Posted at 12.07.2018
Community terminology learning (CLL) is a kind of language learning procedure. The founder for CLL methodology was Charles Curran, an American Jesuit priest who was working as the Guidance Learning. CLL play a fundamental role for students who are learning English as their second terms. It is an example of an impressive model that requires the value of learning process into consideration. Learning new languages might be challenging for students who are not familiar with the language as they'll face difficulty in understanding the terms they are learning. Some of the learners will feel anxious when they are speaking using other dialects. They might believe that they are embarrassing themselves when they are connecting with the indigenous audio system. So, Curran was most widely known for his considerable studies on adult learning. He had tackled some issues on affective site that are related to adult learners when they are learning new dialects.
Technique that is applied in CLL method is that instructors become the dialect counselor or translator during dialect learning, as the students will be the client in the learning process. During the discussion or lessons, students sit down in a circle while the teacher sits outside the circle. Sitting by means of circle gives the students the sense possession and feel included. The circle helps to build community. It provides a non-competitive, a sense of engagement and a sense of equality atmosphere for the students. Students will feel even convenient using their peers and this will make them try to use the words. When the class starts, many people are encouraged to learn each other well. This will create a warm and close course individuality. Students will listen closely plainly when other students are chatting. They will benefit from the chance to be imaginative and can escort their answers quickly when they are sitting by means of a circle. This is because when they are relaxing together, students can see each other faces clearly, have eye contact and notice the other person well. They'll feel secure and safe to speak out their thoughts and can have debates and discussions among themselves.
Interpersonal romance among students and instructors are incredibly important. Professors need to take care of the students quite so that students will lower their defensive behavior and will start conversing interpersonally. Students will feel absolve to talk about their activities or introduce themselves using their mother tongue. Professors have to pay attention carefully to the students' conversation and convert the chat into British. Then, students will observe and imitate teachers' pronunciation and phrase structures again during the discussion. Students will then replicate what have been said by the professors in front of the class. So, to make the training process easier, students should ensure that they make simple and short phrases around five to six words when they are communicating in their mother tongue. So, maybe the professors can control or stop the students from discussing too long. This is because when teachers convert it in British, it'll be easy for the students to understand and imitate the pronunciation and sentences easily. When it's the students' decide on speak in target language right to the group, educators can correct students' grammatical error and mispronunciation. But teachers must ensure that they are not over carrying it out.
Even although teachers aren't engaging or entail in the discussion, they still play an important role in the training process. Teachers shouldn't always right the students' pronunciation as this will discourage them to keep learning and influence the students' involvement in learning. It will lead to frustration. The teacher should not control the talk in CLL, but let students discuss whatever they hopes (Rardin et al. , 1988). What was important is the fact teacher should ensure that their students are usually in a position to speak in a manner that is simple for others to understand and not necessarily like a native presenter. Scaffolding can be provided for the students if students remain unable to pronounce or speak appropriately. Set up an individual training for the determined students by giving them extra classes and instruct them again the proper usage of English will eventually help them. Their learning improvement may be very slow, but professors' worried and shared trust can help them to master the language little by little. Mutual trust between the instructors and the students should be retained throughout the conversation. Students will feel convenient when they are showing their viewpoints and thoughts. This will eventually inspire students to learn new languages and enhance their comfortable when speaking in the front the group. Inside a non-defensive romantic relationship learners have the ability to engage with and individualize the material (Rardin, Tranel, Tirone and Green, 1988).
This method is not really relevant in a Malaysian classroom. Malaysia is a multiracial country that involves Malay, Chinese language, Indian while others. Everyone is put under the same education system, where all races are learning in the same course. When students are studying in the course, they still would prefer to use dialect that they feel convenient and familiar to talk to others. Because of this, you will see some language differences between students. Everyone in the category uses different mom tongue and prefer to use language that they feel convenient and familiar with when communicating with others. That's the reason CLL is not really applicable in Malaysian classrooms that contain multiracial students. In CLL teaching approaches, the majority of the communication and speaking are in mom tongue. Students from different races will face difficulty in understanding their friend's chat and this will in actuality lead for some bafflement in students. Through the discussion, students' initiative to speak will be less. It is because they will feel left out or awkward to speak with their mother tongue where most of their friends cannot understand.
Teachers will also have to recognize that their students result from various backgrounds and can face many problems when learning new dialects. For example, students who are learning English as their second vocabulary, while their mom tongue is Mandarin. Mandarin sentence structure is a lot simpler if compared to English. Students will face difficulty in learning British because Mandarin has little or no bound morphology and there are no grammatical paradigms to memorize. Each expression has a set and sole form and verbs do not take prefixes or suffixes exhibiting the tense or the individual. However it is different for British. When teaching in British classes, CLL strategy is not appropriate also. Teachers who wish to apply this approach in classroom need to have strong knowledge of languages where they could explain and differentiate the uses and function of certain languages. Translation from mother tongue to focus on language is challenging for educators because they have to concern about the complicated sentence structure rules and phrase set ups of the language. When the instructors are translating to the mark language, they need to make sure that the sentence structures are following a grammar guidelines and agreement of sentence structure of the target language. Clear justification must be produced by instructors so that students can understand how sentences are created. They must have the ability to explain and present samples to students that not every phrase can be translated directly to the target language. That's the reason teachers will need to have strong knowledge of every function of different dialects.
The Grammar Translation Method (GTL) is another method that may be used by instructors when educating second words learners. This technique was introduced in the 19th hundred years, when moves were made to bring international- terminology learning into university curriculum. Furthermore, sentence structure translation method emerged when people from the, the burkha wanted to learn Latin and Greek. It focuses on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary, translation of content material and doing excises. Students were given explanation utilizing their mother tongues dialect.
There are some limits for the Sentence structure Translation method. One of the reasons is that the category is conducted using mom tongue, with little use of the prospective language. Because of this, students prefer to communicate using mom tongue as everyone in the category will understand what they are trying to convey. Alas, this won't help students who are struggling to obtain speaking skills and can not assist in developing and enhancing their proficiency in target vocabulary. Students will not be in a position to speak properly using correct grammar guidelines and pronunciation because they cannot practice how to speak appropriately using target terminology. Besides that, students won't have the effort to communicate in using concentrate on language, a few of them even feel shy and refuse to make an effort to speak in target language because they're frightened to make flaws when talking to others.
Vocabulary is also taught by means of isolated words list. The students are taught about the literal so this means of the word, but they pay less focus on the way that it is used. For instance, they only know the literal interpretation of the word 'happy', nonetheless they have no idea how to use it properly in sentences. They will construct 'her eyes shone with happy' rather than 'her sight shone with delight'. Despite the fact that they learn about the change in the form of the word in line with the grammatical function in the sentence, however the program is less. Besides that, they also understand how to translate sentences from their mom tongue to target language. Even though this will help the students to understand the basic understanding of British such as basic vocabulary and grammar, however, the conditions of learning second vocabulary will vary. Sometimes, certain terminology can't be translated to other languages without considering grammar rules. For example, in Malay words 'Jangan main main', however when it is translated to English it'll become 'you do not play play'. The grammar rules and phrase structures are appropriate but it carries illogical meaning to the sentence.
Furthermore, GTL is focuses on reading and writing. That is parallel to Malaysia curriculum specs which is also emphasizes on those skills. The curriculum specification describes the communicative coaching approach to British predicated on the integration of the four main skills: reading, writing, being attentive and speaking (Malaysian Education Ministry, 1989). The curriculum specification in Malaysian academic institutions is supposed to use emphasis on dental activities that could help students to use English language effectively in their daily communication and associate the vocabulary to the environment. However, in conditions of implementation, the class situation is definately not what is envisioned by the Ministry Class. Teaching often relies on reading understanding, writing, grammar and vocabulary skills. Thus typically neglecting being attentive and speaking skills that are not given emphasize in the classroom (Pandian, 2002).
Although GTL has its advantages, however there are a few missing elements in this technique. Communicative competence aren't really emphasizes in this technique. It is because the coaching process is entirely based on literature only. Drilling the learners with constant grammatical exercises especially at the primary college level is a norm in Malaysia school room. Drilling exercise can help the learners to own deeper understanding of grammar guidelines writing so that they can correct their errors and can not duplicate the same faults when writing. Even though the drilling exercises approach has some advantages in vocabulary coaching, it is however does not help the students to master the language in the long run. Often, students from the rural areas cannot speak and write competently in English after they have graduated from high academic institutions. Corresponding to (Maarof et al. , 2003; David & Govindasamy; 2005), ninety-four percent of students are unemployed after graduates in Malaysia because of their inadequate competency in British language, specifically in using British for oral business communication.
GTM is pertinent to Malaysia classroom for students who are learning English as their second terminology as it targets translation method. Translation from L1 to L2 is important in learning second vocabulary. This is because the students need to believe in their mom tongue first before applying to their target terminology. Based on the curriculum specifications, sentence structure is taught relating to phases by periods. Students will study from simple words to more technical words. First, it begins with a word list, educators are meant or necessary to translate the word list into students' native terminology so that students can understand. This is because Malaysia school is divided into SK (Sekolah Kebangsaan), SJKC (Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina), and SJKT(Sekolah Kebangsaan Tamil).
This does apply in Malaysia classroom because everyone in the class understands Malay vocabulary in SK university, Mandarin in SJKC and Tamil Language in SJKT. It will be far easier for the educators to translate words from indigenous language to target vocabulary as all the students understand the same indigenous language.
This method also takes on a simple role for the sluggish learners or learners who want to learn new dialects. Teachers can convert words by words to them using their mom tongue so that can understand more. They will be able to acquire vocabulary and understand the meaning of content in context. Furthermore, in addition they can understand certain words that may be applied in several context and situation. When students have strong knowledge of the application of the meaning of words, they can gradually learn to develop simple phrase and then progress to the next level. However, if we look back again to the history of GTM, GTM only instructs students how to memorize words and its own meaning. But overall, sentence structure is still the main part in learning terminology. In primary institution, the usage of textbooks, worksheets and exercise books is common in the training process. Once the pupils are getting intermediate level, cassettes and video tapes are released to make the learning process more interesting. However, these materials lack the ability to nurture oral communication skills because of the insufficient interactivity (Faridah, 2004). Quite simply, many teachers tend to be thinking about training students how to read and write well in addition to educating students to understand the grammar component of the language.
In conclusion, every procedure has its power and weaknesses. It depends on how teachers put it on in the training and coaching process. In order to motivate students to boost their English, instructors need to comprehend the way they actually learn and choose more suitable strategies.