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Comparison Of Environment Between India And Bhutan Environmental Sciences Essay


The world is challenged by many environmental issues. Remember its pros and cons many countries throughout the world are implementing different methods to overcome those issues.

With rapidly changing world, it includes its own desires to complete. Once a peaceful place, now with economical development it includes changed a whole lot. Even rural areas have changed from a stone age to a modern one.

The pollution from these modern facilities has highly degraded the pristine environment and therefore adding significantly in global warming. To be remembered as rich over night, the people from rural areas do perform poaching activities such as killing of wild boar, tigers, rein, deer, bears and other endangered varieties, thus again degrading the surroundings credited to unbalanced natural lifestyle which immediately contributes to areas become barren, drinking water sources getting dried and these factors straight contributes to high investment plan in keeping both planet earth and human being life.

With so many economical activities and individuals undying want to make riches has led to some serious environment concerns. Never the less, as a declaring goes need is the mother of invention. The economic development activities should take place with reasonable ecological knowledge. Now with tons of recognition programs on environment conservation being conducted by Royal Government of Bhutan, the people from different districts has geared towards saving the planet globe in their own small ways by doing tons of mitigation works to restore the greenery and live green once again.




Some of the major environmental issues in Bhutan are Deforestation as People in Bhutan are mainly farmers and illiterate who earn their living through agricultural products. Illegal logging of timber has been popular which is also the part of black marketing for those products. To make more room for agricultural works, forests are being felled. Trees and shrubs are being out for timbers which can be purchased at double the price. Within the wake of the activities, crazy life forced to make it through in more and more fragmented spots around Bhutan. This has lead to loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecological services. Vast areas of forest in Bhutan is destructed for agricultural practices and exploited for products like hardwood, timber without planting new progress. This is a serious issue which must be looked upon in Bhutan (CBD, 2002).

Due to deforestation, mainly trimming beyond boundaries for fuel extraction has resulted major land degradation and ground erosions in Bhutan. It is a manmade as well as natural happening. The full total area under forest is 72. 5% of the united states and the cultivated area is merely 7. 8 %( CSO). There has been also case of trivial forest fire brought on by people. With the present day agricultural practice, people in rural areas has cautiously used the method of using unnecessary chemical fertilizers and use of heavy instruments such as ability tiller which eventually led to decline capability to produce agricultural products.

Air pollution is thought as undesirable change in physical or biological characteristics of air, normal water and land as a result of mans activities which may harmfully have an impact on living organisms and other resources. Air pollution led to declined crop productivity and developed concerns about general population health. The amount of industries are increasing and consequently the GDP has truly gone up from 0. 01% in 1982 to3. 2% in1992(MoP 1996). The resources of polluting of the environment are losing of fossils fuels, cars, establishments like the fertilizer vegetation, thermal crops, textile companies and steel vegetation as shown in number 1. 2.

Water pollution is a problem from the producing countries. The major contaminants are the organic and natural matter of the sewer, metallic substances and other inorganic chemicals from the sectors, hot water, engine oil, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides as shown in amount 1. 1.

Fig1. 1Fig1. 2


Left: Water pollution. Right: Air pollution.

Waste disposal can be an appearing problem in Bhutan especially in urban areas such as with Thimphu, Phuentsholing, Gelephu and Bumthang. In the absence of improperly removed vacant land. Many of these are serious health risk aside from being eyesores. They promote numbers of pests vector like flies. Mosquitoes, scavengers such as stray pet dogs, pigs and rats which pass on dangerous diseases. The wastes can be categorized into:

A=Biodegradable-The biodegradable wastes are the ones that can be decomposed. For example, kitchen wastes, dog dung, etc.

B=Non-biodegradable-The non-biodegradable wastes are those that cannot be decomposed and remain as a result in the surroundings. For instance, plastics, nuclear wastes, glass, etc.

Over grazing is one of the primary issues in rural areas as bringing up cattle and other local animals have added to livelihood of many people. Usually people in rural areas get access to a variety of facilities but keep pets or animals at the yard of your homes is very natural. These patterns of keeping pets or animals have resulted in plant materials faster than it in a natural way grows. This possessed lead permanent lack of vegetable cover.

Poaching has been practiced quite a while back during the times of my grandparents and still this modern day such act lives alive. It really is a fast way to earn lump sum amount and since the majority of people in rural areas are uneducated, they don't know the consequences of such methods. So many wildlife have been wiped out mainly to export their pores and skin and bones which fetch high prize in the market. Stories of killing endangered varieties such as tigers, leopards had been documented. Example: people in my village have killed two bears, a tiger and a wild boar for the reason associated with damage of their plants and domestic pets or animals.


The mother earth is so kind. We could gifted with every requirement. For economic development, different countries create factories and technology which brought on lot of pollution. The quickly changing world has many environmental issues to be combated. To do so, some alternatives are laid below.

People should be revealed with the knowledge of changing a bare agricultural space by planting trees because of their own good. For each and every one tree they lower, two trees should be planted. Farmers should be taught the right ways to flower trees. Planting trees and shrubs around homes will be good for self. Planting trees and shrubs are healthy activities as it'll conserve soil, normal water and air pollution. It will create conditions more conducive to flora and fauna. Then our country look so beautiful and peaceful with all different kinds of trees and shrubs, flowers, wild animals, etc. and it'll lead to upsurge in income or revenue for the market for the economy as many vacationers will visit our country. So it should be urged in the urban as well as in rural.

Control of normal water pollution is mainly by sewage treatment, effluent treatment and general public recognition by not permitting them to to dump sewage or garbage in to the river and air pollution can be controlled by reducing amount of factories, market sectors and vechiles. Air pollution can be manipulated by methods with respect to the source and the pollutant. A number of the methods used are good quality petrol, vehicles operating on alternate resources of energy and using solar cookers or bio gas, planting of trees and shrubs that remove the pollutinggases and clean the atmosphere and creating general public awareness about the effects of polluting of the environment.

Soil or land conservation is of the key environmental problems in Bhutan that should be viewed. People should be discouraged from using chemical substance fertilizers. Instead they can be inspired to work with natural fertilizers. Use of heavy machines can be also discouraged, so that land retains its fertility as shown in number 1. 3and 1. 4




Fig. 1. 3Fig. 1. 4


Left: Land conservation. Right:Soil erosion.

Poaching can be stopped by not demanding poached goods. Local leaders can be engaged with programs that support and preserve animals. Boundaries should be discovered to make parks for those pets so, that types are free from man. Local leaders take the initiatives or procedures to protect animals that fall under endangered types.

Migration from rural to urban areas can be manipulated and solved by developing and getting changes in rural areas. Administration should provide better facilities such as health, education, safe drinking water and on top of that by giving job opportunities thus taking away poverty, inequality and unemployment. Then people in rural areas will not migrate to urban areas.

Waste management can be manipulated by disposing in right removal areas and places. It can be controlled by collecting or storing waste and transporting them for recycle. It can be controlled by exhibiting different programs like malaria, skin area diseases, normal water borne diseases etc. So that folks will aware of those diseases and they'll not chuck their wastes exactly where they like.

The main strategy of Nature Conservation Section is to save ecosystem however the people and its socio economical development is evenly important. People of Bhutan have been interacting with nature for many years and is looked at important to value their right and dreams. However for any major development interventation, the effect on biodiversity and safeguarded areas should be carefully assessed. Therefore all development assignments within the shielded areas buffers on and biological corridor should be given higher top priority for environment impact analysis, as is unveiled by National Environmental Conservation.

Adaption management is more concentrate on flexibility of ideas to adjust to changing circumstances and insights. It is usually based on round management process and allows the information about the past and to improve the management in the future. This sort of approach is beneficial due to complicated ecosystem and their interaction with the people for its doubt. The strategic strategies of Characteristics Conservation Department is not set rather dynamic to meet up with the new opportunities and immediate needs, for versatile budgeting and fast disburse not treatment.

Almost all the protected areas in Bhutan are inhibited by people. The NCDs (Nature Conservation Divisions) strategy to pressure the surroundings is through participation of different areas of authorities and particularly the local people. Local knowledge and custom is vital tool to tackle the pushes that destroy the surroundings.

Since the beginning of development planning in the 1960s, Bhutan has located environmental conservation as the primary concern while producing plans for socio-economic development (RGoB, 2002; Wangchuk, 2006). The Forest and Nature Conservation Function of Bhutan 1995 has given more importance in the productive participation of rural communities in forestry activities. It brought about major changes in forest management by paving just how for community and private forestry (CF, PF) for the benefit for rural areas.

The community forest was proven in Bhutan in the beginning to conserve the surroundings as government noticed the value of local involvement in the conservation. (Chhetri, Schmidt & Gilmour, 2009). Prior to the introduction of community forest in Bhutan, individuals were not worried and sensible about the forest and the natural resources it provided. As the development occurring rapidly in the united states, there was growing strain on the natural environment because of increase in demand of raw materials for construction especially solid wood beside stone, sand and other natural resources.

There was support and cooperation from local people and became latter as effective poverty reduction methods. People at the local level benefited from the ecosystem goods as they cannot only take in for themselves but also could sell and earn money therefore they realize the value of preservation from it. Therefore, community forest became popular and get spread around to all places. When the forest was a countrywide property, individuals were not worried and everybody wished to extract all the gain as they could without eco-friendly methods but when the forest was changed into community forest thus entrusting responsibility and authority to the people themselves, people started out to know its benefits and started conserving it and now its successfully employed in Bhutan. Example: Tshaphel community forest in Haa acquired ever harvested a good single timber of their community forest, in October 2011, they sold 3068. 86cfeet of timber to the sawmill owners in Haa and acquired a total amount of Nu. 361, 731. 43. The 33 homes of the village earned a online profit of Nu. 116, 796. 92(Namgyal, Jan 11 2012).

National Environmental Cover of Bhutan premiered in 2007 as environment is definitely at the guts of development principle in Bhutan. As we all know that environmental coverage is one of the key pillars of Gross National Pleasure. Poaching and hunting was prohibited and now people have minimized poaching and hunting. The forest formal should send their annual are accountable to the department of forest. Illegal trimming of trees and shrubs is prohibited and for that reason charged greater than government fines.

Comparison of environment between India and Bhutan.

The total people of Bhutan was 725940. 00 this year 2010 and 2011(The globe bank) where as in India it was estimated 1. 21 billion in April 1st, 2011. Credited to more human population in India the number of vehicles are increasing which business lead to more pollution such as air, noise and water pollution and there are more misuse in comparison to Bhutan. In India people are cutting down too many trees and shrubs in order to establish an market sectors and factories which lead to deforestation and pollution. As a result they haven't any fresh water to drink and oxygen to breath. In Bhutan people are definitely more into conservation and cover of the forest. Almost 69. 1% of Bhutan is covered with forest (U. N. FAO) while in India forest coverage is very less.


Today, with increased in modern facilities has highly degraded the pristine environment. Sea levels have risen, temperatures is increasing and we don't get fresh normal water to drink. Air around aren't safe to breathing and there are so many issues that has made our nature amazing. Global warming is the biggest concern. We could destroying homes for the pets. It is seen and read that our mother is very filthy. We can not be so severe on our nature. We have been being so unkind and doing little or nothing for our future technology. There is nothing impossible Yes we can do it. We can protect and protect our environment. It really is time that people join our hands and combats all environmentally friendly issues such as deforestation, forest open fire, global warming, waste materials management, air pollution, over grazing, poaching, etc.

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