Posted at 12.31.2018
I am checking out three different learning ideas. These ideas are classical fitness, operant conditioning, and the communal learning theory. Each theory of learning is approached differently, nevertheless they have many similarities and differences. Classical conditioning is based on pain to stimulus and getting results. Operant fitness uses reinforcements and punishments and the sociable learning theory uses observation. Many of these elements impact on learning.
There are many different ways people learn. Three ideas of learning are classical conditioning, operant fitness, and the social learning theory. Each one of these different theories has a unique and different procedure. Classical conditioning is simply learning by associate of two different stimuli. Operate fitness is learning by repercussions. The social learning theory is learning through observation and duplicating what you saw. Learning, in psychology, by definition "is the adjustment of behavior through practice, training, or experience. " (Dictionary)
Classical conditioning, also called "Pavlovian" conditioning, was an accidental breakthrough of Ivan Pavlov. He was performing a study on the role in saliva and what it does for digestion. During his analysis on saliva Pavlov pointed out that the puppies were starting to salivate when the attendant that was feeding the puppies would enter the room the puppies would learn to salivate. Either the view or noises of the attendant evoked this behavior in the pet dogs. Thought Pavlov had not been studying the dogs for this reaction, it was a large discovery.
Classical fitness is "a kind of learning that was based on nothing more than the repeated affiliate of two stimuli. " (Lahey, 2004) With traditional conditioning things are essentially 'programmed' into the human brain. You learn that when the first stimulus is introduced you should expect the second stimulus to follow shortly.
The first rung on the ladder of classical conditioning is to introduce a natural stimulus. When this natural stimulus is shown another stimulus also needs to be presented. The next step is to bring in another stimulus. This second stimulus must be something that is of significant, like in Pavlov's original experiments. If the attendant entered the room he previously food. The end result is the puppies salivated when the attendant got into the room because the dogs new that he brought food.
Operant Conditioning is actually learning from the results of your activities or tendencies. The first person to describe operant fitness was an American psychologist known as Edward Thorndike. He was originally questioning the brains of family pets. He built his famous homemade puzzle field because he wanted to test the intelligence of cats.
Thorndike placed a hungry cat inside his puzzle box and placed food on the outside of the field. It was up to the kitty to determine ways to get out and get the food. Thorndike was observing just how long it needed the kitty to escape the box and get to the food. There were many trials. With each trial, the kitty became quicker at escaping from the package to get its food. Through Thorndike's experiment he developed the "law of result. " Regulations of effect states "that the consequences of a reply determine whether the response will be performed in the future. " (Lahey, 2004) This law of impact later became known as operant fitness.
"Operant conditioning handles the modification of 'voluntary action' or operant habit. " (Operant conditioning, 2009) Operant conditioning uses reinforcement, punishment and expansion. The reinforcement may cause the behavior to happen more. Punishment may cause the behavior to occur less frequently. There are positive and negative reinforcements and punishments. Using a positive punishment or reinforcement the end result should be that that habit is utilized more. With negative the behavior will hopefully lower. Extinction occurs when there is a lack of consequences. Which means that the patterns will take place less frequently.
The Social Learning Theory originated from Albert Bandura. "Bandura's Sociable Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. " (Community Learning Theory (Bandura) Learning-Theories. com, 2009). His theory is definitely the 'bridge' cogitative and behaviorist learning theories. The Public Learning Theory uses three things. They are observing, imitating, and reinforcements. This theory is associated with criminology a lot.
Bandura thought that there was more to learning than just immediate reinforcements in learning. He thought that people were able to learn by watching other people. This was called observational learning or modeling. Modeling can be used to explain a variety of behaviors. You will discover four conditions that are necessary for modeling. These conditions are attention, retention, duplication and determination.
To learn something you must be paying attention. If something grabs your attention you might miss something essential that you want to learn. This could have a poor effect on what you are learning. The next phase is you need to be able to retain this new information. You're going to have to pull up the info later to have retained. Next, after the information is maintained you need to be in a position to reproduce the patterns which you have observed.
Finally, once you pay attention, retain and reproduce the new behavior you will have to have drive to imitate the new action. Motivation will come from knowing if the person gets rewarded or punished for the behavior. A good example would be if you functioned really hard on the project at the job and received a increase verses someone that did not put any effort into their job and did not get a increase.
Bandura used a Bobo doll to demonstrate his sociable learning theory. The Bobo doll was three legs high and got a sand handbag platform. What he was proving was that if children saw aggression towards the doll they might reproduce the tendencies that that they had saw or if indeed they saw adults playing the toy occur the same room they might likely play with the toy set. Not surprisingly, if the child saw a grown-up use aggression to the Bobo doll the child was much more likely to also struck the doll. In case the adult were to disregard the doll and play with the toy arranged the kid was a lot more than likely to disregard the doll and play with the toy set.
All three ideas relate with learning. Each of them modify your action. The way these theories do that is through using the stimulus, reward, reinforce or punishment. No real matter what method can be used you will learn a new habit. There are many similarities between traditional fitness and operant fitness.
One of the major similarities is the fact that both classical fitness and operant conditioning is that both are learning by connection. Classical fitness is learning based on two stimuli. Operant conditioning is learning through either positive reinforcement or punishment or negative abuse or reinforcement.
Other similarities in classical fitness and operant fitness are that neither will last if they are not reinforced. Also in both conditions the replies are in order in a stimulus environment. Another interesting thing about these to conditions is the fact you can build new behaviours on the recently learned habits.
I feel that the interpersonal learning theory and operant conditioning tend to be similar that the communal learning theory and classical conditioning. Both public learning theory and operant conditioning rely on inspiration, rewards or consequence. In operant fitness learning is dependant on what is suitable and brings about the reinforcement (pay back) or abuse. Sociable learning theory is dependant on observing and learning. If I were to see someone with good patterns get rewarded, I'd be motivated to reproduce their good action to find the same praise. The same applies that easily were to see someone get punished for stealing something and see your face gets punished I would not steal because I'd not need to get punished.
Classical fitness and the social learning theory have a biological aspect. Thought traditional conditioning you act in response biologically without recognizing that you are. This was true for the puppies when the attendant brought them food. The dog was salivating without meaning to. With the social learning theory the way you are raised as well as your biologically programmed has an effect how you will handle a situation. Are you going to follow the public or adhere up to them if indeed they do something bad?
There are differences between classical fitness, operant conditioning and the cultural learning theory. These different include if the behavior or reaction can be an intentional or unintentional response. For instance in classical fitness the response is involuntary, but in both operant fitness and the public learning theory the response is voluntary.
One difference between traditional fitness and operant conditioning is that the end result is not based mostly entirely using one stimulus. In classical conditioning something learns a response predicated on a stimulus. With classical conditioning the response is not voluntary. "Classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner. " (Abisamra, 1999) With classical conditioning things are 'programmed' into the human brain. With operant conditioning the person learning is taking part in their learning. In operant fitness things are discovered through effects. They know very well what they may be doing and know that you will see something that will derive from their action.
With classical fitness the response is a reflex. The subject has no control over its response. For instance, when the attendant arrived to the area the dogs learned through classical fitness that they might get food. Now when they noticed are been told the attendant they would start to salivate.
In operant conditioning things are learned through outcomes and learning from your errors. If my cat scratches my sofa rather than using her scratching post, I scold her and show her the scratching post. Theoretically by me scolding the pet cat she will learn that is a outcome. The same goes for if my kid pulls that pet cats hair, I scold him. When the kitty uses her scratching post I give her a treat to let her know that is the right thing to do. I am trying to reinforce her good behavior with an incentive.
Another difference between traditional fitness and operant conditioning is that the end result is not structured entirely using one stimulus. In traditional fitness something learns a reply predicated on a stimulus. With classical fitness the response is not voluntary. "Classical fitness is passive on the part of the learner. " (Abisamra, 1999) With operant conditioning the person learning is participating in their learning. They know very well what these are doing and know that there will be something that will result from their action.
The previous important difference between traditional conditioning and operant learning is in that in operant conditioning there is an incentive or reinforcement for an action. With traditional fitness there are no bonuses for actions. There is absolutely no right or incorrect for an action and you don't know that if you undertake the right thing you get rewarded or if you chose the wrong action you can find punished.
A good hand and hand evaluation of the dissimilarities of classical and operant conditioning would be in the study of Skinner's kitten and Pavlov's dog. The kitten was limited and held back again from its food. The kitten was required to learn getting out of its container by trial and error. Once the cat escaped its box it got a reward. The hungry cat acquired food. Through positive reinforcement the kitten received its food. In Pavlov and the puppies, there was an attendant that give food to the dogs. If the attendant was nearby the dogs salivated. This was a reflex.
With classical fitness and the communal learning theory there isn't direct interconnection between one collection stimulus and a response. The public learning theory is dependant on observing whereas classical conditioning is dependant on the advantages of a stimulus to obtain a result. The sociable learning theory takes place through observing, imitating, and modeling someone. With this theory you model someone predicated on what they did and will obtain the same result that their original behavior got. I try to model good manners that end with good results. Through observation I really know what the results of my actions will be. With classical conditioning the result is predictable, after time, like when Pavlov's pups were expecting their food. Your dog will know, through observation, when the attendant gets into the room the dog is going to get feed. If the attendant enters the area the dog starts off salivating because the dog is anticipating getting give food to.
When we compare the three learning ideas classical fitness, operant fitness, and the communal learning theory they all show similarities and variances. These theories improve behavior through various things such as stimulus, rewards or punishments. The public learning theory and operant fitness rely on rewards or punishments. There's also different between these learning styles. Traditional conditioning uses stimulus and a response that is involuntary. The communal learning theory is based on the conditions you are in if you will detect the actions and behaviors of others. Operant fitness depends on consequences for your actions.