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Synthesis and Properties of Liquid Crystals for VAN
Synthesis and properties of liquid crystals for vertically aligned nematic (VAN) displays Introduction Liquid crystals where first seen in 1853 and 1855 by Rudolph Virchow and C. Mettenheimer respectively, both observed a flowing smooth like compound which was birefringent (brightly colored) between cross-polarisers much such as a crystalline sturdy, hence the compound was both liquid and crystal thus liquid crystal. [3, 4]. It had been not before late 1980's that Liquid crystals and their truly fascinating fundamental properties began their huge success in commercial applications. 1-5 Consequently giving rise to the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) setting in the first 1990's. The liquid crystalline stage can be best referred to as a cross types of both most common stages of matter, Liquids and Crystals.
Hydrochloric acid
Temperature change for CaCO3 and HCI
Research questions: When the temperatures is digressed, or increased will the CaCO3 and HCI have a faster reaction? What happens when the reaction is happening? What happens when Caco3 and HCI meet each other? Answers: When calcium mineral carbonate is heated up it first responds to the acid then after a while it becomes CaCO3 into calcium Hydroxide. Its created when ions bonds respond to the acid which makes electric charge so it heats up. When CaCO3 and HCI reacts, it sorts calcium chloride, water and skin tightening and. The reaction between both chemical substances requires two parts HCI and CaCO3. The effect is swift and enthusiastic at high concentrations. Large part credited high affinity of calcium ions for chloride ions Depending on the heat when Calcium chloride and Hydrochloric acid meet.
Optical properties
2D Colloidal Nanocrystal for Optoelectronic and Solar Cell
Novel 2D colloidal nanocrystal for optoelectronic and solar cell applications Recently, 2D materials has attracted remarkable attention due to their amazing physicochemical properties. Particularly, the breakthrough of graphene, an individual part of carbon atoms assemble in a 2D honeycomb lattice has ignited the study on this class of 2D materials scheduled to extraordinary mechanised, electric and optical properties not observed in their mass counterparts.
Ozone layer
An summary of the Ozone Layer
INTRODUCTION "THE OZONE LAYER" The ozone part is some of earth atmosphere which has high degrees of ozone. The atmosphere is divided into five layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere. The troposphere is the covering closest to globe and is also where all weather happenings arise. The stratosphere is situated directly above the troposphere, about 10-50 kilometers above the planet, and houses the ozone part at an altitude of 20-30 kilometers. The mesosphere is situated roughly 50-80 kilometers above the planet earth, as the thermosphere rests at an altitude of around 100-200 kilometers above the earth surface. Finally, the boundary of the outermost covering, the exosphere, stretches roughly to 960-1000 kilometers above the earth.
Power source
Fossil fuels
Introduction to natural gas
Natural gas is one of the main way to obtain energy for reducing pollution and preserving a clean and healthy environment we can call it as a future energy resource. In addition to being a domestically abundant and secure way to obtain energy, the use of gas also offers a number of environmental benefits over other resources of energy, especially other fossil fuels. This section will discuss the environmental effects of gas, interms of emission as well as environmentally friendly impact of the gas industry itself. Natural gas is employed over 60 million homes. Furthermore natural gas is employed in 78 percent of restaurants, 73 percent of lodging facilities, 51 percent of hospitals, 598 percent of offices, and 58 percent of retail complexes.
que haya una reaccion
Objetivos. Determinar como los factores de tamano de particula, grado de agitacion y temperatura que afectan la velocidad en la formacion de las soluciones. Determinar la importancia de los buenos factores para el buen desempeno de una solucion y la buena formacion de esta. Aprender la mejor forma para poder realizar una solucion y asi obtener los resultados deseados de esta. Antecedentes. Una solucion ha sido una mezcla homogenea de dos o mas sustancias que consisten en iones y en moleculas, la cual se ve influenciada por un disolvente y un soluto. El disolvente es el que se encuentra en mayor cantidad dentro de una disolucion y el soluto o el material a disolver que ha sido el que se encuentra en menor cantidad y del que se espera un cambio al momento de que haya una reaccion.
Carbonyl compounds
Aromatic aldehyde
Aliphatic aldehyde
Carbonyl group
Oxidizing agent
Laboratory Report on Aldehydes and Ketones
Mark Norly L. Tundag I. OBJECTIVES At the end of the test, the students have the ability to identify the useful group within aldehydes and ketones, also on deciding their physical and chemical substance properties and to perform chemical type test to distinguish one from the other. II. MATERIAL and APPARATUS The test used a bunsen burner, vials, 100 ml beaker, test pipe holder, vial clean, clay fire shield, line gauze, acetaldehyde1, benzaldehyde2, acetone3, 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrozine4, ammoniacal magic nitrate solution [ (Ag((NH)3)2)NO3], Fehlings a and b, 6m sulfuric acid solution [H2SO4], very dilute potassium permanganate [KMnO4], distilled drinking water [H2O] and Schiff's reagent5. III.
Carbon atom
The substitution reactions
Acknowledgement The preparation of the project on the theme-" substitution reactions. ": a account' wouldn't normally have been possible minus the valuable contribution of my Educators. I would like to give most specially because of my CHE sir Dr. Ashish kumar who's my chemistry tutor to supplying me the key guidelines during making this project. So, I am hoping this project will provide large and sufficient information about the several coordination numbers present in the coordination chemistry. Introduction In substitution reaction, afunctional groupin a particularchemical compoundis changed by another group[1]. Inorganic chemistry, theelectrophilicandnucleophilicsubstitution reactions are of perfect importance.
Digestive tract
Delivery system
Small intestine
Medicine delivery
Colon Specific Medication Delivery
ABSRACT The colon is a niche site where both local and systemic delivery of drugs can takes place. Colon specific medication delivery has achieved importance for the delivery of drugs for the treating local diseases associated with the colon like crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis etc. as well for the systemic delivery of protein, therapeutic peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antidiabetic real estate agents. A drug need to be protected from degradation, release and absorption in the top part of GIT and then to be made certain abrupt and controlled release in the proximal colon.
Aqueous solution
Actual yield
Activity series
Chocolate squares
Copper chloride
Copper chloride dihydrate
Limiting reactant
Chemical equation
Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Quantitative chemical examination, which is commonly referred to as stoichiometry, is the quantitative romance between the reactants and the products in balanced chemical equation. The term stoichiometry is a combo of two words produced from the Greek language: stoicheion (interpretation "element") and metron (interpretation "measure"). Stoichiometric calculations are dependent after regulations of conservation of mass which declares that all subject cannot be created nor damaged, thus in any chemical reaction occurring in a shut system the mass of the products is the same as the mass of the reactants. Due to such laws and regulations of mother nature, a chemical equation must be well balanced for the amounts to remain equivalent following the reaction ("Chemical Stoichiometry").
Fossil fuels
Methane ethane
Natural gas as source of energy
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I Munish kumar of B. Technology MBA (IT) want to express my intense sense and experienced that we had while making this term paper. I am really thankful to your Chemistry Mam 'Mrs. Sonika' who not only give us this term newspaper to do but also widen our view in particular topic. Last but not the least, I would like to thanks my friends who not only encourage me but also helped in concluding this term paper. Introduction to Gas : as a way to obtain energy It is a mixture of hydrocarbons (substances which contain only carbon and hydrogen and gases (especially methane, ethane, propane, and butane) that exist naturally in stones beneath the surface of the earth. it is widely used as a home heating source, and occasionally specific portions of the gas are used as starting materials in commercial processes.
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Skin cells
Normal saline
Normal water
Your body
Chemistry Essays - Saline & Essential fluids in the Body
Saline and Fluids Using saline as an example, outline the value of solutions in the body and what's the amount of 'normal saline' and the way the awareness of saline is controlled in the body and what results on the skin cells an increase in saline attentiveness could have. Our systems are fifty tosixty percent normal water, which therefore makes water an essential liquid for ourbodies. The primary transporting agent in our body is the skin cells, and solutions arenecessary to perform functions such as: Substance balance Flow of blood Transporting nutrition to the cells Elimination of waste respiration The main aspect ofthe blood, perspiration, saliva, mucus, lymphatic essential fluids and intestinal juicesis water. The function of normal water also ensures the lubrication of the joints, that the muscles, skin area, and organs is moisturized.
Analytical techniques
Analytical methods
Analytical chemistry
Quality assurance
Analytical Approaches in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Miracles do happen and chances of happening such situations are unusual. Scientific discoveries have also seen such wonders. The approach and attempts required in clinical happenings are based on basics. The setting of application of these established principles change from one stream to some other stream of clinical disciplines. The basic principle of chemistry and physics are amalgamated to give rise to amount of measuring devices. The unit are further restructured to match application. Analytical chemistry can be defined as the technology and art work of deciding the structure of materials in terms of their elements or chemical substances contained1 in it. Qualitative examination offers useful details from which functional organizations, structural features, atomic varieties or molecular species. Quantitative analysis provides numerical data in systems i. e.
Bovine serum albumin
Bovine serum
Membrane technology
This work
Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Fouling
The membrane fouling problem is still the primary obstacle that faces the application of membrane technology at the professional and environmental software. So, the key motivation because of this work is to build up an enhanced performance of commercial desalination membranes with polyamide hurdle layer. In this particular study, we use Layer-by-Layer (LbL) changes with tailored macromolecular surface modifiers to be able to layer the membranes so that secure zwitterionic surface properties (for reduced fouling) and minimal loss in permeability are achieved. To be able to study at length this novel changes, we use a model oligoamide system on floors which allow using analytical methods which cannot be used on real membranes.
Filter paper
Glass filter
Watch glass
Boric acid
Re-Crystallization of Boric Acid
The purpose to carry out this lab is recrystallization of solid and then identify the effect on solids purity and produce. Part A: Reactions Table 1. quantitative and qualitative observations of reactions to form boric acid. Mass of borax (g) 10. 0558g Appearance of borax White powder Time for solubility of borax (min) 5min Time for boric acid crystals to form (min) 12min Part B: Filtration Table 2. mass of watch cup and filter paper, mass of watch glass, filter newspaper and moist crystals from filtration and qualitative observations of crystals after purification. Mass of watch wine glass1 an filtration system paper1(g) 33. 3364g Mass of damp crystals, watch a glass 1, filter paper from purification(g) 44.
Wavelet transform
Anisotropic diffusion
Computer research
Filtration system
Design of Cross types Filtration system With Wavelet Denoising
Simranjit Kaur DESIGN OF Cross Filtration system WITH WAVELET DENOISING AND ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION Filtration system FOR IMAGE DESPECKLING 1. INTRODUCTION Digital images are images that are produced of picture elements also termed as pixels. The pixels typically are arranged in a rectangular array. The sizes of the pixel array determine its size. Its width is identified by the amount of columns, and height by the amount of rows in that array. Digital images are susceptible to numerous kinds of noises. Speckleis a form of noise which is out there in and lessens the quality of the effective radar and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Image denoising can be an essential process in image processing, both as an element in other processes and as an activity itself. Various methods are there to denoise the image.
Chemical substances
Column chromatography
Chemical compounds
Separation techniques in forensic science
The Use Of Separation Techniques In Forensic Science Forensic scientists employ many different parting techniques, these are needed for collecting evidence to be used against to aid the capture associated with an offender. There are many different techniques utilised to do this from purification to more specific chromatography. I will explore a small number of the techniques used by today's forensic scientists. Filtration is possible the easiest separating technique used in forensic science, and put it is utilized to remove items from a water, by passing it through either a "surface filter" which is like a sieve, trapping any sturdy particles which may be collected and examined for just about any incriminating facts.
Products chemistry
Natural products
Natural source
Natural product chemistry
Introduction Of Natural Product Chemistry In the start of organic and natural chemistry was natural products chemistry. For a long period, up to the 1960's the structural studies of natural basic products dished up as the principle driving force for the breakthrough of new chemical substance reactivity. The intro of spectroscopic techniques, however, removed a lot of the "intellectual task" involved in composition elucidation. Furthermore, natural products chemistry suffered a dramatic decrease from the mid 1990's when major pharmaceutical companies disinvested in this area and switched to more "rational" combi-chem solutions. Nevertheless, the advancements in spectroscopic methods have historically activated natural basic products chemistry and the work to examine new substances from unusual organisms rapidly and systematically.
Substance materials
Hazardous Chemical substance Materials
Hazardous chemical thought as the whispering killers. Substance materials evade our life. It's the substances of unsafe on humans, pets and all things on the floor. Chemical Hazardous cause big harm on our heath. Substance materials effects badly on our life. Many people fatality in resulting to these chemical materials. People must fare away about using chemical materials due to its damages and hazardous. Injection, deep breathing, swallowing, skin area and ingestion will be the way to type in the substance materials inside our body. We should interacting carefully about the substance materials to be safe our life and safe our era. There are numerous ways to avoid the injuries of chemical type materials. Everything around us contain chemical substance materials. We ought to keep aware of using every things in our lifestyle.
Stress cracking
The Metallurgy Options for Tubing
The metallurgy of tubes is a very important factor while choosing tubes for a particular environment. Usually the tubing is made up of carbon or low alloy steels, martensitic stainless, Duplex stainless or other corrosion repellent alloys like Nickel-base alloy etc. METALLURGY FOR TUBING: Carbon steel is an alloy of carbon and flat iron made up of up to 2% carbon and up to at least one 1. 65% manganese and residual quantities of other elements. Steels with a complete alloying component content of less than about 5% but more than specified for carbon material are specified as low alloy metallic. Carbon steel is the most common alloy found in oil industry due to its relatively low cost. Though corrosion amount of resistance of these steels is limited still they are used in olive oil industry since long satisfactorily.
Fuel cell
High temperature
Normal water
Energy cell
Non-conventional Sources of Energy: An Analysis
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Energy is a primary input in virtually any industrial operation. Energy is also a significant input in industries such as business, travel, telecommunication, etc aside from the wide selection of services required in family members & industrial sectors. (A) What Do We Mean by Solution Energy? The alternative-energy segment of the power industry covers a broad range of options. These sources range from well established technologies, such as nuclear energy and hydroelectric electric power, through high-growth sections such as wind flow and solar power. They also include less tried and tested alternatives, such as hydrogen-powered, fuel-cell technology for use in electricity generation (7) Renewable resources of energy: It is that energy which is restored again &again.
Cell wall
Amino acids
Plant life
Salicylic acid
Molecular weight
Production of PR-protein 1 in Mangroves Leaves | Experiment
1. Abstract One important characteristic of a plant is its capacity to create natural barriers that keep harmful microorganisms away. For instance, mangrove leaves may produce a hormone called salicylic acid to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. Such a hormone may stimulate an antimicrobial product known as Pathogenesis Related (PR) proteins. A whole lot of Pathogenesis related health proteins studies have been done with tobacco and tomatoes leaves. In this particular study, the aim of the test is to find out whether mangroves leaves induce the PR-protein 1. The mangrove leaves are treated with salicylic acid and are kept for seven days in order for leaves to induce proteins. The leaves extraction treatment is completed by the reference treatment Verlag Paul Parey (1980) and Thierry Niderman (1995).
Delivery system
Osmotic pressure
Medicine delivery
Development of Controlled Medication Delivery Systems (CDDS)
1. 1 Managed Medication DELIVERY SYSTEMS (CDDS) Now a day's on the introduction of Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) designated consideration has been targeted. The method of drug delivery to the site of action shows a substantial influence on its efficiency. It leads to the development and evolution of novel medicine delivery systems that increased performance of potential drug molecules. Novel medication delivery systems play a key role in pharmaceutical research and development. Since when compared new chemical moiety the developmental cost and time necessary for adding NDDS is relatively low. Oral way remains one of the most 'natural' routes of drug administration and has seen exceptional accomplishments in the last couple of ages towards marketing of oral delivery of medication molecules.
Carbon nanotubes
Properties of Graphene Essay
Recently, graphene has much attention for analysts because of its interesting properties and advantanges to sectors moreover in nanomaterials. Graphene is a polymer composition manufactured from fused six membered sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. Graphene is pure carbon in the form of very thin, nearly transparent sheet, basically one atom thick. Graphene is the building block of graphite. Graphene sheets are comprised of carbon atoms associated in hexagonal figures which each one of the carbon atom covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms. It is remarkably as a solid for its very low weight, and it conducts temperature and electricity with great efficiency. In facts, graphene is a crystalline allotrope of carbon with 2-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms arrayed in hexagonal honeycomb lattice. Graphene can be described as a one-thick part of graphite.
Mass spectrometer
High throughput
Chemical substances
Modernization in High-throughput Bioanalysis
Introduction and scope Liquid chromatography coupled with MS is trusted in drug discovery and development. Mass spectrometry is an extremely sensitive technique and is widely regarded as having good selectivity. However, in many applications, it is necessary to isolate the mark analyte from what could be a sample containing a large number of other different substances. Typically, mass spectrometry by themselves is unable to meet this need as it can only differentiate chemical substances by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) which is insufficient in most useful applications of the strategy. The basic basic principle and the elements in LC-MS approach is shown in physique 1. 1. (groundwork review) Fig. 1. 1.
Computer virus
Their hands
Allergy symptoms
Natural immunity
The swine flu
Currently, there's been an international concern and dread about the condition "The Swine" or Swine Flu. The main question that all the experts were worried about was whether the swine flu is an epidemic or a pandemic. An epidemic is thought as an outbreak of any contagious disease that can be widely disperse and affects tons of people at exactly the same time. A pandemic is a disease that spreads not only in an area region but, worldwide. On Apr 2009 the swine flu did not meet the description of a pandemic, however, the WHO (World Health Corporation) announced that the swine flu is a pandemic by the mid of June 2009. This is where the nightmare started. The swine flu was given that nickname due to the transfer of the disease from pigs to real human. "The Swine" is recognized as a kind of an influenza disease. Influenza is a disease that individuals usually catch at least once in their life-time.
Garden soil
Eastern ghats
Andhra pradesh
Organic matter
Normal water
Compact disc
Role of Clays in Metallic Adsorption
"ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS (Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni) WITH SOME AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND CORRELATION TO PHYSICO - CHEMICAL AND SPECTRAL Research (including XRD, FTIR, Zeta probable, Particle size)" INTRODUCTION Role of Clays in Metal Adsorption Soil is one of the key components for each single terrestric biological system. It offers the dietary supplement bearing environment for vegetation and it is very important to exchange of biomass and degradation. Garden soil can be an extremely intricate medium, which contains of soil matrix like minerals, organic and natural subject and liquid phases, which connect with each other and ions particles entering the dirt system [Ubaet al. , 2009].
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