Keywords: classroom discipline, classroom management theories
Nowadays, lot of teachers inside our country are facing problem in managing their classrooms in schools. Possibly the single most significant facet of teaching is classroom management. The students are described to vary and some of them tend to act superior to the school management system, even to the teachers. They show less respect to the teachers, won't get involve in the learning sessions and even misbehaving in the schools. To be able to make certain the learning environment go well, the teachers have to create certain guidelines in managing their classrooms. Classroom management is a term utilized by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students. The term also implies for the prevention of disruptive behavior. It really is possibly the most challenging aspect of teaching for many teachers, indeed for a few who experiencing these kind of problems already leave the teaching profession altogether. This problem isn't only faced by our local teaches but it is believed to be happening globally. In the year of 1981, the united states National Educational Association reported that 36% of teachers said they might probably not get into teaching if indeed they had to choose again. A significant reason was "negative student attitudes and discipline". (Wolfgang and Glickman).
According to Moskowitz & Hayman (1976), once a teacher loses control of their classroom, it becomes a lot more difficult for those to regain that control. Also, a study from Berliner (1988) and Brophy & Good (1986) shows that the time that teacher must take to correct misbehavior caused by poor classroom management skills brings about a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom. From student's perspective, effective classroom management involves clear communication of behavioral and academic expectations, as well as a cooperative learning environment (Allen 1986).
Classroom management relates to issues of motivation, discipline and respect. Many teachers establish rules and procedures at the beginning of the institution year in order to regulate the students. According to Gootman (2008), rules give students concrete direction to ensure that our expectation becomes a reality. They also try to be constant in enforcing these rules and procedures. Many would also argue for positive consequences when rules are followed, and negative consequences when rules are broken. Sometimes, this application is working in order to control the classroom effectively but at the same time, failure also happens.
Classroom management is the reflection of the training environment of a group of individuals within the classroom setting. A teacher's classroom-management system communicates information about the teacher's beliefs on content and the training process. It also represents the sorts of instruction that will take place in a particular classroom. A classroom where the teacher is completely responsible to guide the students' actions by encouraging ands teaching those to be in charge of their own behaviors. The nature of classroom management and classroom instruction is particularly easy to be seen and understood from students perspective. Students have at least two cognitive demands about them all the time: academic task demands which is understanding and dealing with conten and also social task demands by interacting with others concerning that content. Which means that students must try to understand the content and discover appropriate and effective ways to take part in order to show that understanding to the teacher and the whole class. The teacher must facilitate the learning of the academic and social tasks. Therefore, the students' perspective on the necessity to be successful, management and instruction cannot be separated.
A teacher must cater all actions to be able to produce, implement, and maintain a learning environment within the classroom. Everything a teacher does has implications for classroom management, including creating the setting, decorating the area, arranging the chairs, talking with children and handling their responses, putting routines in place, developing rules, and communicating those rules to the students. These are all areas of classroom management:
Creating a Learning Environment
Creating and implementing a learning environment means careful planning for the start of the school year. The learning environment must be supervised in both physical space and cognitive space. The physical space of the classroom is managed as the teacher prepares the classroom for the students. These questions should be entertained by the teachers 'Is the area warm and inviting? Does the area arrangement match the teacher's philosophy of learning? Do the students get access to necessary materials? Are the distracting top features of an area eliminated?'. It can help a lot. Teachers must also consider the cognitive space essential for a learning environment. Effective teachers create and implement classroom management practices that cultivate effective classroom environment because of their students.
The establishment of the teachers' expectations should be expressed through rules and procedures. Rules indicate the expectations for behavior in the classroom, and procedures want to do with how things have finished. Rules can be developed with the students' helps in the classroom. The teacher will need to have the knowledge which rules and procedures should be used for different environment. It really is proven by certain researchers that students who demonstrates high task engagement and academic achievement implement a systematic approach toward classroom management at the start of the school year by the teachers. Therefore, one of the critical aspects of managing classrooms effectively, or managing classrooms in ways to improve student learning, is setting expectations.
An essential part of organizing the classroom is to encourage students to do their finest and be worked up about what they are learning. A couple of two factors that are critical in creating such a motivational climate which are value and effort. Being motivated, students must see the outcomes of the work they are doing and the work others do. Effort ties enough time, energy, and imagination a student uses to build up the the works hold. Teachers also can encourage the students by praising them verbally. It can motivates them to learn more.
Maintaining a Learning Environment
Classroom management also involves maintaining the learning environment through decision-making concerning students and the classroom. Maintaining a learning environment requires teachers to actively monitor their students. Active monitoring includes watching student behavior closely, correcting inappropriate behavior before it's getting worse, dealing regularly with misbehavior, and attending to student learning. In terms of monitoring both student behavior and learning, effective teachers regularly survey their class or group watching for signs of student confusion or inattention. Maintaining effective management involves keeping an eye out for when students may actually have problems in virtually any field while learning.
When Problems Occur
Though effective teachers anticipate and monitor students' behavior and learning, misbehavior and misunderstanding do occur. When inappropriate behavior occurs, they have to handle it promptly to keep it from continuing and spreading. Depending on the seriousness of the missbehaviors, teachers have to make use of different techniques to cater them. When students have problem academically, the teachers have to ensure the objectives are evidently given, precise instructions for assignments, and appropriate responds to students' questions.
In order to create and support a learning-centered environment, students must be very comfortable and believe that their contributions are valued. In addition, students must know how to value the contributions of others, value the diversity within the classroom, and give their best effort because they see it as the right thing to do or something that they would like to do. In each classroom you will see a number of skills, backgrounds, languages, and levels of cooperation. Teachers have to have encounters and skills to instruct diverse classes, combined with the administrative support in schools.
There a wide range of philosophies and varieties of discipline applied by different teachers in the complete wide world. It can be hard to choose what is most effective for a specific teacher. What works for one teacher might not work for another. A very important thing a teacher can do is to choose one that he/she think will be successful and make adjustments later if indeed they face problems. Following are a few of the most frequent discipline methods can be utilized by teachers in classroom:
Assertive Discipline. It had been created by Lee Canter. Canter believes that if you "catch" a student being good by recognizing them when they behave, they will work harder at behaving. He also believes that there must be consistent consequences of breaking the guidelines that are extremely clear. During early of the class sessions to begin, the teacher arises with no more than five rules for the classroom. Whenever a rule is broken, a consequence is given. In case the misbehavior continues, the results get more severe every time. At exactly the same time, students are rewarded for behaving properly. This can range from giving them verbal praises or even things such as sweets or foods.
A Primer on Classroom Discipline- Articles upon this manual has been published by Thomas R. McDaniel. You will discover eleven techniques that are explained that help you achieve control. The methods are Focusing, Direct Instruction, Monitoring, Modeling, Non-Verbal Cuing, Environmental Control, Low-Profile Intervention, Assertive Discipline, Assertive I-Messages, Humanistic I-Messages, and Positive Discipline.
Discipline With Dignity - This controversial discipline program, created by Richard L. Curwin and Allen N. Mendler, is based on the premise that students are treated with dignity all the time. It is created to build self-esteem and encourage responsible behavior. Typically a contract is created by both student and the teacher. The contract includes prevention, "action dimension, " and resolution. The teachers' rules must seem sensible and be fair. At the same time, prevention is also done by the teachers with preplanning to eliminate possible regions of problems. Most significant thing is to be sure students are aware of what's expected from them. The action includes record keeping and classroom management. Finally the resolution component for the teachers is dealing with the continual rule breaker in the classrooms. But, teachers have to remember that discipline shouldn't hinder motivation and for that reason, the students should be taught responsibility rather than being obedience for his or her own actions in the classrooms.
There are some dicline with this method. It is believed that teacher is must protect student dignity and the fact there is no punishment. Students frequently select their own consequences rather than the teachers who decide. Teacher responses to severe discipline problems is unusual. Many believe that this will be the last resort for teachers to be used in classrooms when others have failed.
Reality Therapy (RT)- This program was made by William Glasser. The emphasis of this program is to help students connect behavior with consequence. That is done with class meetings, clear rules, and contracts. This also includes Positive Method of Discipline (PAD), which is based on Reality Therapy.
In conclusion, sometimes even teachers can actually make the issues occur in classrooms become worse, not the students. Therefore, it's important to consider a few of the essential mistakes commonly made when implementing classroom behavior management strategies. For instance, a common mistake made by teachers is to define the problem behavior by how it looks without considering its function. Interventions are more likely to be effective when they individually commit one of the situation behavior. Two students with similar looking misbehavior may require completely different intervention strategies if the behaviors are serving different functions. Another common mistake is designed for the teacher to become deeply frustrated and feeling negative when a strategy is no longer working towards students. The teacher may raise his or her voice or improve the level of punishment in an effort to make the approach work. This sort of interaction may impair the teacher-student relationship. Rather than allowing this to occur, it is easier to simply try a new approach.
To avoid this, teachers should have a powerful communication with the students. Communication is the key point here and with good approach and mentality, the students' problem behaviors can be catered. By times, the classroom environment can be improved all together, for both teachers and students.