Posted at 12.18.2018
"Any act by which one person offers to or receives from someone else information about that person's needs, needs, perceptions, knowledge, or affective state governments. Communication may be intentional or unintentional; it may involve typical or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may appear through spoken or other modes. "
Organisations cannot operate without communication. Communication may take various varieties but all forms involve the transfer of information in one get together to the other. For the copy of information to meet the criteria as communication, the receiver must understand this is of the info used in them. If the recipient will not understand the meaning of the information conveyed to them, communication hasn't occurred.
Communication is the life span way to obtain organisations because organisations involve people. People cannot interact with one another without communication. In the lack of communication, everything would grind to a halt. For instance; the workers in an organisation wouldn't normally know the organisation's targets so they might not strive to achieve the organisation's goals.
On the complete people have the ability to communicate with one another as this is a basic individual function. However successful organisations strive not only for communication but effective communication.
This is thought as communication between two or more people and will involve the copy of information (or concept) from one person to the other(s). The individual transferring the information is named the sender or transmitter. The individuals receiving the note are known as receivers. The transmitter will need to send the information in a format that the receiver(s) will understand. Converting the info into a format that the receivers will understand is known as Encoding.
Messages can be encoded into a number of formats dental, written or visible. After encoding the communication is transferred via a medium called a channel, for example a notice, fax, telephone call, or e-mail. After transference the info should be interpreted by the recipient. This technique of interpretation is recognized as decoding. Finally the recipient will send a message back to the transmitter confirming whether the information sent has been known. This back again check is known as reviews. The communication process requires seven key elements as illustrated in the diagram below.
Effective communication is focused on conveying your information to other folks obviously and unambiguously. It's also about getting information that others are mailing to you, with only a small amount distortion as it can be.
Doing this involves effort from both the sender of the subject matter and the device. And it's a procedure that can be fraught with error, with announcements muddled by the sender, or misinterpreted by the recipient. When this isn't recognized, it can cause huge confusion, wasted work and skipped opportunity.
In reality, communication is only successful when both the sender and the recipient understand the same information consequently of the communication.
By successfully getting your message across, you present your ideas and ideas effectively. You should definitely successful, the thoughts and ideas that you truly send do not necessarily echo what you think, creating a communications break down and creating roadblocks that stand in the form of your goals - both in person and properly.
In a recent review of recruiters from companies with more than 50, 000 employees, communication skills were cited as the sole more important decisive element in choosing managers. The survey, conducted by the College or university of Pittsburgh's Katz Business Institution, highlights that communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an capability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success.
In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to have difficulties, unable to talk their thoughts and ideas effectively - whether in verbal or written format. This lack of ability makes it extremely difficult for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the form of career development.
Being able to communicate effectively is therefore essential if you wish to build a successful career. To do this, you must know very well what your concept is, what audience you are mailing it to, and exactly how it'll be perceived. You need to also weigh-in the circumstances encircling your communications, such as situational and ethnical context.
To be an efficient communicator and also to ensure you get your point across without misunderstanding and bafflement, your goal should be to lessen the frequency of problems at each level of the process, with clear, concise, accurate, well-planned communications. We follow the procedure through below:
As the source of the meaning, you should be clear about why you're connecting, and what you would like to communicate. Additionally you have to be confident that the info you're communicating is useful and appropriate.
The subject matter is the information that you would like to converse.
This is the procedure of transferring the info you want to speak into an application that may be sent and appropriately decoded at the other end. Your success in encoding depends partially on your ability to mention information clearly and, but also on your capacity to assume and eliminate resources of distress (for example, cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information. )
A key part of the recognizes your audience: Failure to comprehend who you are interacting with will bring about delivering text messages that are misinterpreted.
Messages are conveyed through stations, with verbal channels including face-to-face conferences, mobile phone and videoconferencing; and written stations including letters, emails, memos and accounts.
Different programs have different talents and weaknesses. For instance, it's not particularly effective to give a long list of guidelines verbally, while you'll quickly cause problems if you give someone negative reviews using email.
Just as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (including, for example, making the effort to read a note carefully, or hear positively to it. ) As confusion can happen from mistakes in encoding, additionally, it may occur from decoding errors. This is particularly the circumstance if the decoder does not have enough knowledge to comprehend the meaning.
Your message is sent to individual participants of your audience. Without doubt, in store the actions or reactions you expect your message are certain to get from this audience. Remember, though, that all of these individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will certainly influence their knowledge of your note, and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should think about these before providing your subject matter, and act appropriately.
Your audience will provide you with opinions, as verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated note. Pay close attention to this responses, as it's the only thing that can provide you self confidence that your audience has understood your message. If you discover that there has been a misunderstanding, at least you contain the possibility to send the communication a second time.
The situation in which your meaning is sent is the context. This may are the encompassing environment or broader culture (corporate culture, international cultures, etc).
Physical barriers at work include:
Research shows that one of the most crucial factors in building cohesive groups is proximity. As long as people still have an individual space they can call their own, nearness to others products communication since it helps us get to know each other.
The problem with communicating with others is that people all see the world differently. If we didn't, we would haven't any need to communicate: something like extrasensory perception would take its place. The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and perceptions form our own realities:
A traveller was walking down a road when he achieved a man from the next town.
"Excuse me, " he said. "I hope in which to stay the next town tonight. Can you tell me the particular townspeople are like?"
"Well, " said the townsman, "how do you find the individuals in the last town you stopped at?"
"Oh, they were an irascible bunch. Kept to themselves. Took me for a fool. Over-charged me for what I got. Gave me very poor service. "
"Well, then, " said the townsman, "you'll find them pretty much the same
One of the principle barriers to available and free communications is the psychological barrier. It really is comprised mainly of dread, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy whenever we were trained to be cautious what we said to others.
"Mind your P's and Q's"; "Don't speak until you're spoken to"; "Children should be seen rather than heard". As a result many people restrain from conversing their thoughts and emotions to others.
They feel prone. While some extreme caution may be smart in certain relationships, excessive concern with what others might think folks can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form significant relationships.
When we join a group and wish to remain in it, eventually we need to adopt the behavior patterns of the group. They are the behaviours that the group accept as indications of owed.
The group rewards such behaviour through serves of recognition, acceptance and addition. In groups that are happy to agree to you, and where you are happy to conform, there is a mutuality appealing and a higher level of win-win contact.
Where, however, there are obstacles to your regular membership of an organization, a high degree of game-playing replaces good communication.
Language that represents what we want to say inside our terms may present obstacles to other people who are not sure of our expressions, buzz-words and jargon. Whenever we couch our communication in such vocabulary, it is a way of excluding others. In a worldwide market place the best compliment we pays another person is to speak in their words.
One of the more chilling remembrances of the Chilly Conflict was the danger by the Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev stating to the People in the usa at the United Nations: "We will bury you!" This was taken to suggest a risk of nuclear annihilation.
However, a far more correct reading of Khruschev's words would have been: "We will overtake you!" indicating economic superiority. It was not simply the language, however the dread and suspicion that the Western world got of the Soviet Union that led to the more alarmist and sinister interpretation.
There are different differences between your speech patterns in a man and those in a female. A woman talks between 22, 000 and 25, 000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7, 000 and 10, 000. In youth, girls speak sooner than boys with the age of three, have a vocabulary double that of kids.
The reason for this lies in the wiring of any man's and woman's brains. When a man talks, his talk is positioned in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. Whenever a woman talks, the talk is positioned in both hemispheres and in two specific locations.
This means a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalised way, features of left-brain thinking; whereas a female talks more openly mixing logic and emotion, top features of both factors of the brain. It also points out why women speak for a lot longer than men every day.
To deliver your information effectively, you must commit to wearing down the barriers which exist within each of these levels of the communication process.
Let's begin with the communication itself. Should your subject matter is too prolonged, disorganized, or consists of errors, you may expect the subject matter to be misinterpreted and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body gestures can also mistake the concept.
Barriers in framework tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in hesitation here, less is quite often more. It is best to keep an eye on the needs on other's time, especially in today's ultra-busy world.
Once you realize this, you will need to work to understand your audience's culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within your own corporation, in your country and even in another country.
Barrier refers to something non physical that continues apart or stops activity, motion & etc.
It is the disruption or disturbance in communication process everywhere on the way. Noise though of varying level, disturbs or inhibits communication. Whatever that distracts the receivers attention triggers communication breakdown. Noises can be physical & mental. Physical distractions or disturbances such as noisy audio system, gossip etc. , pull the interest of the recipient. Psychological noises relates to mental disturbances like ego clash, pre occupied thoughts, hangover, anxiety.
Long distances between your sender & the receivers can also obstruct effective communication
Time refers to the getting of subject matter. If an important concept reaches later it is sure to have an impact on communication.
It identifies excessive transmission of information. Much more information than what the receiver can process is sent to him/her. The recipient can·t understand, break down, analyze & react after information overload that is beyond mental capacity.
Outdated machines & equipment may produce increased noise leading to physical barriers in communication. Distraction like qualifications noise, poor light. , have an effect on the morale of the employees & also obstruct effective communication.
Lack of clarity in message helps it be badly expressed. badly chosen & clear word, phrases, insufficient vocabulary, inability to clarify implications etc. , are some typically common faults found.
The message that every manager will get from his superiors, peers, subordinates must be translated into words well suited for the respected person( for whom the info is destined).
It is often discovered that technical employees & special groups tend to develop a special, peculiar & technical dialect of their own. It hinders their communication with people not in their niche, because of the receiver's ignorance of this type of language.
Perceptual obstacles may arise scheduled to dissimilarities between individuals in the way they perceive, organize & understand their environment.
People differ in regards to to attitudes & opinions which frequently interfere with communication. When the message is steady with our attitudes & views we receive it favorably.
Communication has no impact on those who find themselves unable or unwilling to listen. If people do not pay the required degree of attention to tuning in & understanding the messages they are likely to receive.
Some people form a judgment before receiving the complete message. Such premature evaluation avoids effective communication.
when new ideas are being communicated, the hearing apparatus may act as a filtration in rejecting new ideas. Thus resistance to change can be an important obstacle to effective communication.
Cultural identifies values, values, norms, attitudes & perceptions of individuals of different countries or regions. Symbols, words, colors, gestures, words must be carefully preferred when senders of information are interacting with people of different countries & locations.
ONE WAY FLOW
RULES & REGULATIONS
ATTITUDE OF SUPERIOR- the frame of mind of superiors towards communication influences the circulation of messages in several directions.
LACK OF Assurance IN SUBORDINATES
LACK OF TIME
At each level along the way encoding, transference, and decoding you have the possibility of interference which may hinder the communication process. This interference is recognized as noise. Often a comparison is manufactured between communication and a leaky bucket. If you are using a leaky bucket to carry water, normal water will be lost at various tips in your quest from this touch to your destination. It is not possible to avoid losing normal water because the bucket contains holes. The quantity of water you will eventually lose will be determined by the number of openings in the bucket, how big is the slots, the option you take to your final destination and amount of time it requires you to get to your vacation spot. There can also be other occurrences that occur throughout your journey which increase the amount of water lost. Likewise when information is moved from the transmitter to the receiver not absolutely all of the information may be received by the device because of holes called noise. Each of the noises may be have an impact on the quantity of information transferred. Just as in a leaky bucket, more holes reduce the amount of normal water, more noise decreases the quantity of right information received.
The receiver(s) might not exactly (fully) understand the words used by the transmitter. This may appear if the transmitter's terminology is international to the recipient. There may also be words problems (that the communication process) if the note contains technical information and the receiver's is unfamiliar with the technical conditions used. Cultural differences created by an individual's background and experience influence their conception of the world. Such ethnic differences may have an effect on the interpretation (decoding) of the meaning sent.
If the surroundings that the transmitter or device are in, is noisy and filled with sound, the tones may avoid the message being fully understood. Background noise is often created by acquaintances or equipment.
If the route used to copy the info is poor it may prevent all or a few of the info being transferred. Examples include a faulty fax machine, a crackling mobile, handwriting that cannot be read or in the case of oral messages incorrect cosmetic gestures.
If the receiver(s) is not considering the communication (or unable to give their full attention to decoding) this may decrease the amount of information received or the reliability of the information transmitted to them. Similarly the receiver(s) may misinterpret the subject matter by "jumping to conclusions" or reading the message in a fashion that suits their own pursuits/objectives and distort the real meaning of the concept.
i. e. steps in the message, If the communication is complicated or there are several steps taken to transfer the communication it may influence the exactness or interpretation. Contrasting with the leaky bucket if the leaky bucket must carry water over a longer distance more normal water will most likely lost than if the quest was shorter.
Internal / Organisational Communication
This is communication that takes place within (or across) an organisation. As well as the usual face to face, telephone, fax or email; modern organisations might use technology to connect internally. Technology can be utilized for e-mails or a connected inner communication system like the intranet which can be an internet system designed exclusively for use by those doing work for the company.
Conversely exterior communication is communication between your organisation and the ones outside the company. Modern organisations may design scientific systems so that they can talk to customers and carry out e-Commerce. On the other hand they communicate with other businesses through the internet or similar systems and carry out e-Business.
Functions of Internal and Alternative Communications
Technology has rapidly expanded the types of inner and external communication open to organisations. The diagram illustrates the great array of inner and exterior communication available.
Combined together inside and external types of communications allow various industries of the neighborhood, countrywide and international community to socialize, liaise and conduct business.
Formal and Casual Communications
Formal communication is defined as communication which occurs through the official organisational programs or is undertaken by an employee to do their job. For instance official meetings, words and a administrator asking a worker to handle a particular activity. Conversely casual communication is whatever occurs outside the recognised communication systems such as conversing in the lunchroom or hallways between employees. Casual communication can be fruitful or negative. It gets the potential to build teams, improve working interactions and generate ideas as employees are in a comfortable environment.
Upward and Downward Communications
Downward communication is communication created by directors and managers and passed on the hierarchy of workers in the organisation. In traditional organisations this is actually the preferred approach to communication ie Professionals decide the actual systems, guidelines and methods will be and they pass these right down to employees they take care of and supervise. Downward Communication can increase efficiency by synchronising organisational steps and can ensure that everybody is working towards the same overall seeks and goals. Types of downward communication include job information, appraisals/evaluations, organisational insurance plan, and organisational systems.
Although there are advantages to downward communication organisations have started to encourage upward communication. This is communication which originates at the lower degree of the employment hierarchy and is then communicated up through the range. Organisations encouraging upwards communication believe everybody is capable of generating thoughts and ideas which might help the organisation to progress, particularly if they are working closely in the region that the idea applies to. Upward communication may increase motivation and make employees feel appreciated and reputed whilst enabling professionals to understand how employees are sense. Furthermore if problems arise at they will be identified earlier by those working tightly in the region that they take place. Types of upwards communications include advice schemes, feedback forums/surveys, grievance strategies and employee-manager conversations.
This is communication that occurs between employees on a single level in the company. As this can involve decision rendering it can create efficiency as employees do not have to wait for managerial approval. On the other hand if the director is not retained up to date or if the supervisor fails to place boundaries there is certainly potential for turmoil.
This occurs when communication occurs between staff in some other portion of the organisation and where one of the personnel involved is on an increased level in the company. For instance in a standard bank diagonal communication will take place when a section manager in hq converses with a cashier in a branch of the lender based on the high street.
Communication between people based in various locations by by using a cable, telephone, broadcast or a telegraph.
Linking to or more computers along so that information and facilities can be shared. Pcs in the same room may be associated along or the organisation may decide to link, computers in different parts of the globe together.
Local Area Network (LAN)
Computers linked by way of a network without the utilization of telecommunications. Usually the computers connected are based in the same location, group of properties or site.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Computers linked with a network using telecommunications. Usually the computers associated are based in various locations.
Through the use of telecommunication devices such as video tutorial link participants centered in various locations communicating is known as teleconferencing.
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
Computer sites used to exchange standard business business deal documents between organisations.
First of all explanation of grapevine is that it's the unofficial way that communication occurs within the organization. It is neither supported nor authorized by the business. It can also be called gossip. As we realize many gossips haven't any factual bases whatsoever; almost all of them however do. A director may use grapevine to his / her advantage if it's an organization where people are used to get their "information" from these options.
And of course it might be a lie to say that almost all of us don't gossip, or listen to them at least occasionally, particularly if it requires us. Bad information spreads faster than good news, therefore the information gets to employees real fast. It can happen with a word of mouth, or recently more often by electronic means. If a business is dependant on integrity, these grapevine information can be a lot more accurate than within an organization that is based on an authoritative culture. Usually there's always some fact to it however. Rumours about major lay-offs, herb closings, and so on may be filled up with appropriate information regarding who'll be affected so when it may appear. This truth part is just what a manager may use to his / her benefit. Most employees know that if there is almost any grapevine information circling in the business, whatever it's about can be true. When a administrator for example desires to influence employees to work harder, or put more work into it, they might simply start a new gossip, or encourage a preexisting one about lay-offs that might involve their section. I'm not stating this is a good way to get this done, but if nothing at all else works, why not. This is however not the hallmark of the good supervisor, because she or he can use other methods of motivation. An excellent leader must have the ability to exert advanced of effort from his or her employees by motivating them in various ways.
Another way of looking grapevine information is its usefulness in supplementing formal information programs. It provides a way for employees to communicate their imaginations and inputs to a certain issue. If management is not actually performing a good job with interacting with employees in what is certainly going on within an group, then grapevine can gratify these natural needs for information. Grapevine is a healthy human want to communicate. It is the informal communication channel within the business. Managers have to acknowledge this reality, and make an effort to use it to their own advantage. Professionals enthusiastic about creating good communication within the organization will use grapevine as a mean to boost it. The real value of grapevine should be to management is the fact it reveals conditions that make from those whom interested in or effected because of it. Professionals can also take part in grapevine. They could be filters, who keep an eye on the info and onward to top management only the valuable and important components.
Grapevine usually arises during times of uncertain times; therefore management has to make certain that it's providing enough information about important issues. The longer the rumour goes around, the hardest it is to regulate, so management had to intervene quickly if it needs to avoid its damaging effects. The fact is that grapevine is is available within organizations, and they will have a truth element of them. Management therefore can use them to their own benefits, as a go with to the state and formal stations of information.
Grapevine can be an informal channel of business communication. It really is called so because it stretches throughout the business everywhere regardless of the expert levels. The management can use grapevine to supplement the formal channels of communication. Though it carries some extent of problem and distortion, attempts can be made to correct it. Disregarding the grapevine is only to ignore a valuable source of communication. The management can eliminate its negative effects and, at exactly the same time, it can nourish its positive benefits. The professionals have to figure out how to manage and control it.
1. The management can open up all the programs of organizational communication to present the facts positively prior to the employees and thus can battle the negative messages with the positive weapons of facts and numbers.
2. Better job design and better quality of work life can simply bring the grapevine under the control of the management.
3. In addition, it inhibits the boredom, idleness and suspicions among the employees.
4. The negative consequences of the grapevine can be easily eradicated if the management is successful in creating trust-relationship with the employees.
5. The rumours flourish beyond restrictions when the employees aren't up to date by the management regarding the policies, objectives and the work procedure of the organization. The inadequate usage of information and the feeling if insecurity is the reason why behind the negative final results of the grapevines. The professionals must give their workers an adequate access to information and the sensation of security.
6. The rumours multiply when the situations are unpredictable, unstructured, unplanned and are beyond the control of a person or the people who are involved in them. Therefore, the best way to manage and control it is to provide appropriate and significant information of the situations to the employees. The professionals should pick up the phony rumours and dispel them by giving correct information.
7. Before taking any decision or action, the professionals must consider its likely effects on the casual groupings and systems in the business.
8. The management can use the grapevine as a barometer of the public opinions in the business or to have the pulse of the employees in a particular situation. This will surely help them to take right insurance plan decisions.
9. Within the formal activities of the organization, the management should avoid threatening the informal communities, which are sensible in distributing the grapevine effectively.
10. The management should find out the people in the informal groups who are more vigorous on grapevine. These people should be accurately and adequately prepared so the false rumours causing thrills and insecurity do not spread one of the employees.
11. The management should understand that the work place community is retained not only by the work itself but also by the informal human associations. Therefore, the administrator should honestly try to integrate their passions with those of the casual groups.
Grapevine is an casual communication network, which ignores formal stations of communication and spreads rumours and gossips by any means levels of the business enterprise business. Although every business-organization has its formal stations of communication, the informal channel of communication called grapevine also manages in it. It can be easily found that a large part of the communication in nearly every business house is not formal or pre-planned. The employees communicate through informal programs as they are doing their jobs. It really is neither pre-planned nor intentionally motivated by the management. It is neither written nor documented or noted. Therefore, it identifies any communication that takes place outside the prescribed and pre-planned programs of formal business communication. It isn't place with the lines of organizational hierarchy. As it has no place rules and regulations, it isn't confined to a particular way. It just spreads just like a grapevine.
Importance of Grapevine in business scenario:
Though the composition of the grapevine is not so well defined, as that of the formal channels, it will not be studied for its weakness. The information moving through grapevine have better velocity than that of the announcements streaming through the formal programs. The grapevine may bring equally vital message through it for the achievement and success of the organization. It is not accurate to underestimate the grapevine by saying that the essential messages cross only through the certified, formal channels. On the other hand, though the formal stations are organized, pre-planned and recorded, it is authority-laden. It could never be as quick and spontaneous as the grapevine. The employees connect through grapevine, not because they're compelled to talk but because they earnestly want to talk to their associates.
The method of formal written communication is slow and expensive method of information transmission. The grapevine, on the other hand, is non-expensive method and most-rapid dental method of transmitting the info to the maximum range of the communication receivers. The grapevine can flow wherever the individuals wish it to flow, therefore, the director may use the properly cultivated grapevine in dealing with the problems that require crossing the boundaries between your departments.
Grapevine hails from the psychological need of the employees to speak about their careers and their affiliates as the main topic of their main interest. The lack of grapevine surely creates the dull, sick and tired and unfriendly atmosphere available firm. Grapevine is also referred to as the barometer of public opinion in the business. If the director is delicate to it, they can accumulate information about the ideas, ideas, attitudes and interests of the employees.
The grapevine offers an opportunity to the employees to let off the suppressed air of anxiety, worries and frustration. When they discuss their associates, they get psychological relief. The fact that the employees discuss their affiliates or that they have the interest in their associates is a proof of the high morale. Thus, the grapevine not only helps bring about unity, integrity and solidarity of the business but it addittionally helps to raise the morale of the employees.
Limitations of Grapevine
The grapevine may bring some extent of error in it.
The baseless, imaginary and non-factual emails may prove bad for the business.
Often the employees nourish the grapevine with self-serving information. They enhance the facts rather than simply report.
The grapevine often holds incomplete information, which contributes to misunderstanding of the device.
The communicator does not take the duty of the communication.
Sometimes the grapevine spreads the meaning so swiftly that this causes harm to the organization.
Suppose the profit amount of an company is known. Rumour is disperse that this much profit is there and on that basis bonus is announced.
CEO may be in regards to the Production Manager. They may have friendly relations with each other.
Grapevine channels take information rapidly. As soon as an employee gets to know some private information, he becomes inquisitive and moves the facts then to his closest good friend who in turn passes it to other. Thus, it spreads hastily.
The managers become familiar with the reactions with their subordinates on the guidelines. Thus, the reviews obtained is quick in comparison to formal channel of communication.
The grapevine creates a sense of unity among the list of employees who reveal and discuss their views with one another. Thus, grapevine assists with expanding group cohesiveness.
The grapevine serves as an emotional supportive value.
The grapevine is a product in those circumstances where formal communication does not work.
The grapevine bears partial information sometimes as it is more predicated on rumours. Thus, it generally does not clearly depict the entire state of affairs.
The grapevine is not trustworthy always as it generally does not follows official journey of communication and is distributed more by gossips and unconfirmed statement.
The production of employees may be hampered as they spend additional time talking rather than working.
The grapevine leads to making hostility contrary to the executives.
The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the business as it may carry fake negative information about the high level people of the business.
A smart director should manage all the disadvantages of the grapevine and make an effort to minimize them. At the same time, he should make greatest use of advantages of grapevine.