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Communicative Functions of Sentences

(Timothy. Shopen 2007) mentioned that, there are at least four senses in which one can talk about clause or word types in a dialect. One way is within terms of the distinction between declarative, interrogative, important, and exclamatory sentences. A second sense of clause type is represented by the differentiation between main clause and subordinate clause, and among different kinds of subordinate clauses. Issues related to this sense are discussed in the chapters on subordination, A third sense of clause type concerns what sort of same event or situation can be discussed, from different perspectives, with grammatical results such as speech and pragmatic outcomes such as theme and target. The fourth sense, the one discussed, involves different kinds of clauses in terms of their internal structure, primarily surrounding different types of predicates. Here, the standard distinction is between verbal and nonverbal predicates.

Literature review:

Sentence in traditional grammar

Introduction:

B. A. Okolo(2008) stated that the traditional grammarian fellow a certain method according from what he understand about the type of the terms, he added that if the vocabulary is the reflection of our thought, then there should be correlation between everything we think and the vocabulary that we share our thoughts, which why traditional grammarian started out his information with complete interpretation full assertion, imposing that all word must has subject and predicate, thus these parts add each other to this is of the whole sentences.

Definition of the phrase in traditional grammar

Sidney. Greenbaum (2002) explained that the traditional classification of the phrase is that

"A phrase is a group of words that exhibit a whole thought" but he argued that this meaning is notional, because it may lead to misunderstanding to what it meant by way of a complete thought, so he approved this assumption by describing that some sentences have more when compared to a thought.

B. A. Okolo (2008) added that the words "complete thought" in traditional definition of a sentences do not signify logically complete, because logical complete thought does not turned out to be a sentence, however the paragraph, the essay, the chapter or even the whole book.

Sidney (2002) identified the phrase as a group of words that starts with capital letter and ends with full stop, but again he argued this explanation stating that we now have a large range of sentences begin with two capital characters (in the case of nouns) and still considered as sentences, and others start with capital letter but not end with capital letter like imperatives, exclamations and questions, which means this classification is not good.

Another common explanation of word in traditional grammar is the fact "a word is a group of words that consist of subject and predicate" but A. B (2008) argued that by proclaiming a large number of sentences in English do not consist of subject take such as imperative "take off your shoes" thus sentence is easy to describe (discuss) somewhat than identify.

Bas Arts and April MCmahan (2006) described the sentence as "A word is basically several words which are tied mutually and convey an idea, event or explanation. The words within an English word have a certain order and guidelines regarding ways to either expand or shorten it. The limitations of a sentence are easily recognized, as it begins with a capital letter and ends with a terminal punctuation mark (period, question mark or exclamation point). It is important for British writers to learn the vocabulary of sentence grammar terms in order to be able to examine and develop their writing"

Sentence types regarding to interpretation and term order:

M. Verspoor and K. Sauter (2000) explained that English sentences can be categorised corresponding to communicative functions and habits into four basic finds: Declarative, Interrogative, Essential and Exclamatory sentence habits, they added that when people speak, they connect for various reasons, however the four main reasons are:

  • To inform someone of something
  • To get information from someone
  • To get someone to do something
  • To communicate one's attitude about something

And each of these communicative functions has the following patterns

John is going out of.

Is John departing?

Leave!

How dreadful John is giving!

So these patterns have the next syntactic characteristics:

Subject- whole verb

Part of verb- subject matter- rest of the verb

Verb by itself

How. . Accompanied by remainder of sentence

Thus the words "john is giving" express the following functions

Informing (declarative)

Asking for information (interrogative)

Getting you to definitely do something (very important)

Expressing feeling/attitude (exclamatory)

B. A. Okol (2008) added that traditional grammarians generally arranged that phrases can share four kinds of meaning

Facts (declarative sentences)

The declarative sentence can be used chiefly to make an assertion; usually it expresses an undeniable fact, but sometimes a probability, a possibility, or even an impossibility, the standard word-order of the declarative sentence is subject-verb or subject-verb-complement. This order is usually evolved.

Commands (crucial sentences)

An imperative sentence expresses a command line or a question, there may be usually no formal difference between an crucial sentence with expressed subject and a declarative phrase. Thus you sing out of framework may be the request that you do the singing (essential) or a remark you know how to sing (declarative). But sentences using the verb (be) can be recognized by the form of the verb:

  • You be the vocalist (critical)
  • You will be the singer (declarative)
  • Questions (interrogative sentences)

The interrogative phrase usually asks a question

Exclamations (exclamatory sentences)

An exclamations phrase expresses sense or sentiment. Exclamatory sentences are often introduced with what or how, as a modifier of the complement

Interrogative Sentences

The interrogative phrase usually asks a question:

  • Have you seen Sam?
  • Do you understand that John is sick and tired?
  • Did the physician say it'll be twins?
  • Is the meals good?

Sentence regarding to verbal predicate

Transitive and intransitive clause:

Timothy Shopen (2007) discussed that the differentiation of the clause with verbal predicates, is that the differentiation between transitive and intransitive, transitive clause calls for two or more discussion, whereas intransitive uses only one debate, so in languages like English the variation can be, by stating that transitive clause comes with an thing, whereas intransitive does not as in the next examples:

  • My dog ate the hamburger (transitive)
  • My dog is sleeping in the abasement

From the illustrations above, it is clear that transitive verbs like eat need an subject to complete the meaning of the clause, but intransitive verbs like sleep doesn't need an object, although there a prepositional word implemented the verb sleep in the above sentence but it is not an subject, it can be an adjunct because this is is still complete if this prepositional saying removed from the word.

Ditransitive clause

Timothy (2007) explained that some British constructions contain much more than object, or at least two nonsubject arguments, so these constructions are so called ditransitives as the illustrations below explain:

  • Nancy offered Jeff some flowers
  • Bob informed Sally a story

So in these instances the noun phrases Jeff and Sally are so called indirect object, and the noun phrases some flowers and a story are direct thing, in the previous examples indirect things flowed immediately the verb, whereas immediate things end the phrase, however in the engineering with preposition direct thing flowed the verb immediately and indirect object flowed the preposition as in the next constructions:

  • Nancy offered some flowers to Jeff
  • Bob told a story to Sally

Data collection and analysis:

Data collection:

For the purpose of this task the researcher picked arbitrarily a chapter from the publication titled, the memory of babikr bedri, this reserve is compiled by Babikr Bedri in Arabic and translated to British by his son yousif bedri, the chapter selected is chapter the one that is entitled, Babyhood and Youngsters web page 1-14.

And the motivation beyond this is to research clause types in British language according to the following requirements:

  • According to meaning and term order
  • And relating to verbal predicates

Data research:

The data accumulated for the intended purpose of this analysis were examined in the next steps:

  • Step one: to identify clause types regarding to interpretation and word order
  • Step two: to identify clause types according to verbal predicates

Step one

Clause relating to meaning and term order

Facts (declarative sentences)

  • Our educator sat down (Para 1 Page 6)
  • I perfected the memorization of koran in the year 1880 (Para 4 Web page 7)
  • We arrived in Madani (Para 5 Web page 9)

Commands (crucial sentences)

  • Come here (Para 2 Page 5)
  • Go and wash your slat (the same Para)
  • Come and write what you washed off before (Para 3 Web page 5)

Questions (interrogative phrases)

  • When and in what circumstances does you duplicate this publication? (Para 2 Site 12)
  • Do you take in much better than that in rufaa? (Para 2 Page 10)
  • What food have you got? (Para 2 Webpage 10)
  • To who have recite the prior part? (Para 2 page 5)
  • Who was with you? (Para 2 page 5)

Exclamations (exclamatory sentences)

  • How he put me down (Para 3 Page 1)

Step two

Clause relating to verbal predicates

Transitive clause

  • Our professor Muhammad had studied the Koran and other topics (Para 2 Site 12)
  • I was described the word wabar (Para 3 Web page 10)

Intransitive clause

  • We all laughed (Para 3 Site 10)
  • We agreed (Para 3 Site 10)

Ditransitive clause

  • My parents told me that I was created on 8 August 1861 (Para 1 Webpage 1)
  • Let me tell you about this man (Para 1 Web page 4)
  • A pupil's family send a feast to the institution (Para 1 page 7)
  • She put my literature in a fabric satchel (Para 2 Webpage 9)

Conclusion

In this research, you observed that sentences may have different communicative functions and that each of the communicative functions is indicated with an average sentence design, called the declarative, interrogative, essential or exclamatory pattern. The declarative sentence pattern is the most common and you will be analyzed the most in this review.

A typical declarative word gives information in regards to a situation or event and could name a number of participants, a process, an attribute of 1 of the members, and various aspects of the environment. The sentence constituents naming these are subject, and predicate. The predicate brands the process, and possibly other participants, capabilities or setting. The predicate includes a predicator, which brands the process, and its own complement. The go with in the clause with verbal predicate (transitive, intransitive and ditransitive) can be a direct object and indirect subject. If there is a direct object, there can also be either an indirect or benefactive object or an object attribute in the supplement.

English terms is unlike other languages, it can use different clause types in its phrases according to different facets that why anyone could not talk about definit clause types without referring to all these requirements, but I think that clause can discussed rather than categorised.

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