determined by the income level but other factors may contribute such as work requirements. They are unlike common entitlements where everyone is eligible for their benefits and sociable insurance where those who contribute reach partake in the benefits; means examined assistance only targets those whose income levels are low.

Tax expenditures are targeted tax breaks for specific groupings of folks or activities designed to achieve social plan goals. Duty breaks on certain people or expenditures subsidizes activities that the government is convinced to be beneficial. Taxes breaks on people or on expenditures has the same impact as amount of social shelling out for that group of folks or task.

Cap and Trade System

Cap and Trade systems are systems where the government allows a particular amount of suitable pollution within an industry. Once the amount of pollution is come to the government commences to provide out vouchers to companies. Companies are permitted to pollute with respect to the amount of vouchers they possess. The companies are allowed to trade and sell their vouchers to others. The vouchers were designed in order to modify and reduce pollution in industries. You can find two parts designed to reduce pollution. The first part sets a cover on pollution by companies, the reason being is the fact companies will not overload and pollute up to they want and never have to purchase their future environmental problems. The next part was made to persuade companies to develop cleaner types of energy. Switching to cleaner forms of energy would get rid of the dependence on vouchers and other benefits would then be created.

However there are criticisms to the cap and trade system that companies make. One criticism is that it creates monopolies on the vouchers thus setting up a monopoly on pollution levels. Big companies will commence to obtain all the vouchers giving smaller companies unable to pollute and making them have to market out to the larger companies. Bigger companies have significantly more resources and can use them with their advantage. This enables them to combine all pollution levels and have control over particular establishments. Another criticism is the fact that vouchers will allow the government to possess control over private companies. The government would have specific capabilities over companies and would allow them have their needs meet prior to the company. The government would likewise have control over who has got the vouchers and just how many they can recieve.

The Research of Comparative Politics

Many people believe that there isn't any technology behind comparative politics, while some believe that there are reliable reasons as to the reasons and how comparative politics has its own scientific characteristics. There are plenty of examples concerning how comparative politics has a research behind it. I will give a few examples that produce comparative politics a knowledge, such as the research methods and exactly how they are being used to compare various point out politics.

Comparative Politics is thought as the analysis of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. Scholars have been studying politics among various regimes for years and years. Aristotle and Machiavelli were some of the first pioneers to review comparative politics so that they could gather information on the success and weaknesses of varied governments throughout record as well as their own era's. As the years went by different methods were developed to be able to raised understand government organizations, and as people started to maneuver around and create new governments across the world there was a focus change from Europe to these new expanding countries.

There was another shift in learning comparative politics, this time the focus had not been to describe the type of governments that emerged but the way they came into being and the probability of that federal entity to endure. As the governments developed and started to generate different corporations, scholars received more what to study and focus on. This brings about why there are people who do not believe that comparative politics to be methodical. As is the truth with other clinical forms of review, there are biases to analyze methods of comparative politics. Those that research comparative politics have their own beliefs and viewpoints and it comes out when researching a specific subject. The folks who are studying and making observations are the ones who draw the conclusions and facts. Their results could be very different from people who have different ideas, values, and research methods and this could bring about challenges over what actually took place or what is absolutely going on. It has similarities to other varieties of scientific research. Researchers with different values and research methods will come up with one idea and another scientist will come up with something complete opposite of what see your face came up with. Scientist can make to leave things out that they don't agree with, a similar thing can and will happen in comparative politics. Researchers in all fields can know what is said plus they can make use of it to manipulate viewers that aren't prepared on that specific theme; much like in politics where the public is convinced what politicians say even when they are not educated on that subject matter.

But quite possibly the biggest criticism as to why comparative politics is not a technology is the material they need to use. Politics is all historical in a sense, and therefore politics wasn't created in a lab rather it something that came about through more than 100 years of ruling and experience. Scientists have many types of acquiring resources and information where as political researchers get their knowledge from historical occurrences and earlier regimes. Gathering the info is harder for politics researchers as well. They might not be granted usage of some of the information they want or the truth might have been kept a secret from all of those other world. By this I mean that past politics regimes have held some of their information a key. A good example of this is Russia after WWII; they didn't completely disclose the death rate they faced after the war. Incidents like this make it harder on politics researchers when they want to put the facts along. Another problem that politics scientists suffer from when arguing because of their legitimacy is that they are limited with trials and errors. Experts can have infinite trials to test their hypothesis; they can simply create the experiment, test it, and pull conclusions. Political experts can only pass either past illustrations or current illustrations. Scientist can manipulate their experiments, political scientists can't. Researchers can have multiple checks where as politics scientists have to put into practice assumptions.

Although it could seem as though political research is no actual science there is a key part than it that means it is a science and that is that they follow the scientific approach to research. Political researchers take the same steps that other researchers take when screening there research. They produce a hypothesis as to the reasons a certain politics movement occurred in history, and how it affected that country and record. Soon after they test their hypothesis, the same as any other experiment. The forms and methods they use to test their hypothesis are unlike other types of science nevertheless they are still genuine forms of testing. They then think of a conclusion of these hypothesis. Their conclusions are difficult to accept depending on your political views and own personal beliefs, but they are accurate in their own right. Political scientists follow the technological method and verify that their field of technology is actually possible and respectable.

Political science faces lots of the same criticisms that other forms of science face. You can find people that are biased against their values. They have to perform experiments in order to test their hypothesis. They certainly extensive research on their topics and produce the best possible answers they can. Political research is a knowledge, even if there aren't laboratories and people in white coats doing the research

Advanced Democratic States

The greatest plan challenges that advanced democratic state governments face today suffer from political corporations, societal organizations, and economic establishments. Advanced countries are experiencing trouble getting ex - communist state governments or poorer says to be part of their union. They are also having trouble determining how to generate cultural welfare. They are experiencing problems with devolution. Advanced politics institutions are attempting to keep the people happy.

In European countries the major problems they are really facing are within europe. They are having difficulty with a number of things such as who to offer membership in to the union, the money system, patriotism, as well as worries within the society. Former communist claims are experiencing difficulty getting membership into the European Union because of the former governmental policies as well as their financial status. Their changeover from communism to democracy is a difficult one because they are switching in one form of authorities to a completely different one. Previous communist areas usually have a tendency to be poorer than the elderly users of the union which introduces problems when deciding how to fund these government authorities. Some countries need more help than others plus they don't produce all the prosperity as the aged members which create problems within the European union as to how much help and money they should receive. Former people of the Soviet Union aren't the only real ones that are having trouble acquiring account into the European union; countries with woman background have also had problems increasing membership. Turkey has already established difficulty because of their mostly Muslim culture. Allowing mainly Muslim cultures into the EU causes religious problems as well as societal doubts. Predominately Christian state governments within the EU dread that allowing Muslim claims into the European union would cause spiritual turmoil as well as result in a growth in terrorist threats. Christians fear that Muslims would outnumber them in customers, and the world thinks that would cause terrorist groups to upsurge. Account is not the only problem the European union faces, currency is actually a problem no real matter what. The Euro has been an idea that most European union members prefer but that others do not need. The euro was recommended in order to make a type of money that could help bring EU members nearer as well as create a reserve currency that would have international backing. But some countries such as the United Kingdom and Sweden have refused to become listed on the financial system because they view it as a loss of sovereignty; which introduces another problem which is patriotism. Some associates of the European union feel like they are dropping their individuality, they feel like they are all merging into one and are getting rid of their cultural personal information.

Other advanced countries, like the US face lots of the same problems as the European union. The US, European union, and advanced countries across the world are having to deal with social policies that are designed to help you its people. The US faces difficulties with its welfare programs concerning who gets them and how much they are entitled to. Many advanced countries see the importance of helping out the lower class in order that they may reduce the levels of poverty but also get more people contributing to modern culture in big ways. However some feel that the social procedures are not working and that many people are not giving back to society. The poor are not the sole ones which get to reap the benefits of these programs. Public security was an application designed to help you the elderly people of the US. It's a program that has helped many, but due to the ever increasing people of older people as well as the life expectancy rate carrying on to increase, programs such as sociable security will be affected in major ways. THE UNITED STATES is not the one country that is facing this problem; other advanced countries such as Japan have to deal with lower rates of delivery and higher older populations. If this proceeds to happen many advanced populations will commence to see a reduction in society. Immigration would seem to be to be the solution to the problem, but many countries dread and dislike immigration as they feel like immigration would cause civilizations to reduce their personality to assimilation. Immigration is something that advanced societies face which is something that triggers problem within their state. Fear of overpopulation, assimilation, and racial prejudices prevent immigration from growing.

Globalization would fix a few of the issues that advanced democracies face, nonetheless it won't fix most of them. Globalization could fix both racial worries and patriotism. Globalization is a process of international integration arising from the exchange of world views, meaning that countries around the world are connecting, trading, and exchanging personal views. This would obviously ease a few of the concerns of assimilation that many people think are bad. This could also put a dent in racial prejudices that are faced surrounding the world. Globalization could possibly encourage immigration allow for vast integration of cultures and views. Globalization may help the EU with creating the euro within most of its members. Globalization demands many countries to come together that could possibly lead to a growth in the necessity for an individual unit of currency. Globalization won't fix all the problems such as the complications that are participating with welfare programs. It won't stop life span from growing, it won't stop poverty, it will not end violence, but it might bring countries closer together and may lead to the answers to some of the problems that advanced democracies face.

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