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Child and Adolescent Development

Several ideas have been developed from the five major perspectives used to research child development. These perspectives include psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, contextual, and evolutionary/sociobiological perspectives (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). Experts use theories to make clear child development. The theories are important because they propose ideas or explanations to spell it out development also to predict varieties of behaviors. With this paper, I'll discuss and summarize three theories of development, their key principles, their similarities, their distinctions, how the domains of development effect each other, and exactly how understanding development helps those who use developing children.

Three Ideas of Development:

Some important theories of child development include Freud's psychosexual theory, Erickson's psychosocial theory, and Piaget's cognitive-stage theory. "Sigmund Freud thought that people are born with natural drives that must definitely be redirected to make it possible to stay in society" (Papalia et. al, 2008). He suggested that development happens throughout five periods in a child's life. The first stage is referred to as the oral level. It occurs between beginning and 1. 5 years. During this stage, the baby's chief way to obtain pleasure will involve mouth-oriented activities (Papalia et. al, 2008). The second stage is known as the anal level. It occurs between twelve months and three years of age. During this stage, the kid derives sensual gratification from withholding and expelling feces (Papalia et. al, 2008). The third stage is referred to as the phallic stage. This level occurs between three to six years. During this stage, the kid becomes attached to mother or father of the other love-making and later identifies with same-sex parent or guardian (Papalia et. al, 2008). The fourth stage is named the latency stage. It occurs between six years and puberty. This stage is a time of relative sooth between more turbulent expresses. The final level is called the genital stage. It occurs from puberty through adulthood. This stage is a reemergence of erotic impulses of the phallic level, channeled into mature adult sexuality (Papalia et. al, 2008). According to Freud, personality is mostly established by age five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence habit later in life.

"Erik Erickson's psychosocial theory asserts that folks experience eight 'psychosocial turmoil periods' which significantly have an effect on each person's development and personality" (Chapman, 2010). The first stage of life is infancy which Erickson called 'Trust v. Mistrust. ' In this stage a child learns to develop trust and mistrust with the entire world around him. The second level is during early child years called 'Autonomy v. Shame and Uncertainty. ' Within this stage, the kid develops a balance of freedom and self-sufficiency over shame and doubt (Papalia et. al, 2008). The third stage is 'Initiative v. Guilt. ' This stage is during the preschool age. The kid develops effort when attempting new things which is not concerned about guilt. The fourth level is known as 'Industry v. Inferiority. This stage is when the kid must learn skills of culture or face thoughts of incompetence (Papalia et. al, 2008). It usually occurs during the school time. The fifth stage which happens during adolescence is called 'Personal information v. Role Confusion. ' In this stage the adolescent must determine who they are or a sense of self. There could be some bafflement of functions. The sixth stage is named 'Intimacy v. Isolation. ' This stage occurs as young adults. During this stage the person seeks to make commitments to others or suffer from isolation and self-absorption (Papalia et. al, 2008). The seventh level is known as 'Generativity v. Stagnation. ' That is a parenting stage. During this stage, the adult adult can be involved with establishing and guiding another generation or they feel personal impoverishment (Papalia et. al, 2008). The ultimate level is 'Integrity v. Despair. ' This stage occurs at a mature age such much like grandparents. During this stage, the elderly person achieves approval of his own life, allowing approval of death, or else despairs over incapability to relive life (Papalia et. al, 2008).

There are two major aspects to Jean Piaget's cognitive-stage theory. They will be the process of arriving to know and the phases we move through as we little by little acquire this capability (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). His theory of cognitive development is a information of cognitive development as four unique stages in children. These stages include sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal. The first stage is the sensorimotor level which occurs from birth to two years of age. In this stage, the infant builds a knowledge of himself and fact and exactly how things sort out interactions with the environment (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). The second level is the preoperational stage. This level occurs from age ranges two to four. In this stage, the kid is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). They classify objects in simple ways or features. The third stage is the concrete procedures level. It occurs from age ranges 7 to 11. In this stage, the kid begins to think abstractly and conceptualize; creating logical structure that talks about his or her physical encounters (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). As physical encounters accumulate, accommodation raises. The final level is the formal functions stage. The formal procedures stage begins around age range 11 to 15. At this stage, cognition is in its final form. The individual no more requires concrete items to make logical judgments. They are capable of deductive reasoning and start to think like an adult. "Research has challenged Piaget's idea that thinking develops within a, universal progression leading to a formal thought" (Papalia et. al, 2008).

Key Concepts of the Ideas:

These three ideas also have key concepts that distinguish them from others. The main element ideas of Freud's psychosexual theory are the identification, ego, superego, drives, mindful and unconscious. He proposed three key ideas, the identification, ego, and superego, develop early in life. The personality forms through conflicts between your id and a child's environment. "Ego processes work toward satisfying id impulses through thoughts and actions without producing strong thoughts of guilt in the superego" (Newman & Newman, 2009). The ego processes serve both id and the superego, striving to provide gratification, however in morally and socially satisfactory ways. The ego also provides one personality. The effectiveness of the ego determines the person's success in meeting his or her needs, managing the demands of the superego, and interacting with the demands of actuality.

The key ideas of Erikson's psychosocial theory are cultural affect, basic virtues, maladaptations, malignancies, and the development of the ego or self. Erikson thought that the personality was affected by population and grows by some crises or periods. He also assumed a person's culture and population had an impact on the development. Basic psychosocial virtues are a result of successfully transferring through each crisis with a balance of the two extremes. A few of these virtues included expectation, willpower, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and knowledge. Erickson created maladaptations and malignancies to represent the negative outcomes arising from an unhelpful experience through each of the crisis periods (Chapman, 2010). These negative results can lead to thoughtless or arrogant activities to withdrawal or rejection.

The key concepts of Piaget's cognitive-stage theory include business, version and equilibrium. Organization is the propensity to create ways of considering or systems of knowledge. This process includes schemas, that are organized patterns of habit a person uses to think about or act in a situation. Adaptation is how a child grips new information from what they know. This process includes assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the process of consuming new information into our existing cognitive structures (Papalia et. al, 2008). Accommodation is modifying ones cognitive structures to add the new information (Papalia et. al, 2008). Equilibrium is a constant striving for a well balanced balance. Children maintain a balance between making use of past knowledge (assimilation) and changing habit to account for new knowledge (accommodation). By keeping a stable balance or equilibrium, children are able to move in one stage to the next.

Similarities of the Three Ideas of Development:

The theories of Freud, Erikson, and Piaget all had some similarities. Because Erikson's psychosocial theory was predicated on some aspects of Freud's psychosexual theory, they can be similar more often than Piaget's cognitive stage theory. He put into Freud's theory, however in some other view. Each one of these theories can be involved with human development. Another similarity is that three of these development ideas are stage oriented. Freud and Erikson's theories address basic qualitative changes in self-understanding and cultural orientation. Piaget's did not offer any hypothesis about the qualitative changes. Each one of these theories is comparable in its time table and series of life occurrences. Both psychosexual and the psychosocial theories explain characteristics and functions of the ego system. Freud and Erikson seen adolescence as a time of turmoil and stress. Erikson presumed the turmoil resulted from an identity crisis rather than a struggle between the identification and ego. While Freud and Piaget's theories finished at adolescence, Erickson's theory covered one's expereince of living. They each believe development occurs over a series of levels, but at various ages. The child must complete one level before moving on to the next. If they're not successful with each level, they may have turmoil in their life. They will have difficulties shifting to the next level. Another similarity is that of these theories are of help when put on its romance to educational routines. Teachers have the ability to use these theories to guide them in trying to understand just how a child learns and how they are growing.

Contrasts of Dissimilarities over the Three Ideas of Development:

These theories also have some differences. All of these theorists concur that noteworthy development occurs during adolescence in a number of areas. However, there are differing viewpoints about some areas of adolescence, including:

Whether development is ongoing or discontinuous with the preceding and pursuing stages in the life span cycle; If the period of adolescence is one of turmoil and stress or is relatively uneventful; Whether it's critical for children to accomplish specific developmental responsibilities during this time; or Whether interior or environmental factors have a far more significant affect on the activities and final results of adolescent development (ETR, Associates, 2009).

One difference in these theories was that three ideas had different periods at different age groups. Freud developed five stages in his theory based on the identification, ego, and superego. Erickson developed eight periods based on specific development. Piaget developed only four stages based about how we think. Each theory also had a different concentrate. Freud centered on sex, Erikson centered on the self applied and interpersonal orientation, and Piaget centered on the child's capabilities and senses. They also differed with admiration towards learning and development, and their relationship towards educational practice. Freud's psychosexual theory was fueled by interior pushes. His theory was linked to intimacy and the erotic being. Erickson's psychosocial theory got a few of Freud's aspects and shifted the emphasis to identity somewhat than sexuality. "Like Freud, Erikson seen adolescence as a time of turmoil and stress. He thought that turmoil resulted from an individuality crisis rather than a struggle between the id and ego" (ETR Affiliates, 2009). Piaget's cognitive level theory was predicated on what a child was able to do and how they developed cognitively over their life-time.

How the Domains of Development Impact Each Other:

There are three domains of development; physical advancements, cognitive developments, and psychosocial advancements. Physical developments impact cognitive development, cognitive development affects psychosocial development, and so forth. Each one of these domains has an influence on one another. A child's physical development can effect their cognitive development for their brain development, gross motor development, and fine motor unit development. The mind develops mainly before delivery and is growing speedily the first year of life. Physical development also establishes the timing of terminology development. Physical changes, which usually occur in early on childhood, are associated with rapid changes in the child's cognitive and language development. Cognitive development also begins with coordinating body motions with incoming sensory data. Vocabulary is a robust tool to enhance cognitive development. Cognitive development, although occurs throughout one's lifetime, occurs usually in middle child years and adolescence years. Using words allows the kid to talk to others and solve problems. The development of language and cognitive skills affects psychosocial development. Psychosocial development starts during infancy and toddlerhood years and continues through middle childhood and adolescence. Cognitive development affects self-concept and independence. The development in socioemotional skills includes the forming of peer human relationships, gender id, and the development of a sense of right and incorrect.

How Understanding Development Helps Those Who Work With Expanding Children:

Understanding child expansion and development are essential parts of teaching young children. Children vary in physical, cognitive, public, and emotional development patterns. By understanding these theories of development, those who work with expanding children can know how a kid is producing and what areas need improvement for their proper development. If one is aware of the ideas of development, they can understand the characteristics of learning in youth, middle youth, and adolescence years. They can assist in growing the child's cognitive skills, knowledge, public tasks, and moral reasoning. Children can even be discovered as gifted and skilled or with any disability. Teachers have the ability to understand the learning abilities of their students by understanding these ideas of development. They are able to create their lesson strategies and such with this thought.

Parents who understand these theories and individuals development have the ability to help their children develop bodily, emotionally, and emotionally. An understanding of an child's needs, cognitive ability, psychosocial crises, and moral and communal development can help us with nurturing our children. We are able to understand their learning skills and need and therefore are able to select the kinds of books and reading-related activities that'll be most satisfying to a kid of a specific age. We can also understand how children with disabilities develop in comparison to other children and can adapt to the changes. Those that work with developing children can associate the theories of development with the child's specific developmental level and interpersonal and ethnical environment.

In conclusion, human development and tendencies has been researched and analyzed for years and years. Sigmund Freud, Eric Erikson, and Jean Piaget are great theorists with different ideas related to individual development. Their ideas experienced similarities and also dissimilarities but all had important explanations to spell it out one's development and predict their behavior. Each theory possessed its key concepts. The domains of individual development influence one another to determine how one will establish or the type of person they will turn out to be. Other factors, such as culture and environment, can also impact a person's development. These three theories are all identical in importance towards individuals development. One can only research and understand each theory and use the data from them to help a child turn into a well-rounded individual.

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