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Computer Hardware And Software

In this topic Management Information System is approximately the info systems knowledge is vital for creating competitive firms, managing global corporations, adding business value, and providing useful products and services on the way to customers.

What is an information system? The info system is defined technically as a couple of interrelated apparatus that collect, process, store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. In other also determination supporting decision making, coordination, and manage, information systems may also help manager and employees analyze problems, visualize complex subjects and create new products. So information system contain about significant people, place, and things within the business or in the surroundings surrounding it.

Selecting the global system is from other countries, such as United States, Europe and Asia. Then local is merely at state to convey or city to city. While want to work outstation or management company, it must know local environments, with different, culture of countries, and local knowledge, time deliver service on a worldwide, and time strong platform. On this question ask that become a mangers hot develop a company in many countries. Incidentally, management, organization, and technology are one indicate show global application how to work and manage it.

Question 1

Why is selecting computers and software for the business an important management decision? What management, organization and technology issue is highly recommended when selecting computers?

Answer of Question 1

Nowadays, computer is a tool that accepts information and manipulates on an application or sequence of instructions on how the data to be processed. The computers likewise incorporate the means for storing data. Computers variable have two parts are software and hardware.

Computer hardware is physical foundation for the firm`s information technology infrastructure. It infrastructures include software, data and networks. Computers requires their storage or operation. Then, computer software is detailed instructions that control the procedure of the computer system. However, hardware is without software to execute the tasks to associate with computers.

Subsequently, in this question ask that how come selecting computer hardware and software for the business an important management decision? Computers is accordingly representing an important organizational benefit that must definitely be properly managed. Managers need to balance the cost of acquire hardware capital with the necessity to provide a responsive and reliable platform for delivering information system applications. The main issues in managing hardware assets are understanding the new technology requirements for electronic commerce and the digital firm, it also determining the full total cost of ownership of technology assets, and identifying technology trends impacting the organization`s information technology infrastructure.

While the software is represents a major organizational software asset that needs to be carefully managed. System software coordinates the several elements of the computer system and mediates between application software and computers. Because of this, the application form software is utilized by application programmers plus some end users to build up specific business application. Then, operating-system is system software that to manages and controls the activities of the computer. This technique acts as chief manager of the information system, allocation, assigning, and scheduling system resources and monitoring the utilization of the computer. Computer system resources allow to be used more effectively such as multiprogramming, multiprocessing, virtual storage and time sharing are operating-system capabilities. In PC operating systems have to developed complicated capability like support for multiple users on networks. PC operating system is leading area include Window XP, Window 98 and Window Me, Window CE, Window 2000, OS/2, Unix, Linux, Mas OS and DOS. Software likewise have general trend, can toward user-friendly, advanced languages that both increase professional programmer productivity and make it easily for end users to work information systems. Principal programming languages used in business include C, C++ and Visual Basic and each was created to explain specific types of problems. Software assortment should be based on criterion such as efficiency, compatibility with organization`s technology platform, vendor support, and whether the software tool is suitable for the problems and tasks of the organization.

Another view computers and software technology can boost or organizational performance. Two of these are major organizational assets that must be carefully managed. By electronic commerce and electronic business have put new strategic importance on technologies that can store vast quantities if operation data and make sure they are immediately available online. So manager and information systems specialists need to pay individual attention to hardware capacity planning and scalability to ensure that the firm has enough computing power for its current and upcoming needs. Then they also have to balance the expenses and advantages of owning and maintaining their own hardware and software versus renting these assets from external service providers. In the online storage company (SSPs) rent out space for storage to subscribers over the Web, to selling the computer storage as a pay-per-use utility. Type of application service providers (ASPs) is book to the software applications and computer services from private network or remote computer centers to subscribers online. The companies will pay technology service provides only for the quantity of computing power and services by a computer program computing model. Cost is one of the point for calculating the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the organization`s technology assets can help provide managers with the information they would like to manage these assets and decide whether to rent or own these assets. Finally, the full total cost of technology resources includes not only the original cost of computer hardware and software nonetheless they also same costs to upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training.


Computer hardware technology is to profound impact on business performance. Thus, it represents an important organizational asset that must definitely be properly managed. Then, the choice computers topologies are available to processing and storing data while they are using this technology for his or her business. Computer system have many modern and can be categorized into six major components like a central processing unit (CPU), primary storage, input devices, output devices, secondary storage, and communications devices (in figure 1).

Figure 1:hardware the different parts of computer system

CPU is the part of computer where in fact the manipulation of symbol, letter occurs and numbers. CPU has two types of components such as an arithmetic-logic unit and a control unit. CPU is a closely tied primary memory, or primary storage, which can be stores data and program instructions temporarily before or after processing. However, more than a few difference varieties of semiconductor memory chips is RAM ( random access memory) is use for short-term storage of data and program instruction, then ROM (read only memory) eternally stores important program instructions. Computer processing power depends in part of speed in microprocessors, which is computer`s logic and control about the same chip. The input devices have included keyboards, computer mice, magnetic link and optical character recognition devices music input devices and radio frequency identification devices. Maintenance of computers is one of some cost components that mangers must consider when choosing and managing hardware technology assets. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is designates the full total cost of owning technology resources including cost of hardware, maintenance, and training. Anywhere, to boost firm of management and information systems specialists, so they need to pay more focus on hardware capacity planning and scalability. Because of this system of capacity planning, is the process of predicting when the computer hardware system become saturated. For problem of capacity planning, most of the users that using the machine can accommodate at one time. Second issue is the impact of existing and the near future software program. Then, is a performance measure like minimum to response time for the processing business transaction. Currently, capacity planning is ensures for the firm has enough computing power and upcoming needs. Salability is refers for the ability of your computer, product, or system to expand to provide a sizable range of users without wearing down.


Computer hardware technology can either improve or delay organizational performance. Computers selection should consider how well the technology meshes with the organization`s culture and structure using its information processing requirements.


Information technology today is not incomplete to computers but must be viewed as a range of digital devices networked together. Thus, kind of computer and arrangement of processing that should be used by business in the nature organization. Computers type as well as mainframes, PCs, midrange computers, workstation, or supercomputer. While, computers can also be networked together to distribute processing among different machines. Network computer can help organization to keep up the central control over computing, linking PCs, workstations, peer-to-peer, or other computers through the internet or sharing data by private network, and disk space. Different ways of configuring hardware components in general management side.

Question 2

If you were a manager in an organization that operates in many countries, what standards would you use to find out whether a fresh system should be developed as a worldwide application or local application? Why?

Answer of Question 2

In this question is asking that easily am a manager will chooses global application or local application to operating a new system in many countries of the company. What's global application mean? Global application is ideal for a world order is sweeping away many national corporations, national industries, and national economies control by domestic politician. A lot of the countries like United States, Europe and Asia, a lot of their local firms will be replacing by fast-moving networked corporations that go above national boundaries. Global application is the entire market forces, or business drivers, that are pushing to industry toward the global competition.

So, want to be a good manager must known how to management, organizational and technology utilizing a new system to operate the business in many countries. To develop a global application in new system, a manager would have to learn the cultures, face political and legal uncertainties, global environmental and social expectations, develop a global position and reorganize business strategies. The global market may run up against governmental or cultural restrictions.

One of the criteria to be looked at to build up the global application is global cultural such as the kinds of religious, nationalistic, ethnic, regionalism, and geopolitical position. The variations of culture influence the idea of a shared global culture and reject the penetration of domestic markets by foreign goods and services. The expansion of international communication has created a global culture with stable expectations or norms. However for some of the middle and low level, software systems will equip with their local languages. Every country have their own conditions of business trade, therefore political stability and a growing global knowledge base that is widely and essential for the earth culture during develop of global application. These common factors are also creating the conditions for global markets, global production, coordination, distribution, and global economies of scale.

In addition, different cultures produce different political and legal issued. Many countries are using different laws to lead the movement of information, information privacy with their citizens, origins of software and hardware in systems, and radio and satellite telecommunications. For example in Germany, a vendor cannot accept payment via visa or mastercard until two weeks after an order has been sent. While in Malaysia, a vendor is accept payment via credit-based card before order goods deliver.

Moreover, the requirements of social expectation are another point should be concentrate. Different of working hours are vary across countries. Therefore the specific like the reliability that phone network not reliable.

For the developing global business have four basic international strategies such as domestic exporter, multinational, franchiser, and transnational. The domestic exporter strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the house country of origin. For second strategy is multinational, it is concentrates financial management and control out of an central home base while decentralizing production and marketing procedures to units far away. Third strategy of franchiser can be an interesting mixture of old and new. Last strategy is the transnational, this for managed the activities from a worldwide perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing resources of supply and demand wherever they become visible. In the information technology, the global telecommunications must improve because they're giving for international companies more flexibility to shape their global strategies. Thus, the protectionism is serve local markets better encourage companies to disperse production facilities.

To create a global company in many counties, what sort of firm organize and exactly how to control the information support structure by manger? By the way, the entire branch in other counties must follow these principles. You will discover including organize, develop, and establish. For organize value adding activities along lines of comparative advantage. For instance, marketing or sales functions should be located where they can best to present, for least cost and maximum impact. Other organizes like production, finance, human resources and information system. Second is develop, it to operate system units at each level of corporate activities regional, national, and international.

Local company and global company, theirs develop not same to manage. For local company, there should host country system units of some magnitude. Then the global company is using regional systems units to take care of telecommunications and system development across national boundaries that happen within major geographic regions. Last is establish, at world center of operations is an individual office accountable for development of international system.


Managers are accountable for devising an appropriate organizational and technological framework for international business. Global business strategies have four basic for global companies organizational structure. Transnational firms should develop networked system configurations and permit considerable decentralization of development. Second strategies are franchisers, almost to duplicate systems across many countries and use centralized financial controls. Multinationals is third strategy, it typically rely on decentralized independence among foreign units with some movement toward development of networks. Lastly is domestic strategy is exporters typically are centralized in domestic headquarters with some decentralized businesses permitted. To develop a global firm or company and information systems support structure, be a firm or company needs to known these principles. To identifying core business process is to perform a business process analysis. There have three type are organize develop and establish. Hence, organize is the worthiness adding activities along lines of comparative advantage. From then on, develop and operate systems units at each level of corporate activity regional, national, and international and establish is at world headquarters a single office accountable for development of international system, it is a global chief information officer (CIO) position. Managers got to know the way to handle the most vexing problem facing managers developing the global information systems architectures. Applications developed just about the global by different divisions, different people, as well as for different types of computing hardware. If the problem are magnified within an international environment, then merely to imagine the task of integrating system predicated on Window, Unix, Linux and many other hardware in many different operating units in numerous countries.


Global information systems pose challenges because of culture, political, and language diversity magnifies in organizational culture and business processes and encourages proliferation of disparate local information systems that are difficult to integrate. Usually, international systems have evolved with out a conscious plan. The solution is in the direction of a tiny subset of core business process and give attention to building systems to aid these procedures. Usually, for managers must have to get somebody on board widely dispersed foreign units to take part in the development and operation of these systems, being careful to keep up overall control.


Global systems also must using hardware, software, and networking pose special technical challenges within an international setting. Mean that want finding a way to standardize a worldwide computing platform when using have variation form operating unit to operating unit and from country to country. The universal acceptance of the internet across the global has greatly reduced networking problems. While, the internet will not guarantee that information will flow seamlessly throughout the global organization. Because all business units not use the same applications, and the quality of internet service can be highly variable. Other way, the hardware and telecommunications issues are systems integration and connectivity. Integration is to move either with a proprietary architecture or with open systems technology. Then the global networks are particularly difficult to build and operate. However, companies or company can build their own global networks or can also create global networks based on internet.

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