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Concept of Absenteeism

Concept of Absenteeism

It refers to workers absence using their company regular activity when he is normally plan to work. Corresponding to Webster's dictionary

Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and an absentee is person who habitually stays from work. '

According to Labour Bureau of Shimla

Absenteeism is the full total man shifts lost because of lack as percentage of total number of man shifts slated to work. '

Absenteeism identifies the failing of the employees to report on duty without prior notice. It has also been defines as the total man shifts lost as a result of absences as a percentage of the full total of man- shifts schedules. Industrial absenteeism is an appearance of the personnel dissatisfaction towards their job, work place or the very environment, no explanation can provide a drive out signifying for absenteeism.

Causes of absenteeism can include,

* Serious automobile accident and may be ill

* Morale is low

* Working condition aren't suitable

* Boredom at the job place

* Job satisfaction is low

* Power management inadequate supervision

* Personal problem ( financial, marital, drug abuse, child health care etc, )

* in physical form not fit

* vehicles problem

* benefit which ongoing income during intervals of disorder or accident

* stress

* extra work

* discontent with work environment

Types of Absenteeism:

There are mainly two varieties of absenteeism.

* Physical Absenteeism

* Functional Absenteeism

Physical Absenteeism

Physical absenteeism is when employees aren't present at the job. It is divided into innocent absenteeism and culpable absenteeism.

Innocent Absenteeism

Innocent absenteeism identifies employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control, like sickness and personal injury. Innocent absenteeism is culpable meaning it is blameless. In a labour relation context this implies it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary actions.

Culpable Absenteeism

Culpable absenteeism means, the employees who are absent without authorization for reasons that happen to be within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave though they're sick and it could be proven that worker was not unwell is guilty of culpable absenteeism. Being culpable is usually to be blameworthy. Inside a labour relations context this means progressive discipline can be employed.

Functional Absenteeism

Functional Absenteeism is when employees are present to work, but aren't productive. Recurrent and lengthy tea or smoke cigars and toilet break types of types of absenteeism. This sort of absent does mean arriving late, leaving early, spending more length of time in fetching or having tools or looking for information.

For the top majority of employees absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Methods for disciplinary action apply and then culpable absenteeism. Many organisations take the view that through the process of specific absentee counselling and treatment nearly all employees will get over their problems and return to an acceptable degree of regular attendance.

Literature Review

McGregor's Theory X and Y in relationship with Absenteeism

In this theory, which includes been proven counter- effective generally in most modern techniques, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if indeed they can and this inherently dislike work. As a result of this, management feels that workers have to be directly supervised and thorough systems of control buttons developed. Following are some key features of theory X.

People by nature

* if given the ability wouldn't normally apply themselves in working for someone else

* Absence ambition & must be supervised and directed to work

* Choose to be told what things to do

* Resist change

* Usually do not own the organizational problems

Reflects carrot and stick

Hard Methodology- the stick

o Coercion

o Implicit threats

o Close supervision

o Tight controls

Soft Strategy- the carrot

o Rewards, inducements

o Being permissive

o Benevolent management

o Tranquility as a priority

The problem with Theory X

Under McGregor Theory X the firm relies on money and advantages to gratify employees' lower needs, as soon as those needs are satisfies the source of determination is lost. Consequently, the only path that employees can attempt to satisfy their more impressive range of needs in their work is by seeking more reimbursement, so it is quite predictable that they will focus on monetary rewards.

McGregor makes a spot that a control and control environment is not effective and because it relies on lower needs as levers of drive, but in society those needs are already satisfied and therefore no longer inspire. In this example one would expect employees to remain absent from work, avoid responsibility, resist change etc thus creating a self satisfying prophecy. Out of this reasoning, McGregor proposed an alternative: Theory Y.

In Theory Y management assumes employees may be ambitious and self applied motivated and exercise self-control. It really is thought that employees enjoy their mental and physical work responsibilities. Some features of Theory Y.

People are

o Positively seek work instead of avoid it

o Will be self disciplined if committed

o With the capacity of setting their own goals and integrating these with the goals of the organization

o Seek responsibility and challenge

o Prefer participative management

o Creative probable is under-utilized at work

McGregor believes that Theory Y professionals are much more likely than Theory X mangers to develop the climate of trust with employees that necessary for human learning resource development.

If we analyze these two ideas can easily see that absenteeism could be more in an organization which got the professionals who participate in Theory X school of thought than Theory Y. This absenteeism can be been able by motivating the employees and by fulfilling their lower needs and also giving them opportunity to satisfy their higher needs. Employees will be more effective if their work goals and their higher-level of needs are in position.


Job satisfaction when it comes to one's sense or state of mind regarding nature of the work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one marriage with supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfilment in their work etc. Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an important signal of how employees experience their job and a predictor of work behavior such as organisational citizenship, Absenteeism, turnover.

Reasons of low job satisfaction

· Issue between co-workers

· Issue between supervisor

· Not being opportunity payed for what they do

· Fear of shedding their job

· Have little if any say in decision making that affect employees

Effects of low job satisfaction

High absenteeism is one of the key effects that an organization faces credited to low job satisfaction. If there will be low job satisfaction among the list of employees the speed of absenteeism will definitely increase and it also effects on efficiency of organization. If the work satisfaction in employees is higher rate of absenteeism will be low and vice versa.


Expectancy theory has two degrees of outcome, first level result result employees employed in directed way. First level final result can be performance at the job, absenteeism or leaving from work. Second level result take place after first level outcome which includes getting as per motion receiving acceptance.

Expectancy Theory Beliefs

* Valence:

Refers to emotional orientations which people hold regarding outcomes(rewards)

* Expectancy:

Employees have different goals and degree of confidence in what they can handle doing. Management must uncover what resources, training or guidance the employees need

* Instrumentality:

The belief of employees whether they will actually get what they desire, even if it's been promised by way of a manager. Management must be sure that guarantees of rewards are fulfilled and this employees are aware of it

Expectancy theory helps mangers to understand their employee's behavior within the business. If the obtaining individual believes the organization rewards than is instrumentalities will be positive and high of course, if the employees assume that organization will not equitably prize performance than it can leads into the absent seem to be or leave.

Self esteem in Maslow hierarchy also clarify expectancy theory, if employees have a good home image they think that they good work business lead to good performance and they experience high expectancies for his or her performance behavior and employees with negative personal image believe that their capacity or inadequate and they will put less work to work and which can cause absenteeism at work that leads towards more cost and less productivity

Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory

One of the most widely mentioned theories of desire is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the best and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be motivator.

As per theory these needs are

i. Physiological needs

These are important for sustaining the human life. Food, normal water, warmth, shelter, sleep, treatments and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction.

ii. Security or Protection needs

These are the needs to be free from physical danger and of worries of losing a job, property, food or shelter. In addition, it includes safety against any psychological harm.

iii. Public needs

Since people are communal beings, they have to belong and be accepted by others. People make an effort to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance, and companionship.

iv. Esteem needs

According to Maslow, one people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they have a tendency to want to be presented in esteem both independently and others. This sort of need produces such satisfaction as electric power, prestige position and self-confidence. It includes both inside esteem factors like do it yourself respect, autonomy and achievement and exterior esteem factors such as states, identification and attention.

v. Dependence on self-actualization

Maslow regards this as the best need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to be what the first is with the capacity of becoming. It offers growth, attaining one's potential and self-fulfilment. It is to maximize one's potential and to complete something.

Gaol Placing Theory by Edwin Locke

Instead of presenting vague task to the people, specific and pronounced aims, help in obtaining them faster. As the clarity is high, o goal orientation also avoids any misunderstanding in the task of the employees. The goal setting theory says that when the goals to be performed are placed at a higher standard than in that case employees are encouraged to execute better and put in maximum effort. It revolves around the concept of self-efficacy i. e. individual's opinion that he or she is capable of performing a difficult task.

Dr. B. F Skinner Research

Dr. B. F. Skinner (1953) through his research emerged to believe that positive reinforcement can significantly improve the possibility of the reoccurrence of this behaviour. Additionally, Skinner suggested that actions can be strengthened by negative reinforcement. In negative reinforcement, a particular behaviour is encouraged as a result of removal of an aversive stimulus. For example, an employee's desired actions would be reinforced if, by carrying out that desired activities, the employee's supervisor ceased to reprimand the worker. Removing the negative reinforcement, the supervisor's reprimands, would serve to strengthen the employee's desired behaviour. While both negative and positive reinforcement can succeed. Skinner favoured the ex - much more than the later.


Managers generally find it beneficial to compute and analyse the absenteeism incident. The following way can be utilized in this regard.

* Total Time lost. That is one of the very most popular actions that is used. The computation provides ratio of total scheduled work time that is lost to absenteeism. The method for the strategy is.

Total time lost =Days and nights lost to absenteeism for a periodAverage number of employees ×total days in period×100

* Tardiness. Tardiness is a kind of absenteeism that can create work problems, particularly in manufacturing surroundings where machines and assembly lines are slated to start out at a particular time. Increased tardiness disrupts normal working operations, making it problematic for the first level supervisor to synchronise the beginning of a shift operation.

Cost of Absenteeism

There is a lot of cost the absenteeism cause to a business. These can be in several areas of a corporation.

* Parting costs: Includes HR staff and supervisor time and incomes to avoid separations, exit interview time, unemployment bills, legal fees for separation challenged, accrued vacation, prolonged benefits etc.

* Creation cost: Includes that cost which an organization faces when development charges are not met due to lack of employees or high absenteeism in company.

* Replacing costs: Includes recruiting and advertising bills, search fees, HR interviewer and staff time and earnings, employee referral price, relocation and moving costs, supervisor and managerial time and salaries etc.

* Training costs: Includes paid orientation time, training staff time and earnings, costs of training materials, co worker coaching time and wages.

* Hidden costs: Includes costs not obvious but affect lost output, decreased customer service, other unexpected employee turnover, missed task deadlines etc.

Recommendations for Taking care of Absenteeism

Control of absenteeism in large complex company will normally involve multiple strategies that dwelling address both the desire and ability of the staff to attend work. Specific strategies for enhancing motivation include a proper match between your employee and the work, job enrichment, rewards once and for all attendance, people focused guidance and clear attendance requirements. Strategies for improving the capability to be present at work include creating a safe and healthy work condition, providing day good care facilities at the workplace, creating programmes to aid trouble employees, providing programmes for lowering job stress and providing recreational and excise service.

Absenteeism is a serious problem for a management because it consists of heavy additional express resaves and understudies are stored in readiness to replace absenteeism, fairly that your overlade cost of idle equipment to be encountered. Employees do not usually also give obtain leave beforehand or even sometime don't give notice of the period for which they'll remain absent. It ought to be noted that no single measure can succeed in controlling absenteeism, but a skilful mixture of various can lead to the desired end result.

* Disciplinary Way:

Managers may use a disciplinary procedure. Individuals who are absent for the first time receives an dental warning, and subsequent absences bring written warnings, suspension and lastly dismissal

* Positive reinforcement:

Positive reinforcement includes such methods as providing employees cash, reputation, time off or other rewards for getting together with attendance criteria. Offering rewards for steady attendance, giving bonus deals for missing fewer than a certain quantity of days and purchasing back unused sick and tired leave are the positive ways of getting rid of absenteeism.

* Combination methodology:

A combinations deal with preferably rewards desired behaviours and punishes undesired behaviour. This carrot and stick methodology uses guidelines and self-discipline to punish offenders and different programs and rewards to recognise employees with outstanding attendance.

* NO Mistake policy:

With a no fault coverage the reasons for the absences do not subject and the employees must control their own attendance unless they abuse that flexibility. Once absenteeism surpasses normal restrictions then disciplinary activities up to and including termination of job can occur. The advantage of the no mistake policy are that all employees can be included in it and managers and HR people need not judge whether absence count as excused or unexcused.

* The non-public management should encourage notification, especially in situations of sickness when the length of time of absence may very well be long.

* Job security for staff.

* Adaptation of your well defined recruitment procedures.

* Inspiration of worker, labor force and social steps. The management should recognized the needs of the personnel and offer them sufficient and cheap lousing center or subsidized food, free medical help and travel facilities, free educational center to their children and other monetary and non-monetary benefits.

* Their genuine difficulties like their need of money at the time of marriage, loss of life or family health problems should be recognizes by the management and it should be make an effort to help them in this respect.

* Improve common and quick redressed of consciences.

* The selection of employees on the basis of communal linguistic and family consideration should be discouraged or avoided.

* Regularity in attendance should be urged to some extent by the offer of your extra and other pecuniary rewards.

* To lessen unavoidable absence due to sidedness or any other organizational automobile accident, programme of health insurance and safety should be strengthened.

* In case there is personal and family e. g. disease of children in case of married woman employees which will make absence inevitable, leave should be granted liberally.

* Facilities for obtaining leave for rest; by this the management will be able to know in advance how many personnel would take leave on a specific day or particular date. This permits management to activate extra manpower pressure on that one day so the target for the day can be achieved.

* Proper working condition in the business so that employees can donate their full work and energy for obtaining the production target given to them by the management.

* Adequate wage as that employee may be satisfied and will be able to full fill up their daily needs and they will not search for another wages of getting money, this can help them to concentrate more on a specific job more and so can get the job done better and successfully.

* Cover from automobile accident and sickness. This allows the workers to feel safe out of this factor and they can utilize their full energy for the well-being of the organization.

Part 2:

Organisation behaviour help people to understand employees behaviour, where situation they feel stress and where way they can be encouraged and remove their stress and also help them to produce good result. If you understand human behaviour then you can simply influence them. Individual behaviour in company depends upon exterior and inner factors and causes. Different researchers have given different ideas to help professionals understand human behaviour.

The theories that people have mentioned above have different effect on different folks. The ideas also vary in strengths. Ideas of desire mainly from Maslow and Herzberg does not have find an extremely wide spread support but McClelland theory regarding the relationship between achievements and productivity. In general need theories are not very valid reason of drive.

In order to appeal to the best ability to a business, a culture of variety and open communication is needed. Once an organization has the best expertise it will get, the business can improve efficiency and have more wide-spread viewpoints to learn from. Care must be taken though, to make sure the organizational theory works with with the tactical goals of an organization.

There is a dispute that clear and more impressive range of goals brings about higher productivity. This provides the strong program that goal setting techniques theory supplies the most powerful explanation of dependant changing. The theory itself however does not solve absenteeism, job satisfaction or turnover.

Reinforcement theory has an impressive record for predicting factors such as quality and quantity at the job persistent of work absenteeism, tardiness and car accident rates. It does not offer much information into worker satisfaction or the decision to quit.

Equity theory handles output and job satisfaction, lack, and turnover parameters. However its power probably is that it provides the spark for research on organisation justice.

Expectancy theory focuses on performance variable they have power to offer a relatively powerful justification of employee, output, absenteeism, and turnover. But expectancy theory assumes that staff have few constraints on other decision discretion. It makes many of the same assumption that the logical model makes about individual decision making which limits its applicability. Expectancy theory has some validity because for much behavior people consider expected results. Whether a business is for income or not, motivating and utilizing the talent a business has is vital available world today. Understanding organizational behavior is a major factor for increased opportunity and success available world. Gaining an awareness of an organizations culture is essential for ongoing diverse progress.


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