Concept of suicide

1. 0 Idea of Suicide

1. 1 Background

Sir Thomas Browned originates the word "suicide" in 1642 in his Religio Medici. It had been derived from "SUI" (of oneself) and "CAEDES" (murder). since that time, this phrase has triggered much controversy and evoked many professionals to ongoing research and argument upon its definition in a variety of ways from every aspects: medical, social, subconscious, administrative, legal, religious and religious purposes.

Suicide is no more uncommon in the world and every day, there are folks from many strolls of life living under the same rooftop without us knowing what problems they are plagued with. Back again ages, suicide was a taboo subject to be discussed and yet, many are employed in such behavior though it is believed that most suicide situations are unreported. For some, suicidal actions are glorified especially to cults and religion purposes. As time advances, the mentality of the culture changes along as time passes and the stigma of suicide is slowly and gradually undergoing much argument and understanding. Now, suicide is regarded more of a tragedy rather than ritual because area of the reason is usually that the society undergoes globalization no longer procedures scarification. Even when there is a minority of tribes who endorses scarification, the categories are negligible throughout the globe. Also, suicide in this era more often is done credited to personal reasons; be it mentality, spiritual etc.

In 1763, the first make an effort was done medically by Merian to understand the rationale behind suicide. It is thought that suicide was not regarded as a sin or a offense. Instead, suicide has been regarded as a disease of mankind. Following the fatality of Jean Jacques Rousseau in 1822, which acquired sequentially and graphically identified circumstances of his death, Farlet manages to conduct a first in-depth assessment on suicide. This enables better understanding on suicide with broader point of view. A famous psychiatrist, Dr R. Gaupp, says that amidst people committing suicide they have unique and bizarre personality traits. For the past 50 years, it is concluded by group of researches that suicide commences from the state of mind, coupled with exterior factors, leading to suicide. Herein, we can look in depths of suicide amongst Malaysian university students.

1. 2 Definition

A suicide idea is when one thought of finishing one's own life. One thing brings about another, suicide ideas often contributes to suicidal try out and suicidal behavior. Suicidal behaviours are thoughts or tendencies that began a person and put them in danger for committing suicide. Simply said, suicide is an intentional or voluntary persistence to get rid of one's life, as defined by the planet Health Firm (WHO). A suicidal person often shut down one's options in life, and talks about another darker part of negativity. To them, dying is a pre-requisite for the end of all sufferings. A famous sociologist, Emile Durkheim whom not only proposes the theory of functionalism but also researched on Suicide, areas that: "the word suicide is put on all situations of death ensuing straight or indirectly from a positive or negative work of the sufferer himself, which he is aware of will produce this end result" (1982, p. 110 [excerpt from Suicide]).

1. 3 Description

Suicide is no uncommon issue nowadays and it is widely mentioned in institutions although it is still condemned by the population. Much about talking about facts and truths behind this dark sentiment of life, there are common misconceptions about suicide which we have to eradicate in order to comprehend the situation better we are able to curb this problem. When we listened to people whom talks about suicide, we assumed that these people would not do it being that they are open to discussion. To include, folks who are open to debate shouldn't be overlooked because they could also consider the options of suicide since the minds of a person is incomprehensible. In addition, the population views the troubled ones as people whom cannot be kept and are unwilling to seek help. Given that they intend to commit suicide, nothing at all can stop him. These misconstrued assumptions are proven incorrect because they're lost and sometimes expect attention and understanding. Indeed, they are individuals whom should not be segregated. Another idea that needs to be avoided is that individuals thought that suicide implies lack of beliefs in religion. That is incorrect because there are specific religions which encourage suicide in the name of trust.

Thoughts and attempts of suicide as well as committing suicide are major concerns throughout the world and it is still a growing concern amidst the society. Very much noticeable, most suicidal circumstance involves adolescents and young teens. The teenage years are one of the very most difficult periods in life, as discovered by psychologists. Although young adults are thought to take pleasure from life without concerns of financial steadiness and mid-life turmoil, suicide seems way an inconsiderable option to them since they ought to have no problems at this period of life besides studying. But many changes in the mind which takes place during puberty can change their identification and their prone self if indeed they may have to cope with a broad selection of personal and communal obstacles. Since young people are so delicate, they may experience difficulty in working with stress.

Children prior to puberty had hardly been bothered by suicidal patterns, probably due to their failure to envisage or perform a suicide plan. When puberty strikes adolescence, dangerous psychiatric factors, such as depressive disorder and drug abuse become imminent and play a role in adding to the sources of occurrence in suicidal behavior. Some children especially young ladies, view the transition from primary to middle university stressful. Furthermore, as one ages parental supervision decreases, so teenagers are more likely to engage in bad action without their parents' consents.

Suicide is split into several frequently used terms to identify its symptoms and triggers. Here are the explanations provided by the entire world Health Company (WHO) regarding suicidal terms that would have to be taken into account:-

  • Suicide: a planned act of eliminating oneself intentionally. The act can be carried out by the person with or without the entire knowledge or expectation of any fatal results.
  • Suicidal attempt: A medical intervention is required in cases like this, following the person whom intended to end his or her life determined a life-threatening action with a conscious intent.
  • Suicidal gesture: A series of self-threatening behaviour on display, which might be damaging or non- damaging.
  • Suicidal idea: The energy of head to thought or set up the process to get rid of one's own life.
  • Suicidal risk: The propensity of concluding one's life will depend on this attribute, depending on its occurrence or absence.
  • Suicidal pact: Several people in agreement to perish concurrently by committing the action of suicide.
  • Suicidal cluster: People who gather in groups to commit suicide jointly, usually for a standard objective.
  • Suicidal counters: To avoid suicide, this group of factors operates within the individual, family or contemporary society.

1. 4 Facts and Figures

With multiple reasons believed to be the complexities for suicide, facts and results of statistics here are generally shown to highlight suicide from methods of ending life in various ethnic organizations (inference is drawn from research of data from suicidal instances from the School Malaya Medical Centre mortuary ) to why it is determined : -

  • It is predicted that 450 million people suffered with mental of behavioral disorder.
  • Every year, near to 1 million people determined suicide and 1 in 4 households have at least an associate with mental disorder.
  • There are 25 million schizophrenic patients and 50 million who suffer from epilepsy, which About 40 million or 80% are assumed to reside in developing countries
  • Most of them resided for 33% of the years with disability are anticipated to neuropsychiatric disorders (unhappiness, alcohol-use disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder).
  • From 2000-2004, University or college Malaya Medical Centre found suicides of 164 man (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims using their ages ranging from 15 to 80 years.
  • The generation with the best total of conditions between 21 to 30 (83 of 251; 33. 1%)
  • The highest rate of suicide was among Chinese (ethnic categories) with a total of 120 conditions (120 of 251; 47. 8%) utilizing the common method; jumping from level (41%).
  • Whereas, Indians commonly commit suicide by dangling themselves (49 of 87) and poisoning (20 of 37; 54. 1%); and Muslims possessed shown the lowest circumstances of suicide (18 of 251; 7. 2%).

1. 5 Types of suicide

"Collective tendencies come with an existence of their own; they are really forces as real as cosmic pushes, though of another kind; they, likewise, impact the average person from without. . . " (Thompson, 1982, p. 109 [excerpt from Suicide])

To different true suicides from accidental deaths, Durkheim suggested this explanation of suicide: "the word suicide is applied to all situations of death resulting straight or indirectly from a good or negative take action of the sufferer himself, which he knows will produce this final result" (1982, p. 110 [excerpt from Suicide]). Then, Durkheim proposes four types of suicide:

1) Egoistic suicide

Minimal sociable integration allows outcasts and segregation of people who are not considered fit to be bounded to specific cultural groups. They are remaining with little cultural support or advice. Thus, trend to commit suicide boosts. For instance, students especially young ladies in schools wanted to belong in categories or so-called cliques. Most of the times, those whom are shunned off are the ones to be laughed at and criticized.

2) Altruistic suicide

The opposite of egoistic suicide. This type of suicide results from too much of integration. Self-sacrifice is the prominent trait and customers of the group were so integrated that they lost their personality and ever so happy to sacrifice for the group's interest. For instance, black metal teams in institution do underground sacrificial methods at times in their action of worshipping.

3) Anomic suicide (of moral regulation)

When means were unable to fulfill needs, an imbalance of means and needs occur.

i. Acute economical anomie

Traditional establishments such as faith and government failed to practise moral restraints on the capitalist contemporary society. Hence, the ruling of private individuals to determine one's destiny in life. This sort of suicide will not apply in Malaysia since it is a democratic country where everyone gets the equal rights to flourish in their own ability.

ii. Chronic economical anomie

Social regulation slowly but surely diminishes after a revolution or urbanization. As a result, traditional social rules deteriorated. Wealth and property was not enough to make individuals happy, as was showed by higher suicide rates among the wealthy than the poor. For example, richer students gain easier access to drugs for their high allowance making it affordable on their behalf. Later on, consumption of drug substances will lead to suicide (will be reviewed later in this theme). This also clarifies why students in metropolitan schools are usually more susceptible to suicide rather than rural area students.

iii. Acute local anomie

The shortcoming of a person to adapt to quick changes in life results this suicide. For instance, students who cannot cope the increased loss of his or her family might consider suicide as a choice to get rid of the anguish.

iv. Chronic local anomie

The way marriage is seen in different laws and needs for each and every gender. Bachelors tended to commit suicide at higher rates than committed men due to a lack of legislation and founded goals and goals. Alternatively, bachelorettes are lower risk to commit suicide because without relationship, they are not confined to boundaries set by family members. This isn't a concern for students in Malaysian colleges unless if young girls are wedded off during schooling. Such circumstances are exceptional in Malaysia unless in rural areas like in Sabah or Sarawak.

4) Fatalistic suicide

This type of suicide didn't obtain much attention since it is a uncommon phenomenon of real life. Individuals who are over governed and acquire unrewarding lives like the slaves or childless wedded women might consider suicide. Their future is relies on others to find out. Cases do happened like prostitution or human being trafficking, but this type of suicide will not connect much to the field of education.

1. 6 Alert signs

"Rarely, suicide spurs a moment of strong decision", says Dr Suarn Singh, Brain of Psychiatry, Ministry of Health Malaysia.

More often, there are many observable clues to consider to identify college students vulnerable to mental and public distress and symptoms leading to the actual attempt, such as:

  1. A change in tendencies- speech or actions - such as constantly declaring that "I cannot continue" or "I want to end everything".
  2. Attitudes or appearance requires a toll on health insurance and person becomes recluse and not care of that they look usually by not grooming.
  3. Behaving recklessly by not taking safety measures, e. g. : crossing the road without looking.
  4. Giving away prized property and valuable items.
  5. Individual may be supported with unpredicatable feeling swings like crying, self-mutilation and impulsiveness.
  6. Identify the distress and remarkable change that influences the student's performance in school (e. g. : attendance and action)
  7. Lack appealing in college, overall decline in performance, misconduct in school, unexplainable lack or truancy.
  8. Abuse of compound, smoking or medicine (including cannabis).
  9. Violent behavior which sometimes consists of the police.

1. 7 Risk Factors and Risk Situations

When being able to access suicide patterns amongst students, all parties including university staffs, young families and friends should be aware of the victim's behavior. Repetitive do it yourself mutilation should also be taken into word because distraught young adults tend to replicate their serves. Particular suicide behaviour under circumstances is interdependent with the surroundings and genetic factors. Various says or neighbouring countries that has factors of ethnical, political and financial differences may play a role in risking the youth's decisions of suicide. Alternatively, risk situations are hurtful or injurious happenings which are experienced by the patients. These occurrences may wound the victim's personal dignity and self-image. Example, a suicidal student may come across with peer pressure in institution, bullying, disappointment and failure in academic or high expectations from parents during evaluation.

Suicide is becoming an intense issue, yet, it still remains as an ambiguous subject to fully grasp. A standard person won't understand to what extent these junior will do just to end their lives. Researches were done and discovered that major risk factors are associated with teenagers who are plagued with these causes that might have been the reason why leading those to suicide. The major risk factors to include are:

  1. Cultural and sociodemographic factors
  2. Family pattern and negative life occasions during childhood
  3. Cognitive style and personality
  • Current negative life incidents as triggers of suicidal behavior
  • Cultural and sociodemographic factors

    Different countries are associated with different civilizations and demographic set ups. In the third world countries, low socioeconomic position, insufficient education system and unemployment are risk factors for suicide. Although Malaysia is a developed country and cannot be compared to third world neighbours, suicide still happens rampantly in urban areas, which is developed and suicide rates are expected to be lower instead of a drastic information to show. When urbanization enforces tournaments, subconscious impact of torture may lead to self-conflict between oneself and the society. One is expected to perform to the requirements of society's customary needs. Also, in Malaysian classes, students are very academic inclined. That is a robust risk factor for students to be depressed and may resort to self-destruction. Also, students and adolescents whom lack of self-identity and social roots may select for this selection of suicide under nerve-racking environment. Having said that, "Each individual young person's development is intertwined with collective cultural tradition", as explained by World Health Organization (WHO). Since Malaysia is a multiracial country, there are several race that takes on a larger attribution of gender nonconformity and identity issues. Consider an Indian female being located at a Chinese school with the majority of Chinese, she actually is hardly accepted into the culture of almost all. When a learner begins to dread a serious acceptance problem, they'll lack of support in order to experience an optimum growth during that phase of life.

    Family structure and negative life occasions during childhood

    Personal loss and issue, associated with parents or affectionate parts are one of the most typical reasons for suicide amongst students. Physical or sexual misuse, family feud played a component in suicide contemplation as well. Usually, suicidal children will leave a note or tracks that they are going to suicide. Just like the diary, short notes of apologies, so on and so forth. More often, suicidal students want to escape the pressure from requirements of the environment or from internal aspects that the simple truth is a painful intolerable fact to take care of. Broken family members and traumatic encounters e. g. rape, mental torture, etc. leave a scar forever in the child especially when the child is unable to deal with with the aftermaths of stress. You can find evidences that suggest suicidal students often result from destructive families with more than one factor risks. The consequences are cumulative and these problems are not often known because suicides are more likely to avoid seeking help from others. Here are a few negative aspects to observe a dysfunctional family that often characterizes instances of suicidal students:

    • Family with the annals of suicide.
    • Alcohol and substance abuse member in the family.
    • Abusive family (physically, mentally or sexually).
    • Divorce and separation of family
    • Very high or suprisingly low demands of specifications from the parents.
    • Lack of attention and care and attention from family.

    Cognitive style and personality

    It is arguable between your romance of a certain suicidal trait and a range of cognitive style and personality that risk suicides between young people. It is generally equivocal and ambivalent because suicidal habits vary between different individuals. The next traits are observed in a suicidal youngsters, specifically students during adolescence:

    • Instability in feeling.
    • Aggressive and needs anger management.
    • Anti-social
    • High impulsiveness
    • Inability to grasp realities and rigid mentality, often in their own world of illusion.
    • Great sense of worthlessness and despair.
    • Anxiety and inferiority.
    • Provocative behavior towards others including family and classmates.
    • Ambivalent human relationships with the society (family, friends, people).

    Suicidal behaviour is overrated amidst college children and children with the next psychiatric disorders:

    Anxiety disorders and Depression

    It is known from studies which may have proven the connection between anxiety disorder and suicide. Whilst attributes of anxiety appear to be independent of depression, its effect always causes psychosomatic symptoms if not cared for. Unlike depression, anxiety disorder is dominant to discover and victim will usually shows indicators of concerns and unhappiness with themselves.

    Discussion about unhappiness should be taken seriously. Major depression is often beyond recognition. Students may seem to be pretty disappointed or irritated at minor disturbances and may never considered suicide. But if the symptoms of unhappiness last for more than a about a week without improvement, help is needed. The signs or symptoms of depression found amidst students or junior include:

    • Utter degree of sadness
    • Gradual withdrawal from everything.
    • Student becomes recluse and isolated.
    • School performance decreased with no visible reasons.
    • Loss appealing in activities that student used to enjoy.
    • Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, helplessness
    • Lack of drive.
    • Differences in sleeping behaviors and fatigue.
    • Change in hunger and eating habits.
    • Self-neglect and self-hatred.
    • Physical complaints, sad thoughts or fatality.
    • Anger management needed for reckless frame of mind and temper.
    • Substance misuse.
    • Restlessness and agitation with one personal or others.

    School students with melancholy symptoms oftentimes present anti interpersonal patterns and both are precursor to suicide. It really is noticed that frustrated female student could be more silent and withdrawn from others, whereas on their male counterpart, students of this gender becomes intense and disrupted and seek a great deal of attention. Ahead of that, students can wipe out themselves too and never have to be depressed and they may also be in circumstances of despair without eliminating themselves.

    Substance abuse

    Students who abused drugs and alcohol are often linked to suicide. Teenagers are often found to get committed the work of suicide after consuming the chemicals. Sometimes, students used these chemicals to ease their stress and despair. In another case, youth whom have never considered suicide may have done so after taken alcohol because alcohol suppresses rationale thinking. Simply, their actions derive from an impulsive act which leads these to concluding their lives even so they might do not have contemplated suicide when they are sober.

    Eating disorders

    Eating disorders happen mostly to the female genders whom are dissatisfied using their own body. In the attention of the world, thin slender young ladies are items of desire. The multimedia often portrays catwalk models, who are skinny and scrawny. In classes, fat students are always being sneered and jeered as well as being outcast. Anorexic and bulimic ladies are vulnerable towards despair and suicide risk for anorexics are approximately 20 times more than junior generally.

    Psychotic disorders

    Albeit, we barely heard of Malaysian students experiencing severe psychiatric disorders like the schizophrenia or manic-depressive disorder, those influenced are still in danger with suicide hazards. But most psychotic youths began with other risk factors, such as abnormal smoking and drug abuse.

    Current negative life incidents as triggers of suicidal behavior

    As aforementioned due to inherited hereditary factors, destructive young families and negative aspects in life, students of this age end up vulnerable towards suicide because when current negative life events happen in concurrent with their condition they find it hard to deal furthermore. This susceptibility helps it be difficult to handle negative life incidents adequately, and having said that, stressful life events precede suicide. They reminds of the scholar of sense of hopelessness and despair.

    2. 0 How Colleges can Prevent Suicide

    Usually, suicidal students barely make an effort suicides within the institution compound. However when the outbreak of your student's suicide occurs, even off school's place, the news headlines will distress others, triggering extreme emotional problems amongst students, personnel, and parents whilst college activities will come to prevent for weeks before it is resumed. Hence, colleges play an important role for preventing suicides. Many young students whom are damaged by spirits disorders or substance abuse down the road contemplate suicide. Whilst the other emotional setbacks associated with suicide includes conduct disorders, aggression, split personality disorder, and strong feeling amount of hopelessness (Berman, Jobes, and Silverman, 2006).

    Here, the school's responsibility and assignments that can be played are summarized by the National Association of Institution Psychologists (NASP) (Poland and Lieberman, 2003):

    2. 1 Diagnosis/ Awareness

    School administration and staff staff should observe students' behaviour for indicators of suicide. Discussion on a regular basis is encouraged between the institution and students. College counselor must play his / her responsibility in assisting problematic students before any incident of suicide.

    2. 2 Parent notification

    When awareness is created, any changes in attitudes or suspicious works arise the school should upgrade the parents or guardian of student's. Face to face discussion is preferred to come about ways of avoiding the university student from suicide, which includes close supervision or referral to specialists. Also, a record of victim's parent and sufferer should be placed confidential.

    2. 3 Support for students vulnerable to suicide

    The college, psychologists and advisors, should keep an eye on and support suicidal students. Counseling and follow-up services shall be recommended.

    2. 4 School-Based Suicide Elimination Programs

    Schools should educate teachers and staffs to help identify students at risk of suicide. This is done through training and appropriate mechanisms necessary. These mechanisms add a series of programs specially designed to counteract suicidal dangers. Schools must heed these vital steps to regulate suicide amongst their students:

    ˜ School-based suicide elimination program and school-based mental health services

    Health testing, mental health survey and educational activities are completed at institution level to help students discover and seek help when needed. Programs like health promotion program and risk elimination can succeed if made in depth to students.

    ˜ Suicide elimination gate keeping program

    People who have regular relationship and contact with students in institution are teachers. They have to learn how to realize students' behavioural patterns and warning signs. Also, teachers need to be actively involved with dialogue to explore the chance of suicide among students and to ensure that the victim must receive proper instruction and treatment when it's necessary. Data must be maintained current and problematic students must be scrutinized.

    ˜ School problems preparation and response plan

    This prepares the school regarding disaster, from natural disaster to assault within the institution. The school turmoil preparation plan should include procedures of stopping self-destructive students as well as students amid contemplation. Also, information must be studied into consideration as a research for educators and staffs to reply such instances when such tragedy occurs.

    ˜ Postvention

    Such term can be used to assess preventions to be integrated after a tragedy occurs. The purpose of this program is to reduce the risk of these witnesses to be damaged directly after the incident. Suicide or unforeseen loss of life of another learner can result in a traumatized individual. This program includes grief counseling for students and school party. Postvention really helps to identify other students whom may be vulnerable after a trauma, also to support students. Sometimes, college works with the media to ensure such coverage of information does not lead to additional risks of suicide.

    3. 0Suggestions: A guide for Professors and University Staffs

    It takes time for a student to try suicide. Hardly ever, suicide occurs out of sudden with no caution. Most cases, instructors and people of the modern culture who take notice of the victim on a daily basis is able to distinguish a behaviour of norm and suicidal. The following are three (3) steps of reduction: before, during and after a suicide:

    3. 1 Standard avoidance: before any suicidal incident

    Early reputation helps save lives. Experts suggested that it is not a smart approach to teach about suicide explicitly. Rather, they recommend tackling this problem by swapping issues of suicide with a good mental health approach.

    a) Mental health of schoolteachers and other university staff

    Teachers are the role model in virtually any causes. A good teacher can change the prospect of a person's point of view in a brighter light. Hence, conditioning the mental health of your instructor only can he or she leads the students into the correct avenue in life.

    b) Students' self-esteem

    Positive self-esteem is vital to protect students against suicide. One with topnotch of esteem will manage better with stress even how difficult one's situation may be. To nurture positivity amongst the students, a few rules should not be taken lightly. Firstly, students must never been pressured constantly to fare much better than other students. They must always look on the brighter side of life experience to be able to forge a good identity. Every scholar should be cherished as who they are and become accepted for what these are. In addition, the institution should focus on bringing out life skills insurance agencies experts giving discussions and later on assimilate a good workshop within the curriculum.

    Most importantly, the programme can send out announcements of knowledge to peers on how to be supportive and seek help if required. Plus, the school should revise and review the education system to enhance the development of each pupil holistically.

    c) Emotional expression

    Students should learn how expressing their feelings appropriates and take fee of how they feel significantly. When things eliminated awry, they have to confide in parents, teachers, individuals, doctor, friends or even religious advisors.

    d) Bullying and violence at school

    Issues on bullying have been a significant matter for a long time since bullying make suicide seemed more nice to students to flee from humiliation and personal dignity. Because the victim could not determine what others had done to him/her, the victim possessed only his own life to regulate. Thus, specific skills should be trained in schools to prevent bullying and violence. This way, only the school can offer a sanctuary for protection and intolerance of the negative aspects.

    e) Information regarding care services

    In Malaysia, Befrienders aren't new to the population nowadays. Students should be aware about the option of these services and by rendering it accessible to the young people, so that they can make use of the help lines regarding turmoil and psychiatric disaster. To add, there are over 240 Health Centres across the country in Malaysia which have psychiatric systems and also counseling unit for help. The most recent news up to date, Prof Hussain, the President of the Malaysian Psychiatric Connection hopes to create Malaysian Suicide Elimination Council which works to provide information and education on mental problems, the chance factor for suicide.

    3. 2 Involvement: whenever a suicide risk is identified

    a) Communication

    A trustful communication should be established. During suicidal contemplation, communication at this moment is vital. A busted network and absence of dialugue will cause increased anxiety in the partnership. Therefore, a good communication is fundamental in achieving mutual understanding. Here, the implication of dialogue picks up the student's id and need for help. Because of lack of trust, suicidal students often are hypersensitive to means of communication. This avoidance of attitude shows symptoms of distrust in parents. However, all parties shouldn't be discouraged at the students' reluctance to speak out. It takes time for you to build on trust but moments to destroy it.

    b) Institution staff's skills

    Special training, classes and talks targeted at enhancing communication between suicidal students and their teachers can be provided. This allows the increase of awareness and knowledge of suicide risk. However, the importance of these programmes is the tool works which have to be with clear aims and goals as identified in manuals in preventing suicide

    c) Recommendation to professionals

    Professionals are trained to handle conditions of suicide. Hence, a prompt thing to do the suicidal student to a general practitioner or a psychiatrist can be life keeping. To efficiency, young ones health services need to be approachable and taken care of by trained staffs. The school must refer the students to proper health care system or institution to avoid students from dropping out halfway through the program, which can be done to occur if the recommendation is conducted by correspondence.

    d) Removing means of suicide

    There are many means to execute a suicide which includes knifes, drugs, explosives, etc and so forth. By detatching them, we had used precaution as a life keeping methods. Since these steps cannot work by itself over time, psychological support is still inevitable.

    3. 3 Aftermath: when suicide has been committed

    a) Informing university personnel and schoolmates

    After a life is used, an outbreak of crisis will cause many to worry. Universities need to possess emergency plans to inform the public and everything parties engaged including parents and instructors. At the same time, the school needs to prevent the craze of suicide from outburst. This effect could be contagious if not considered precaution because university students are fragile emotionally and mentally at this phase of life.

    4. 0 Application of Functionalism Theory in Malaysian School Context

    Moral Education and Public Reform

    The functionalism theory looks at the society as a whole instead of individuals. The functionalism theory by Emile Durkheim exposes basic ideas on education and beliefs in societies being placed by shared principles. Durkheim believes a modern culture could be reformed through moral education because a society is the foundation of morality. He stresses in the importance of keeping the worth of the modern culture as a essential "function" in life. And he also declares that education can provide this way to obtain morality (values) which involves three elements: self-control, connection, and autonomy.

    Discipline is made of egoistic impulsiveness whereas attachment is the individual's determination to committed to groups as well as autonomy towards oneself; their own responsibility towards their well-being. These are the three elements are necessary for generations to operate optimally in a population.

    As the existing of suicidal theme related to issues in education, the emphasis will be on Durkheim's point of views of education in his Functionalism theatrical platform with the integration of Malaysia education system. Durkheim's theory argues that education has many functions:

    1. To reinforce sociable solidarity
    • Students should learn about prominent those who have done great for the society so that they will be motivated and recognized that everyone has to undergo failure to achieve success.
    • Education in Malaysia is to reinforce the nation as "One Malaysia" and races resided in calmness and harmony jointly all together constituting a population.
    • Pledging Allegiance as integrated in JERI (Jasmani, Emosi, Rohani, Intelektual) from the "Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan": Makes individuals feel part of a group and therefore less likely to break guidelines.
  • To maintain cultural roles
    • School plays a job as a population in miniature. Like the "outdoor world", the institution has a familiar hierarchy, guidelines, and goals. Hence, training the young students to satisfy roles.
    • Main concern for education is to socialize the students and youthful generation with rules and norms of the modern culture.
  • To maintain department of labour.
    • Teachers sorts students out into skill groups to work on what they are proficient at.
    • Hence, the sense of self-worthy.
    • Education's part and parcel is to get ready the younger technology as a all natural individuals to contribute to the workforce in the foreseeable future. By determining the functions and components of society and knowledge of the social framework, students can understand and understand their roles as respective individuals who constitute the world.


    Suicide produces warning before the victim strikes. It allows time for intervention and work of elimination. In the period of globalization, the population plunges in the depth of abyss by the rise of suicide conditions. And academic institutions as a medium of education, faced with great concern to strategize the educational system to arm with possible answers to counteract cases so. Students need support from all functions to identity the problems with mental support. Shared understanding is fostered through dialogues and closer bonds are forged with plethora of communication. Suicide also educated the others to be ever before vigilant and observant of these around them. This problem widens our knowledge and in places of the ambiguous delicate minds. It helps to destigmatize those damaged with mental health issues and designed on reduction of substance abuse. Also, the referral for treatments to help students also made available for access. Hence, a cure for the eradication of suicide is manufactured possible with the experts and care and attention and support amongst the culture.

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