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Colonoscope System to Avoid Loop Formation

Enclosed is my statement of Final Job pertaining to Design of new system proposed for an operation of Colonoscopy to beat a Looping Problem.

Various factors have been discussed and some approaches have been applied throughout this record and have found this area as full on interest, though plainly also one of the very most mandatory for functional life. Working on this area has enormously increased my knowledge.

These days and nights Colonoscopy is a topic which is point appealing for every corporation, especially for many who are having an huge research in this area related to development and augmentation and companies which mainly offers in Medical Equipment Technologies and various functions.

There are Making and Electrical area which are occur Colonoscopy Equipment to the Development of Electrical System which has a deep level of area linked to Electrical Technology. Thus, reflecting the existing value of product/services among the consumers or how the value can be increased and also its medical development

Many research businesses are working internationally related to development and advancement of Colonoscopy and are and also there are a few companies that have the statistical data and are providing useful information for technical people so they are simply plan and market their business consequently and specially those areas which are an integral part of Colonoscopy technology.

Influencing the ways that folks act in their daily utilization lives can be an anxiety for research workers in a number of disciplinary areas, including consumer Behaviour psychology, development, creativity, health research and marketing.

The particular framework of the low-income consumer is the one which is needs to emerge in the buyer and marketing plan literature as one of importance, particularly in terms of making certain these consumers get their basic needs met in their market place interactions.

However, there is still limited knowledge about the Colonoscopy habits of low level of technical people imply they may have less knowledge about Colonoscopy and in particular there are very few studies which may have examined efforts to effect or modify lower knowledge for those specialized people which don't possess sufficient knowledge for this domain.

Report is composed of different areas, for an improved idea the statement is sorted out of areas that are descried as under.

  1. Necessary requirements of a report
  1. Basic introduction of an Colonoscopy and its own current process, with some ideas of its medical application are conditions that happen to be required before any colonoscopy process or its application
  1. Idea of a fresh equipment, modelling and developing methodology to be able to get proper idea regarding new designed procedure
  1. New product development process and procedure, so once the procedure is designed a fresh equipment is produced exactly what will be the activities related to costing factors, specialized implementations, commercialization strategies etc.
  1. Conclusion and References

This project is approximately the user interface and something which will help doctors and health professionals to perform successful colonoscopy technique without facing any looping problem, if any issue occurs system will help to identify problem. There are a few New Product Development areas that are also mentioned in this statement. Various areas of Colonoscopy and its modelling has been reviewed in this statement and some release materials is also applied to apply a defining light related to various concepts

Colonoscope:

Colonoscopy is the endoscopic study of the large bowel and the distal area of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on the flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual prognosis the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. [1]

Figure 1: Gilo, Colonoscope, Image adapted from "Wikimedia. org", 2009

Colonoscopy:

Colonoscopy is an operation which helps doctor to look at the lining of the complete rectum and digestive tract by using the endoscope creating a camera with one of its end. Colonoscopy may be done for the next purposes:

  • Blood in the Stool
  • Anemia
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Areas of Irritation that may point out ulcerative colitis
  • Helps to obtain biopsy muscle for examination
  • Diagnose of Invasive Cancer
  • Changes in Bowels Practices, such as constipation or diarrhea
  • Complete removal of large polyp
  • Recheck the colon pursuing surgery for Digestive tract Cancer

Figure 2: Colonoscopy Prep, Image adapted from "American Gastroenterological relationship", April 2013

Colonoscopy may be done for a number of reasons, most of the time it is performed to determine the cause of bloodstream in the stool, belly pain, diarrhea, and change in colon behavior or an abnormality entirely on colonic X - rays or a Computed axial tomography check. [2]

Individuals having prior history of polyps or colon cancer and certain people with a family background of some types of non-colonic malignancies or colonic problems that may be associated with colonic malignancy may be encouraged to have periodic colonoscopies because their hazards are greater for polyps or cancer of the colon. [2]

How often should one undergo colonoscopy is determined by the amount of the risks and the abnormalities found at previous colonoscopies. It's been advised that even healthy people at normal risk for colon cancer should undertake colonoscopy at get older 50 and every 10 years thereafter, for the purpose of taking away colonic polyps before they become cancerous. [2]

Figure 3: Steven, Make, CANCER OF THE COLON and Polyp Image modified from

"Colonoscopy Planning Process"

The procedure for colonoscopy includes the intubation of any Colonoscope from the anus via the colon to the cecum. Throughout a comprehensive colonoscopy technique, the insertion shaft is placed into the anus then pressed through the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse intestines, and ascending digestive tract through to the cecum. [3]

At show perform the Colonoscopy there are two methods which are available and they're known as two - Person and ONE INDIVIDUAL Colonoscopy Procedure. [3]

In the one-person colonoscopy, the doctor does the inspection alone, controlling the angulation sections and valves with one hand and inserting or twisting the shaft with the other palm. In one-person colonoscopy, the medical doctor customs the right palm to put the opportunity and control the orientation of the distal end of the scope with the still left hands. Thus, the one-person method typically creates an improved coordination of both operations during the procedure. [3]

In the two-person colonoscopy, a physician and an assistant perform the two-person colonoscopy, i. e. , the doctor handles the orientation of the opportunity, and the assistant pulls and pushes the Colonoscope in line with the physician's demand. [3]

By distinction, in the two-person method, an associate pushes or pulls the scope while the physicians control the scope orientation. Within the latter method, good coordination often is hard to achieve. [3]

As an outcome, the two-person method often creates more procedure-induced abdominal pains than will the one-person method. [3]

Figure 4: Cole, Chrissie, Colonoscopy Method, Image adapted from

"Colonoscopy Tumor Screening Process", October

Before using a colonoscopy, doctor must be aware if patient has any special medical conditions. Some of the conditions are stated as under: [4]

  • Pregnancy
  • Lung conditions
  • Heart conditions
  • Allergies to any medications
  • Diabetes or take drugs which could affect blood vessels clotting. Adjustments to these medications may be required before the procedure.

Some patients also needs to antibiotics prior to the colonoscopy. A number of the examples are described as under: [4]

  • Have an manufactured heart valve
  • Have have you been told you will need for taking antibiotics before a dental care or operative procedure

In recent times a little amount of work has been done on colonoscopy device and little growth has been made but nonetheless there is a problem which is common to colonoscopy device and i. e. Loop Information in colonoscopy when process is applied.

Figure 5: Tudor, Alex, Loop Formation in Colonoscopy, Image designed from "Fundamentals: Diagnostic Colonoscopy", June

Most commonly, we talk about a 'difficult colonoscopy' being one where it was challenging or extremely hard to attain the cecum. Others might be willing to evaluate difficulty predicated on the passage of time required, or the amount of physical exertion involved or even the uncomfortableness the patient activities. [5]

For the expert colonoscopies, a difficult colonoscopy might be one where it is challenging to diligently take a look at each fold upon drawback. For the purposes of this talk, we will confine ourselves to enjoying the 'difficult colonoscopy' as you where the endoscopies challenges or fails to reach the cecum. [5]

Figure 6: Steele, R. J. C, Perforation of the Bowel by Colonoscopy, United Kingdom, Image designed from "How I do it Colonoscopy"

Research Objective:

When we examine different colonoscopy available in the market then we realize that there are numerous colonoscopy procedures which includes presented in market and are designed for medical examinations as well.

Some of the types which can be created in medical sector are talked about as under

  • Variable Stiffness Colonoscope
  • Over - pipe Colonoscope
  • Capsule Endoscope
  • Self - Propelled Endoscope
  • Virtual Colonoscopy
  • Aer - O - Scope
  • Neo Guide Endoscopy System
  • Image Guided Colonoscopy

In this project we have stated new proposed equipment which is added in a Colonoscope device and you will be utilized in a procedure of colonoscopy and certain small equipment has also been added with Colonoscope which helps to get over the loop problem from the Colonoscopy Procedure at the moment.

Reason of an Loop Development:

The actual reason of your loop formation is self-locking mechanism, it occurs when Colonoscope and Intestines will come in contact two claims occurs which is Stay State and Slip State.

Slip point out occurs when tangential pressure is greater than the limit of static friction push, this friction pressure can be dependant on the multiplication of strong frictional coefficient and normal applied power to the point.

Stick express is the displacement of two contact points when both of these are equal to zero. This keep state usually occurs in sigmoid colon.

Self-locking mechanism generally occurs when generating force perspective is less than the friction position and this express is known as stick state.

So way to avoid loop formation the rule has been shown up but there is absolutely no such equipment which can support this principle.

In further part of the report we will be speaking about what equipment and design can help avoid the condition and support the theory which has been made.

Figure 13: Colon Perforation, Image modified from

"Medical Demonstrative Information", USA 1999

Idea Generation/Concept:

After studying various ideas and types of colonoscopy strategies available in medical field it has been noticed that loop formation is an extremely vast and universal problem available in this area which created problem for doctor to execute the task.

To overcome this problem equipment is suggested in this statement which is a best fit for the existing process of colonoscopy that helps to defeat the looping mistake and problem.

The recommended equipment here will be integrated with the Colonoscope and can help calculating the force viewpoint and also compares it with the friction perspective so if the driving pressure will be higher than the friction drive the loop development will be avoided.

Benefits of the new designed equipment are referred to as under

  • Advanced Indicator of Loop formation
  • Run Time Mechanism
  • Forces and Parameters in an display panel so Doctors can be prepared during procedure
  • Smooth Technique

Basic Idea in a Stop Diagram: (Flowchart # 1# 1)

Modelling of a New System:

There are various periods defined below but first we begins with the Stop diagram of this new model.

Block Diagram of a System: (Flowchart # 2)

Explanation of your Model/System:

Model talked about above contain various detectors and devices which can only help physicians to use a system which will give final result as a Loop free Colonoscope method.

Colonoscopy Force Screen:

CFM is a tool that continuous actions, displays and stores the information. It really is a preferred method to screen for colorectal cancer.

Figure 14: CFM Device, Image designed from "Gastrointestinal Endoscopy", USA 2014

It is a handheld force-measuring attachment attached to the Colonoscope shaft that delivers your physician with a real-time opinions on the make and torque applied during colonoscopy.

The CFM was created to improve training of folks which managed endoscopy and establish guidelines for performing colonoscopy by quantitative characterization of expert skill.

Control Unit:

Control unit takes on a essential role to avoid loop creation. It offers two knobs i. e. Knob A and Knob B and both of them are handled by Doctor. When doctor handles the knob the end gets particular orientation.

Here we use both Models that have been proposed by Wubin Cheng. His first Model was to give the info to Doctor about the contact drive and position on hint in the bowel so when there is any chance for the self-locking to occur so doctors should get warning in advance through the display system.

Second model details connection between two knobs and the end in order to compute the tip orientation information.

Interface by using a Stop Diagram: (Flowchart # 3# 3)

Result:

By applying this new system Physician will be able to identify current situation of the colonoscopy process. If there will be any loop problem or a self-locking device will arise then doctor can triumph over it because information will be via CFM which is connected outside body and doctor can see pressure exerted to the end of insertion tube and if it's not correct so they will be change the orientation of the end.

System Flow in case of Loop Formation: (Flowchart number 4# 4)

  1. It will be a web based software which will be showing different information
  1. There is a live monitoring of an operation so doctors will be able to examine the procedure on run time
  1. Interface will be integrated to the CFM which will be providing the information of torque and drive so if there will be an extra torque or power that doctors will be applying then they will get a message on program that Loop formation can occur
  1. Interface will be integrated to the Knob which will be receiving the meaning of the Tip of the orientation so if there will be any requirement for the change of the orientation of the end then doctors can change it out. For the change of orientation doctors will able receive a note on the live inteferace

Evaluation of a Model:

Here we are doing evaluation of an proposed model of this job. The parameters defining the model as an excellent or a poor model is extracted from Zhang - Lin FCBPSS modelling demonstration.

Validity:

Upon receiving the information over the display panel of a CFM if doctors follow the procedure as per defined over a display -panel so process can be carried out smoothly and validity of something will stay as designed i. e. productivity will be achieved in a perfect way.

Utility:

Information via CFM will be correct it will be based mostly of medical staff about how they actually perform a process. Otherwise, it will be a perfect electricity to give required end result.

Reliability:

Process applied on a same patient multiple times in regular interval for a specific day, the results will always be obtained as same.

Comprehensiveness:

Colonoscope is only required to be included with different companies of display -panel or control product, this is only area for the comprehensiveness. The system will be designed so the integration will stay consistent whenever it combines with other device.

Ease useful (Usability):

it will be a user-friendly device; uses will be designed as possible for the utilization of personnel.

Product Testing and Benefits:

Since the new proposed system will can be used to conquer many problems that have been occurring in previous therefore this is a top good thing about the new designed method.

There is an enormous market present for users which is able to utilize this new design treatment, currently there may be a big market which can be in need to make use of the process of the colonoscopy however they are unable to utilize it due to a looping problem. There are various medical facilities across the world which are looking to make use of the best procedure of a Colonoscopy.

There are some facts and characters which were mentioned in a site related to Colorectal Cancer tumor and that describes requirement of the product in market with eager measures

  • 630, 000 deaths expected
  • Highest rates in Japan, Korea and Asia in general
  • Risks increase with get older, with 90% of conditions being people over 50
  • Screening reduces mortality since it can find cancer at early stage. 5 12 months increases to 90% from 64%
  • Many countries are implementing screening programs for folks over 50
  • Current exams available: FOBT (fecal occult blood vessels test), sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema [6]

Expected Market Size:

The new process of an colonoscopy will be able to capture an enormous market size. Internationally a gigantic level of market is available for this device by causeing this to be new technology with software integration will be able to huge market greatly.

Routine colorectal cancer testing is something that tens of hundreds of thousands in the United States go through every couple of years. After the age group of 50 patients are encouraged to have a colonoscopy every 5-10 years. Between these colonoscopies, they may use non-invasive exams that can sometimes determine the presence of cancers or even pre malignancies. [7]

Currently, there are three main types of tests that are used: Fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), Fecal immunochemical assessments (FIT), and stool DNA tests (sDNA). [7]

Of these three, fecal occult bloodstream tests are being used the most frequently - probably because they are quite cheap (<$25). [8]

The range of virtual colonoscopy steps performed in the United States is likely to increase through 2014. Expansion in the over-50-years-of-age demographic will drive process volumes in this market. In addition, general public awareness of colon cancer and the value of early detection are encouraging visitors to get regular screenings. [9]

As the number of virtual colonoscopy steps increases, the market for digital colonoscopy software is also expected to increase, with companies such as General Electric (GE) leading the change. However, prices are approximated to diminish as competition within the online colonoscopy software market intensifies. [9]

But as inconvenient as it is, CRC screening process saves lives. Just a little over 50, 000 US patients die of this disease every year, making it the next deadliest cancer in the United States. About 20-40% of patients are diagnosed with the condition in the later periods, when surgical removal is not curative. However, the majority of screens that get polyps will find them while they remain adenomas. Adenomas are usually asymptomatic, meaning that patients would not have had the opportunity to identify them with out a colonoscopy. [10]

Figure 7: Herrick, Devon, Colonoscopy Market, Image designed from

"The Emerging Market for Medical Care"

Concept Development of a Procedure:

Concept development of the new equipment initiates from the new features which will be embedded in it. For example CFM, Software Integration and Run Time information of a Loop Formation during a Colonoscopy so the Doctor can be up to date and necessary activities can be studied in order to make it a perfect Colonoscopy Technique.

Characteristics

Benefits

Software Integration

Run Time or Live Information

Live Display

Parameters turning up on Display -panel for correct forces or torques

Loop Creation Alerts

Early indication of Loop formation in case of extra force etc.

Table 1: Product Benefits, Type of Table adapted from

"Knauf Insulation and Complex Solutions", USA, 2014

Though, there are many products related to Colonoscopy can be purchased in Market which retains different type of Methods and features. Therefore, a particular Marketing campaign needs to be design by which consumers and market can be familiar with this new designed technique.

Marketing Strategies:

After proper notion development and procedure design pursuing marketing strategies will be applied in order to capture major market.

Business Analysis:

Since you will see more features will be add up in a fresh procedure and for that reason more additional hardware may also be required. So keeping might be found under consideration price for a fresh Colonoscope will be more when compared with older devices but still the benefits which can medical industry will get from a new device will be a big reason behind the success of this device.

Figure 8: Botha, Deon, Product Life Cycle, Image designed from

"Product Maturity and Periods"

Figure 9: Botha, Deon, Product Life Cycle with Expansion, Image adapted from

"Product Maturity and Periods"

The above two described graph shows the thought of the product growth that how product will endure in market and will coupe up the desired sales volume in order to capture the biggest share of the market

Beta and Market Testing:

As Colonoscope is a medical device therefore its Beta Test product will be examined in labs only. After concluding all necessary phases of screening then it can be only applied for in market normally it has to complete all testing and verification levels.

Beta Testing is only going to be away in Market after doing following stages:

Customer interviews may also be conducted to be able to get best source when product will be under making period also the end result when product will be developed completely

Figure 10: Hoover, Ryan, Customer Requirements and Requirements, Image designed from "Techniques for Better Customer Interviews", January 2013

Commercialization of any Product:

Product will be commercialize in pursuing methods

  • Consumer/Doctors Awareness Programs
  • Brochure Circulation to Doctors
  • Trade Shows (Health Care Show Ideally)
  • Digital Marketing

Examples in images for these kinds of Marketing are referred to as under

Figure 11: Tradeshow Example, Image designed from

"Tradeshows Exhibit", Belgium 2014

Figure 12: Colonoscopy Brochure Example, Image modified from

"Colorectal Cancer Consciousness", USA 2014

Pricing for Colonoscopy:

Since rates is the very best most concern for just about any buyer or customers therefore the pricing for this new method will be placed per the requirement of market so it is not very costly and you will be a best procedure for industry

Following methods and strategies will be employed for Product Costs and Costing

Value Evaluation Table

Step Number

Value Analysis

Description

1

Audit Process

For Costing Purpose

2

Implementation

Functioning properly

3

Final Negotiation

Final Pricing

4

Clinical Trial or Approval

Testing of a Product

5

Preliminary Negotiations

Early negotiation of an product

6

Structure Opportunity

Overall Infrastructure

7

Gather Data

Requirement Gathering

8

Product Opportunity

Benefits of any Product

Table 2: Value Research, Type of Stand designed from "Health Care Online", Britain, 2008

Product costing will be employed by considering basic requirements. Those requirements are mentioned in a table below

Table 3: Product Costing Table, Type of Table adapted from

"Product Costing Template", USA, 2013

There are various colonoscopy devices which already are available in market and are also integrated with different software but to get over the looping problem in run-time i. e. during technique software does not provide enough information but this software will be good enough to provide such information for the task.

References

[1] James Bill, Colorectal Cancer tumor Health Centre, USA, 2010

[2] Dr. Jay Grades, How Colonoscopy Process is Performed, USA, 2011

[3] Wubin Cheng, Development of a Kinetic Model for Loop - Free Colonoscopy Technology, Canada, 2013

[4] Arnold Polish, Colorectal Tumor Guide, USA, 2012

[5] Dr. Todd N Witte, The difficult colonoscopy, Canada, 2007

[6] Lionel Abraham, The information about Bio Mark Technology, Australia, 2011

[7] Brian Wilson, Multi-Billion Dollars Colorectal Cancer tumor Diagnostics Market, USA, 2014

[8] Greenwald B, Colorectal Cancer tumor Screening Awareness, Belgium, 2005

[9] Bailey George, Virtual Colonoscopy Market Likely to Raise Rapidly, France, 2010

[10] Vaughan Harris, Colorectal Malignancy Screening Evaluation, Sweden, 2013

[11] Dr. Wayne Aw, My first colonoscopy, Canada, 2010

[12] Adam Husney, Colonoscopy Devices, Canada, 2013

[13] M Winston, Understanding Colonoscopy, Belgium, 2011

[14] SJ Winawer, Recommendations of Colonoscopy Surveillence, USA, 2006

[15] Dr Oz, Dr Oz's Colonoscopy, UK, 2010

[16] Tracey Williams, What is Force Gauge Used in, Denmark, 2010

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