Posted at 11.03.2018
Robot is a device that is created to overcome the individual limited senses. Robots would help human being in continuing quests . Through the Merriam-Webster, it is thought as a machine that looks like a individual and works various complex serves, a machine guided by automatic control buttons and device that perform complicated repeated activity automatically . The word of robot is originally used by Karel Capek in 1921 in his writing of Rossum's Universal Robot. This expression was extracted from robota which mean of forced labour in Czech term .
There are numerous ways how to establish types of robots. It could be separated into its software and the way it goes which is the most important aspect in classifying them. Further reason about the robot will be talked about in further subtopics.
Nowadays, robots execute a lot of different job in many areas. This brought on development of robot to increase rapid in having any activity thinkable. Therefore the distinction of the robot types is made by its program distinctions in the useful world that happen to be:
The description about the types of robot above will be make clear briefly within the next subtopics.
This type of robot is largely utilized throughout the professional field. By definition, commercial robot is automatically manipulated, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes.
Figure 2. 1 Industrial Robot
Household robots tend to be tasked to doing jobs such as housekeeping to ease human burden. Usually, what the household robot is applied to is vacuuming, floor cleaning, gutter cleaning, pool cleaning, and trash taking. Although this type of robot is not widely used, it can amuse people through daily regimens and so many more.
Figure 2. 2 Home Robot
In doing surgeries, medical robot is employed to build up treatment for various health problems because of health will always be an important concern to human. For instance, medical robot is utilized to do millimeter-precise surgeries. It included healing robot, nano-robot and many more.
Figure 2. 3 Medical Robot
Military purpose is one of the main issues for every country in the world. Every country is race to build up their defence technology for the security of particular lands all the time. Military robot in essence applied browsing and rescue, open fire fighting, monitoring, mine clearance, unmanned floor vehicle, equipped robot and so many more.
Figure 2. 4 Military Robot
These are just ordinary robots only for human entertainment. They are built only to serve their limited goal such as smiling, dancing or listen to music. Sometimes some individuals also call them as toy robots.
As named, service robots commonly are defined as the robots which could provide services to its owner. This sort of robots is various in tasks which assist people to do some job. It usually is used in many places such as public area, home, stock and others. Also this type of robot is standard looking at to other type of robot.
As status before, these type of robot is situated by its moving where the robot designed how its move in one point to another point. The medium for the robot to go used wheels, hip and legs, tracks, etc. A number of the types are:
Three or even more wheel
Mobile spherical robot
Basically, human want with the robot for their advantages. Among the advantages would be that the robot can carry out duty on the human capabilities. So with the perfect of memory space and operate with education given, the robot need to be control by microcontroller as their brain.
Besides, there are four characteristics of robot that are usually inlayed to ensure the working of robot. First of all is sensing where with the ability to sense the encompassing environment. Secondly, is their movement which able to move around its environment whether by rolling on wheel, walking with leg or propelled by thrusters. Third, energy capacity in which with the ability to power itself. It might be solar, electrically, org battery pack which be based upon the particular robot should do. Lastly is microcontroller which is kind of brain of the robot to be smart.
Motor is one of the actuator or muscle that is using to build the robot. The basic principle of electric motor is to convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy. It includes two fundamental of procedure with electromagnetism and electrostatic energy. Motor unit has been split into four types which is AC engine, DC engine, stepper motor and servo engine. All the talk will be clarify later.
DC electric motor is the first type of energy converter found in industry. It became more widely utilization in equipment control because their rate and torque easy to control. DC motor works on the process of basic magnetism. The DC motor unit is made up of three basic components with designed somewhat different kind of function motor. There will be the series electric motor, shunt motor unit and the compound motor.
For the series motor unit this is the connection between the field and the armature. The series motor unit provides high starting torque (velocity) and able to move large shaft load when it is first energized . It gain can also be managed by using either an ac or dc vitality source. The quantity of current that passes through the winding determine the quantity of torque the electric motor shaft can provide.
In the shunt motor unit type of connection, the armature will be linked in parallel with field winding which is different from the series motor unit. At the same time, shunt electric motor is competent to operate with rpm control while it at the broadband .
The combination of the series engine and the shunt engine make DC compound electric motor. The series field windings hook up in series with armature and shunt field connected parallel to armature. When the shunt field is linked in parallel with the series field and armature, it is called a long shunt. Often it is called a brief shunt. It allows the motor unit to obtain torque characteristics of series motor and regulated velocity of shunt electric motor.
Figure 2. 5: DC Engine (a) Series Motor unit.
(b) Shunt Motor
(c) Mixture Series and Shunt Motor
There are several of benefits and drawbacks of DC electric motor available that are detailed in the Stand 2. 1.
Table 2. 1 Benefits and drawbacks of DC motor.
Brushed DC motor
Provide variable speeds.
Brush degrade and need substitution which undesirable
Process of brush create dust
Brushless DC motor
Variable speed procedure but without the disadvantages of brushes.
High performance action control
Electronic controller used to control the electronic current flow
Stepper DC motor
Very exact and position control
Low quickness but high torque
Need transitioning control
Compared to the DC electric motor, AC electric motor is more widely used in industrial applications. It is cracked into two types of procedure which could it be competent to operate in solitary period and three stage voltage system. Whether solitary phase or three period, it is chosen by depending on its software.
It is seen that the general benefit of the AC electric motor is in the look itself which could it be doesn't need for brushes and commutator while keeping armature stationary. AC engine are easy to comprehend and cheap to make and can reliable. However AC motor operates at a set speed using appliances.
Figure 2. 6: Example of Connection of AC Induction motor
The stepper motor is a specific motor that can be used in wide open loop and closed loop setting system. Its procedure begins with supply a pulse of immediate current to its winding and the stepper will move a specific number of degrees . Three type of stepper motor frequently used which is changing - reluctance (VR) motor unit, the everlasting - magnet (PM) engine and hybrid engine where it is from combining the VR and PM engine.
Basically these are the main benefit of stepper motor:
High rate of accuracy
No feedback component are needed
However stepper electric motor also offers its downside, their cons are listed below:
Resonance effect and relatively long settling time
Rough performance at low swiftness unless a microstep drive is used
Liability to underfeeled position less consequently of operation available loop
They can display lag-lead oscillation which is difficult to damp
Figure 2. 7 Circuit Diagram of Stepper Motor
The servo electric motor is a mechanised motorize device which may be instructed to move the result shaft put on servo arm to specific position. The servo engine is built in gearing and reviews control loop circuitry. It needs to be handled by pulse mailing called pulse width modulation (PWM) from electronic device to their recipient to be translated. Usually servo motor unit struggles to continually turn, so ideal to use in hands robot and lower limbs.
High efficiency which it can deal with up to 90% at light loads.
Requires tuning to stabilize feedback loop.
High torque to inertia proportion.
Motor can be broken by sustained overload.
Audible noiseless and broadband.
Power source current 10 times average to utilize peak torque.
Resonance and vibration free procedure.
Poor motor chilling.
High output vitality relative to electric motor size and weight.
Figure 2. 8 Framework of Servo Motor
Microcontroller can be an involved chip that is often part associated with an embedded system. It is included a central handling unit (CPU), arbitrary access ram (RAM), read only ram (ROM), input port, output port plus some of special function like timer. But, usually microcontrollers including erasable programmable read only recollection (EPROM) and programmable read only ram (PROM). These kinds of memories are entirely built-into a chip and connected internally by an interior bus. It is designed to do only an individual specific task to regulate a single system. They may be much smaller and simplified so that it range from all the function required on a single chip.
In microcontroller, it could be grouped as 8-bit, 16-little and 32-little which is this is the most used. You will discover five major types that happen to be Freescale, Semiconductor (Motorola), Intel 8051, Atmel's AVR, Zilog's 28 and PIC from Microchip technology. Checking PIC and Motorola microcontroller, PIC has display memory so that it has the best performance. Every of the types has their different unit of instruction and matching internal hardware aren't compatible from another .
The Central Control Product (CPU) is a component to control the operation of the microcontroller and capacity to multiply, separate, subtract, and move its contents from one memory space location onto another location. It is memory location is named registers. All of the instructions or data that CPU process will be store in the registers. This current process of transferring is carry out along the internal data bus.
Memory is almost important as CPU because it is part of the microcontroller whose function is to store data. Storage area comes in a variety of packages, pin settings, types and format. Today there are varieties common in used are Ram memory, ROM, EPROM and PROM. The recollection stored two kind of information which really is a unique education code and data.
Input Output dock is a web link that been used to exchange information from outside the house world into the system to regulate such as led, LCD, or anything with the right software. Most microcontrollers will have at least 8 digital I/O lines but 12 to 32 I/O line also are fairly common. However the benefit of the I/O port could it be can be insight, productivity and bi-directional slot which is can be programmed as suggestions or output.
Registers are small storage components of size in few byte or term. Registers can be seen quickly by the ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) of micro controllers.
Figure 2. 9 Example of Microcontroller
Sensor is a tool that steps nanoelectrical physical or chemical type volumes and convert it into a signal of electrical that can be read by an observer or by instrument . You will discover too many type of sensor to be classified. But the most common seen is sensible sensor, vibration sensor, light sensor, thermal sensor, pressure sensor, ultrasonic sensor and position sensor. Sensor can turn into contact sensor and non-contact sensor. For the contact sensor, it is responding when then sensor details something that may be activating the circuit. While the non-contact sensor work without touch the sensor such as heat range, reading or smell receptors.
Each of the two requirements has their own advantages. For the contact sensor, it is belongings for detection motion where need the correct time to switch on. This type can see for the explosive mine, door diagnosis, or traffic light detection for a car crossing the line when red light. But for the non-contact sensor, it is more to trigger before the object been touch. These kinds are available in sonar sensor, temp sensor, distance sensor and so many more. It includes their certain level before the circuit will be activates.
In order to choosing the sensor, there are certain criteria for a good sensor to be select. Firstly it must sensitive to the measured property. It describe that the sensor only impact only their personality never to other. Then it need insensitive to any other property likely to be came across in its program. So these detectors will not influence to several property at the same time which cause some confusing.
One important aspect of robotic is power. The sort of the power source or power storage area set the restrictions the capability of an robot. Therefore the function of the robot is set by an availability of power consumption whether it's stored on the robot itself or provided externally. Power is thought as a device that can produce way to obtain electrical supplies or energy supplies to the strain. There are many types of power supply that will describe later.
There has been a considerable surge in a electric battery application whether rechargeable or non-rechargeable batteries to suit a robot's needs. With a huge of edge, it advent many of electronics device, cell phone, laptop and even designer watches use the use of batteries. It is the resource that is in addition to the availability of mains electricity. The activity of electrons from negative to positive is induced by electric energy. If there is no avenue for electrons to visit, therefore there is absolutely no current flow but the voltage is still present .
Battery technology is swiftly improving, so it come with variety of types such as alkaline battery pack, fuel cell, lead acid, lithium, Nickel Cadmium and Nickel Material Hydride. It work is dependant on the electrons flow through a conductive path like a line and called a complete circuit. In essence it contains of three parts an anode, a cathode and the electrolyte. So the chemical reaction in the battery will cause potential difference and move of electrons.
Some of advantages utilizing the power are that it can be rechargeable for a certain type. Then the lifetime of battery pack is longer which may achieve almost 20years. Most types of batteries are free maintenance for their characteristics. Besides that, the size of battery is the most crucial which contain variety of size in support of rely upon how it to be use.
However, battery also have the disadvantages that your battery may lose about 8 to 20 percent demand in for yearly and also be based upon the temps where it called as personal release of batteries. For a non-rechargeable battery, the consumption is very limited for only certain time.
Solar cell is a device that changes the sunshine energy into electricity energy that your conversion process is dependant on the photoelectric impact. The photoelectric effect is describes as the release of positive and negative charge carrier in a solid condition when light strikes its surface. Basically the solar cell operate also using the idea of the moving electron which it energy acquire from the sunlight energy. The solar power is merely the medium intercession for the process of alteration energy. It includes two different level with p-type or silicon positive type and n-type or silicon negative type.
The benefits of solar cell are it using the alternative energy to operate. With the never-ending energy it becomes convenient sources for future years electricity supplies. Secondly, the solar driven panels are usually extremely easy to install. Wires, cords and vitality sources aren't needed by any means which this making easy potential customer to hire. Lastly, solar cell zero noise whatsoever while absorbing the vitality from the sun.
Nevertheless it also contains the disadvantage of the solar cell. Although it renewable source, during a storm or cloudy day solar technology can't be harnessed. Along with the solar cell and solar panel that are had a need to acquire solar energy which is very costly to get.
Generator is a device used for convert mechanised energy to electrical energy. Generator and motors are built commercially the same manner due to generator can operate as a motor unit and vice versa . The mechanical energy is from the source of fuel, substance, wind or other resources. The most frequent method to source mechanised energy is through vapor, gas combustion turbines, electric electric motor and drinking water. .
Since the source of mechanical energy is green sources, therefore the benefit of generator is it easy to obtain to generate the power. It can produce long-term electric power so long as the resources always in the generator. Nevertheless the generator is device that is very costly equipment to buy. And it is not applicable for certain application of electric devices.
The procedure of generator is dependant on electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Magnet inside the generator creates a magnetic field that induces a power current in the conductor whenever it steps through it. With regular and continuous motion of the conductor comes a continuous stream of electricity
In making a conclusion, this chapter contribute the essential knowledge some of quite part of crawling automatic robot. Besides it gives advantages and cons of the part to be able to considering select the components for carrying on further chapter.