Posted at 11.02.2018
Explanation of Quality: Quality has been defined in various ways by differing people as under:What is the product quality? 1- Transcendent Defination: Quality is absolute, innate &universally recognizable and often loosely related to comparison of features and characteristics of products.
Eg: car (maruti) versus a large car ( Rolls Royce)
2- Product Based Defination:
It is precise and measurable variable and dissimilarities in quality reflect differences in quantity of some attributes of the product.
Eg: area, fuel etc.
3- Use-based Defination:
It is fitness for the purpose.
Eg: photography frames, an automobile etc.
4- Manufacturing Based Defination:
Quality is "conformance to requirements" and conformance measures the extent the product manufactured meet the design specifications.
5- Value Based Defination:
It is value perceived by the client. such a concept of quality brings both quality and cost in forces.
6- Juran's View on Quality:
"Quality is client satisfaction acheived through product features and freedom from deficiencies".
" Quality of design is the product quality specified by the designer with respect to the client"
"To create quality service or product there has to be an effective management or system. Quality is a vital part of production process. Quality management is about controlling activities which must be satisfying purpose of production. There are two main aliments of quality management. "
1. Quality assurance
2. Quality control
1. ) Quality Assurance: - "quality assurance in more about earlier stage of product or services which can reduce of likelihood of defective in product or poor service. There for the center point of attention of quality assurance is product developing and designs stage. Because of perfect attention and process the product quality product will be built. Later on this reliable product need less quality control inspection. This technique makes strong relation between supplier and customer. This involves perfect information of requirement and delivery of product. "
2. ) Quality Control: - "this is actually the "traditional way" of managing quality. Quality control is concerning check the merchandise after produce. It is mainly looking for product produces except as per requirement and there is not defect in it. These would include more inspection, testing and sampling. That is also quite expensive process; in recent year business have focus on quality management and quality assurance. "
Total Quality management:
"Total quality management (TQM) is modern form of quality management. It really is about a kind of business Philosophy which emphasizes, education, management and operation designed to constantly improve and keep maintaining quality standard. "
The concept of quality can be looked at from different perspective. Reliance using one concept create problems, it can shift as products move from design to market. David Gravin has given 8 principal quality dimensions:"
1. Performance: "This represents the primary operating characteristics of something, the operating characteristics depends upon each individual preferences likes & dislikes. "
2. Features: They are secondary characteristics of something. they can not be easily separated from performance dimensions. "
3. Conformance:" The product or services must be according to condition or requirement. It is develop on basis of its performance and design. ".
4. Durability: "it is dependant on performance. Just how long it act and exactly how much it worth before scrape or dead. It can be measure in term or time, money or use. It really is related to warranty. "
5. Serviceability:" it becomes very important dimension of quality, and it's indicates professional behaviour. It could be measure by speed, courtesy and competency of repair. "
6. Aesthetics:" it's about look and appearance. Same time it could be brand identity. Fault and defect can be hiding in aesthetics properties. "
7. Perceived Quality: "the brand name or image can get from advertising affect, the indegent service or technical support can reduce high quality product low reputation. "
8. Reliability: "reliability is directly adding to company image and brand. It is related to performance, it's considering fundamental dimension of quality to end-user. It's a probability that product does not fail or fix and they have acceptable failure rates. "
Quality in the last 100years has undergone four stages of changes as under:
The first stage is refer to as " Inspection phase" and it gets the following distinguishing features:
Inspection stage employs simple inspection systems.
Teams of inspectors are employed to look at, measure or test something and compare it with the typical.
It is conducted at various stages of manufacture such as incoming materials, semi finished & final goods.
Poor quality are segregated from the best ones.
Poor products are subsequently scrapped, reworked or sold at lower prices.
Persons are employed to consider faulty works and repair them i. e. 100% inspection.
The second stage may be appropriately labeled as "Quality Control" and the features are the following:
Accepting goods ones by rejecting and segregating defetives is replaced by the better ones.
Data on defects is made from inspection results at various stages.
Sampling inspection plans are adopted for product control thereby replacing 100%.
Statistical quality control (charts) are used for process control.
It has following features:
QC (Inspection based) is substituted by Quality assurance (prevention based).
Emphasis is put on quality of processes.
Quality planning and quality manuals are preapared with the thing to build quality into manufacturing process.
However it pays little if any focus on service industries and soft regions of quality such as delivery, client satisfaction. etc
TQM is the existing stage in quality and has the following features:
TQM covers all varieties of industries manufacturing as well as servicing.
TQM implementation requires clear and unambigious vision of top management anf gradual removal of inter-department barriers.
TQM places great emphasis on customers. (internal & external)
It belives that goods training predicated on systemetic training needs identification is vital to attain greater quality.
TQM lays greater trust on business processes and advocated continuous improvemet atlanta divorce attorneys business activity.
The concept of QC as a distint discipline emerged in the united states in the 1920's. At that time it was intended only to control ot limit the creation of defective items in the professional process, which involved inspection of most goods. The pioneers who carried out these refinements included : Shewhart, Deming, Juran, Crosby.
Several management theories expanded this idea and started using statistics to control processes, to limit variations and enhance the quality.
The basic features are:
TQM is a small business philosophy predicated on the client satisfaction. i. e quality of design & conformance to design.
It can't be purchased or installed like the other equipments.
TQM imples & believes that quality reduces cost through reduced wastage, greate productivity & top increase sales.
It aims to change the system rather than bringing change within the existing system.
TQM aims to improve both business process & functional process.
The tenets of quality movement find their roots in the concern for survival. You will find three main quality "GURUS".
According to him, there are no short cust to quality. It generally does not happen sudden overnight but it requires to be planned. Accordingly he believes 80% of the Q problems originate from /by poor management.
Thus to overcome the product quality problems / issues, he has recommended following measures.
To establish specific goals to be reached.
To arrange for reaching / achieving goals
To assign appropriate responsibility for meeting the goals on time.
As well base the rewards on those result acheived.
He believed that QM should be pervasive and not give attention to sorting goods products from the bad ones. But he believed that within an organisation each you need to share the tasks for quality.
He gave some key 4teen points of action to total quality.
(a) Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product & services.
(b) Adopt new philosophy transformations in the management styles.
(c) End/ Terminate the practice of awarding business on price tags.
(d) Drive out fear from organisation
(e) Break down barriers between all departments.
(f) Eliminate / rub slogans,
(g) work standards based in numbers quotes etc.
(h) Create an effective and transperent structure in the organisation that allows everone to work towards new transformations.
(i) Cease reliance on mass inspection.
(j) Constantly & forever enhance the system of product & services.
(k) Imply modern ways of training on jobs.
(l) Imply modern ways of supervision to help the employees on machines to do better jobs.
(m) Delete the barriers to pride of workmanships. Get rid of the rating/ranking system.
(n) Institute a vigorous / speedy programmes for training & education.
He pramoted the concept of "zero defects" and also pressured or emphasized adherence to requirements and employees motivations.
Quality is conformance to requirements.
The system to be used in prevention/safe side.
Measurement is dependant on the price of quality.
The performance standards is Zero defects.
He is serving as the lecturer of engineering at the Tokyo University and as well as students of Edwards Deming, Ishikawa was involved mixed up in quality movement in Japan, and also was an associate of the (UJSE). He was awarded with the Demings Award, the Nihon Keizais Press Prize, and the Industrial Standardizations Prize for his wordings/information on quality control, and the most crucial Biggest/Grand Award from the united states Society for QC for his educational program on quality control. His book, Guide to Quality Control (1982), is to been regarded as a classic just because of its in-depth/full clear explanation of quality tools and its related statistics. Ishikawa is well known or regarded as the daddy of the product quality Circle Movement(QCM).
He presented the use of Quality Circles to:
(1) Improvement in support system.
(2) To respect all the human relations at the workplace.
(3) Gradually increase job satisfaction.
(4) Give award/recognisation to the employee capacities and use their ideas. Quality Circles are well effective only when the employers/management understands statistical techniques and acts on advice from members/employees of the product quality Circles
Mr. Feigenbaum continues to be a doctoral/learning student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at that time when he completed the very first edition of Total Quality Control (1951). By profession An engineer at General Electric during 2nd World War. He used a statistical technique to determine what was wrong/mistake with early/before jet aeroplanes engines. For approximately 10years he served as a manager of throughout whole world manufacturings functions and quality control at "GE". & serves as a president of General Systems Company, Inc. , Pitts fields, Massachusetts, a global engn firm that creates and implements integrated operational systems for major corporations in america of America and abroad. He was the founding/discoveror chairman of the International Academy for Quality (IAQ) and was a past president of the American Soc for QC, which gave him its Edwards Medal and Lancaster Award for his contributions/efforts to quality and productivity. His Total Quality Control concepts have had an extremely positive (+ve) effect on quality and productivity for many organizations/companies throughout the industrialized world.
He was a Japanese engineer and statistician who explained that what product specification means and exactly how that may be converted into cost effective production. In the middle of 1950s Taguchi was an Indian Statistical Institute visiting professor/not permanent, where he met Mr. Walter Shewhart who was a Visitors at Research Associates at Princeton University in 1962, the same year he received his Ph. D. from Kyushu University and a Professor at Tokyo's Aoyama Gakuin University and Director of japan Academy of Quality. Taguchi was also awarded with the Deming Application prize in (1960), as well as award for literature on quality.
His ideas contributed in robust design in the region of product development. His different methods like Taguchi Loss Function, Design of Experiments and other methodologies have made major role in the reduction/decreade of variation and greatly improved results on engineering quality and productivity. His methods are also useful in customer statisfaction areas.
He has given 3 main dev points
(1) To create system (remember the customer/engineering0
(2) To parameter/determine stage (product performance)
(3)Last butnot least was tolerance design (locating the balance between manufacturing costs and loss).
Managemat commitment to quality
Focus on the customer
Prevention rather than detection of defects
Root cause corrective action
Employees involvement and empowerment
Synergy of teams
It can be an integrative management concept aiming at continuous improvement in the good quality & customer service through the participations of all levels. It should be a habit of day to day life n not a matter of chance.
Improving client satisfaction: TQM aims at providing the best good and services in accordance with customers expectations.
Enhancing Quality: It helps to make better quality products at the low cost and increase market share and profits of the company/organisation.
Reduction in waste: TQM seekd /looks to the poor /worst quality rather than detecting and correcting defects /faults. This reduces wastage and the related costs are eliminated.
"Total Quality Management is totally not the same as the old idea of quality because its main give attention to service of customer. It is necessary to maintain structured meet up with the needs and situation of individual company. TQM is means of thinking about goals, organisation and people ensure that done success in first time. Also TQM helps change behaviours, attitude, through it make smarter improvement. Total quality management introduce the culture and organisation of company that always try to fulfill their customer with products and service. Company culture requires maintain the quality atlanta divorce attorneys area of it. As discussion of element, we can conclude that TQM in organisation, supervisor is main part of company, which help to develops the management. Leader ship and team work focus on production work hand at hand. Be lacking communication between department, is burden on the whole TQM environment. "