Child And Young Person Development

Physical development is usually very swift in early stages in the child's development. Within weeks of being born a baby will start to smile and respond to sounds and surroundings around them. By six months as their muscles get started to develop they will reach for and hold things that they will also placed into their mouths.

By twelve months old they are beginning to crawl or shuffle, pulling or forcing on furniture to stand and then explore using furniture or people for support. Sitting down has progressed to unaided and they're rolling from other front with their back.

They are beginning to be inquisitive with objects, moving them between hands, managing them in various ways and looking for things that are covering. Their hand to eyeball co-ordination improves as items are exceeded from hand to hand. Their first teeth may learn to appear and food may start to be launched.

Between one and two years walking will begin and toys will begin to be drawn/pushed along whilst walking. Things will be found and banged along or built to make a tiny tower. A desire for one hands may learn to appear as they start to hold crayons etc when mark making in some recoverable format.

They enjoy aiming to nourish themselves both with finger foods and with a spoon, and can drink from a cup with both of your hands.

Waving farewell becomes fun, they will begin to indicate what they need and tremble their head to suggest 'no'.

Between the age range of 2 and 3 symbol making on paper will improve to scribbles as they get started to utilize pencils etc. Balls start to be kicked and tossed. Bricks will be built into larger towers than before, and they will start to experiment with fluids in play by pouring.

At three years children begin to gain more self-reliance. Their range of motion and climbing skills will be improving as they run, hop, catch, walk along stairs etc. Dexterity raises with small items like puzzles, threading beads etc. Dressing and undressing will be helped but more cooperative.

At 4 years children gross motor skills tend to be developed as it pertains to tossing and aiming, building, climbing, pedalling etc, whereas young ladies fine engine skills tend to be developed by using scissors, holding a pencil to draw and color threading small beads sewing stitches etc.

At 5 years children will have significantly more pencil control and can begin to replicate letters and styles, and bring people.

Ball games will establish more structure as they commence to kick with purpose. They will start to learn to visit one foot, then your other and also to skip.

At 6 years dressing becomes indie at they learn to do switches, laces etc. Writing becomes more fluent as copying notice shapes has advanced to words and phrases with increased pencil control.

Confidence has increased when participating in outdoors in climbing, jumping from heights and riding a bike.

At 7 years children start to enjoy participating in team games because they are now hitting a ball, working, jumping, missing, swinging. However until around the age of 9 they may misjudge their capacity.

The age group between 12 and 19, between child years and adulthood is known as adolescence. Physical development during this period is very different in each young one.

As some may be just beginning to mature literally, others may have already come to full physical maturity.

Sequence is the order that development happens in.

Rate is the rate which it happens for example:

sequence = a baby's physical development may commence with rolling over then sit up, crawl, walk, run. Another may be seated up, walk, run really missing out rolling over & crawling. Despite the fact that elements are missed the development still proceeds in what's considered an expected structure.

rate = where one baby may achieve walking unaided at 10 calendar months another may attain it at 12 months another at 16 months.

This is important because series is needed to be able to plan effectively for children, considering rate of development is also essential to help us to learn weather a child's rate of development reaches the correct stage for their age group.

Task 2

There is a range of external and personal factors that effect the development in children and young peoples life's:

Personal factors such as, health insurance and disability. Health is determined by our genes, diet, environment and stress. Some children may be blessed with a problem that will automatically impact their life's, like a blood disorder. Disability can also effect a child's development, for example if a kid has a reading impairment they may well not be able to learn properly in college unless they have help from a grown-up.

External factors can also affect a child's development such as, poverty and diet. Poverty influences children and their own families in many different ways. Families living in poverty may not be able to manage good food which brings about poor diet. Having a poor diet make a difference a child's development, behavior and development.

Current practice is inspired by theories of development, such as:

Cognitive (e. g. Piaget)

Psychoanalytic (e. g Freud)

Humanist (e. g. Maslow)

Social Learning (e. g. Bandura)

Operant fitness (e. g. Skinner)

Behaviourist (e. g. Watson)


Vygotsky like piaget posited children learn from hand on activities. However unlike piaget he said that well-timed and sensitive invention by individuals when children are learning a new job (zone of proximal development) could help children to learn new duties. Vygotsky also stressed the value of social interaction he felt other children can guide each other's development as well as adults. Vygotsky also thought that children needed to be dynamic in their own learning and that play is very important to all natural learning.


Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs need to be met for a child to reach full potential take anything away from that and child might never reach their potential. That is taken into account daily with the kid centred health care and holistic approach to child attention and physical condition. Practitioners need to check out environmentally friendly factors such as heat, food clothes as well as the internal needs like promoting self esteem, and love.



Showed that children learned through copying and observing, this can be applied today as if an early years staff member with demonstrates a task the child can learn to undertake it through copying. Or if a child has a good role model they are likely to copy the behaviour. But if indeed they see bad behaviour they will copy the bad behaviour.



Skinners operant conditioning positive and negative reinforcement, this theory can be employed though stickers reward and reward once and for all behaviour and through disapproval, periods and overlooking unwanted behavior.



Freud's work might not exactly be proven but Freud's work with unconscious actions and peoples brain skills are still used like whenever a child tells a rest they smile or put their give their mouths as if to avoid the rest.

John Bowlby

Worked on attachment theories which are being used in the day to day practice in education and communal care in any way stages they are given key staff who they build strong accessories to this helps children make transitions in their lives also to have the ability to make long-term friendships.

Frameworks support development including

Community pedagogy

Social pedagogy

Is a practice concerned with humans learning, wellness and inclusion to population treating children in a child centred way and a holistic way ensuring every child's needs are attained especially those who are in need.

Task 3

There are many ways to keep an eye on children and young people's development, for example:

Observation: Observations can be taken during lessons or in the playground. They record what the kid does in a subjective way. It's most appropriate to use this method when child's development is leading to concern.

Assessment framework: It is the way in which child is evaluated to decide whether they have any particular needs and what these needs may be. It is useful in deciding if the child is achieving expected milestones of development in various areas. The analysis platform is how children are evaluated in institution, for example when a child reads; we write it in their reading information.

Information from colleagues and carers: Parents/carers who know the child and colleagues skills are invaluable, in particular when planning for interpersonal and academics success for pupils with special educational needs and/or disabilities. If we are concerned about child's development it's good to ask/share information.

Disability make a difference several areas of development at exactly the same time but early support might help minimise the effects of the disability.

Emotional reasons, if a kid is not settled and having good parts they will have low confidence and self-confidence they might not try new responsibilities and have a lack of motivation.

Physical development might be effected by genetics this may mean physical development issues or may be the kid might be considered a slower learner.

Environmental, there are many reasons that can influence child development like poverty, in which a child lives, education and their family structure can benefit a child's development.

Culturally how people talk about their children can differ significantly like in china a woman is regarded as second course to a youngster. Other cultures have restrictions on children's freedoms this can adversely have an effect on the child's development.

Social reasons are that for children created into poverty and family members whose parents are segregated are likely to have negative effects of children's development or if a family group might give less time to activities which help children's developments such as a lack of play this can also results child development.

Learning complications children might have these scheduled to genetic diseases, birth problems, and cognitive problems or could have problems with writing or reading.

Communication may be damaged by medical reasons such as ability to hear impairment or being tongue tied. These can cause communication problems, children who've communication needs find it hard expressing themselves and can show aggressive behaviour when frustrated. Children who experience communication needs may have issues with reading and writing.

Speech and dialect can help children overcome almost all of their problems. By assisting children gain the ability to use words they can help children gain self-assurance and self esteem I've seen this in my own environment with children who have possessed communication and words needs. These children have gained confidence and their words is now at a rate that they can interact with other children rather than show frustration. This is because they is now able to go to town.

The Senco in an educational environment give support to children and households with special needs this person/s is also in charge of id of special needs.

Additional learning support staff works within and outside schools providing a range of services to help children who've certain specific educational needs. This might include people like teaching assistants or advisors to provide support and coach staff.

Youth justice this is dependant on children with behavioural problems these folks will work with them and social employees to help them.

Social workers is there to help prone children and young people and their families this may include children on the kid coverage register or disabled children.

Psychologist is a specialist who helps support children who've learning or behavioural troubles. They provide professors and professionals with targeted support programmes to the child after they have determined the child's needs.

A specialist nurse provides support for the family and child particularly if that child is suffering from medical conditions that require specialist health care Also health guests come under this subject for calculating and evaluating a child's development.

A psychiatrist is a health care provider who is trained in mental health problems this person works alongside other pros to help detect or support children and young people with mental health problems.

Physiotherapist this specialized help children using their movement especially those people who have little if any movement they may be trained to get the maximum movement and skill level. Referrals can take the form of common examination form which can be packed in then in my setting exceeded upstairs to medical visitor, conversation therapist or other medical researchers that are needed after being inspected by the senco in the area.

Speech and vocabulary also have their own referral forms which will be packed in and checked by the senco before being passed to the conversation and terminology therapists.

Early years action plans and plus ideas are done and approved to the senco who'll then talk with an education psychologist. With major and secondary classes they also have school action projects which will be run through their senco and the institution run individual learning strategies.

Task 4

All young Children's brains remain growing as they expand. Early identification can transform the impact of any difficulty if support is provided early enough. Finding ways for children to talk is vital because of their mental well-being as some children who have words and communication difficulties can become isolated or may develop antisocial behaviours.

once parents and carers have discovered that a child needs additional support, a multi-agency way can be utilized. If the father or mother/carer would go to see their health visitor or gp they will then help to make an appropriate referral, this may just be to help rule out hearing or visible impairments. In some instances the gp might send the child right to a talk and words service. Some children may need to be evaluated by an educational psychologist. Once it is set up what kind of support a kid needs the right strategy may then be completed in order for parents and the environment to interact.

Children learn their words and communication skills by being around adults and other children especially whilst they are having fun. When children are playing and doing activities that interest them they are usually used to help support their development, words and conversation because they're being motivated; for example singing a nursery rhyme with children this will encourage conversation movements and will be more engaging for the child instead of just having to repeat the moves in isolation.

Task 5

There are different types of transitions that make a difference children and teenagers such as

Emotional - personal encounters such as parent's separating, bereavement, begining or leaveing a place of attention.

Physical - change in environments

Intellectual - moving in one educational establishment to some other.

Physiological - puberty or medical conditions

An example of a transition that can affect a kid could be starting a before or afterschool membership, this could have an impact on a kid because they might not know other children at the setting up and also might not exactly know the staff, there for it may lead to the kid being restless and worried about meeting new people. A way to solve this is to make certain the kid is entering an agreeable environment and be sure to introduce them to the other children and individuals so that they feel convenient in the setting up and also maybe ask another child showing them around and become their "buddy" to help them settle in. Also the kid may get an integral person to help form a positive relationship with. The idea behind an integral person is so a child has that one person who they ought to feel they can go to and feel secure of their company. The main element person must have a warm romantic relationship with the kid and also reassure them should they need to, also the key person will monitor the child's reactions in their new situation as this provides a warning occasionally where this change is not temporary.

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