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Challenges to Governance and Leadership in Africa

It is undeniable the fact that governance and its own progeny, control, pervades every aspect of real human life and life. In countries, organizations, individuals and wherever human life is found, these two parameters exist in one form or the other. It is also a truism, that there exists a huge governance and authority gap in many countries on the planet, especially, in Africa. The poor pace of Africa's development is concomitant to the governance and authority predicament. A 1989 World Loan company report on the topic "Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Progress: A Long-Term Perspective Research" affirms this position by stating that "underlying the litany of Africa's development problems is a crisis of governance" (p60). In a similar way, Walumba et al posited that "while African countries are richly endowed with all manner of natural resources, their economical performance since self-reliance has been generally abysmal with a few exceptions" (426). They further argued that "ultimately a country's monetary performance is contingent on the effectiveness of its management" (425). These assertions, dispassionately underscores the governance and command predicament in Africa. Consequently, this essay seeks to discuss a few of the reasons why governance and command still remain a major obstacle in Africa, and also proffer ways to ease these bottlenecks, respectively.

To start with, this article would like to explain that several reasons contribute to why governance is impoverished in Africa, especially in the Sub-Saharan region. These reasons are the incorrect form of governance the continent practises consequently of colonialism, selfish control, weak companies, and too much foreign interference on the continent.

First and most important, it is not a ruse that the governance and command challenge Africa encounters is an upshot of the wrong form of governance the continent is practising or being coerced to practise. Historical research have shown that, many years previously, before Africa was colonised by the Europeans, Africans governed themselves through the chiefs, clan and family heads, etc and the form of government they practised was gerontocracy and monarchy. These systems of governance as practised by these pre-colonial Africans got its root in their ethnical and religious values. Thus, governance and faith/culture were intricately interwoven. Yet, after being colonised, the Europeans pressured their form of administration on the indigenous people. These forms of government, that happen to be the different forms of democracy we see round the world nowadays, had obstructive and harmful outcomes on the religio-cultural orientation of the indigenous people. However, the colonial masters switched a blind vision on these innovations. Ages after Africa gained independence, these colonial varieties of governance remain being practised in Africa, with much complicatedness. That is due to the fact, the ethnical and spiritual underpinnings of the African orientation of what governance is, and really should be differs from those of the colonial masters. As Africans, our cultural upbringing upholds, fundamentally, communalism which is portrayed in our proverbs, faith, folklores, music, and mythology. Within a sharp compare, the colonial masters' form of governance got as its base, capitalism. Hence, placing the square peg in the rounded hole has led to the current governance and control obstacle in Africa. African leaders are thorn between gratifying their people predicated on tradition and satisfying their colonial experts due to carrot and keep style of diplomacy they (colonial experts) utilize. This difficulty is the foundation of the governance and authority predicament in Africa.

Moreover, selfish leadership is a major setback to good governance in Africa, and the underdevelopment of the continent. Post-independent Africa has seen the go up of selfish, stomach-driven and inconsiderate market leaders. Some arrived to force through coup d'etats, amidst shedding of innocent bloods, destruction of infrastructure kept for the continent by the colonial experts, and looting of the wealth of these African countries. These market leaders used the energy they ceased to amass the maximum amount of prosperity as they could for themselves, their own families and cohorts at the detriment with their nation's development. Clearly, these leaders possessed no expertise or knowledge about governance or effective management, hence the worsening of the socio-economic lives with their country, and countrymen. Key points of fundamental real human rights weren't honoured, while specific, ideological, partisan or even labour dissent were strongly stamped out. The effect was regimes' collapse either internally or externally designed between 1963 and 1966, and which enticed international outcry against the governance style of post freedom Africa- Leaders.

The other group of market leaders, who supposedly were elected to lead their countries, were of no significant difference using their predecessors. Many of these leaders have only as their aim, the comfort and satisfaction of themselves and their families at the drawback of the populace. That they had no clear eye-sight for their countries. Democratic rule, in their various countries, witnessed horrible governance style, mismanagement of resources and propagation of self-aggrandizement. Undoubtedly, the market leaders Africa has had after freedom, under the guise of liberating their people, have somewhat contributed to the free-fall/underdevelopment of these countries. This they have by their profligate spending, inept management of status resources and infrastructure, and visionless governance.

Furthermore, weak establishments since self-reliance have contributed significantly to the governance and command predicament in Africa. After most African countries gained independence, instead of the command to give attention to building strong institutions, where in their lack, those institutions could work to achieve the development they looked for that reason they fought of independence, they somewhat built strong personalities and empire around themselves. This phenomenon has prolonged perpetually till now. In Africa today, you have the practise of "rule for legal reasons" not "rule of law". This is because, people in expert (government) use their power, position and influence to tweak institutions in their favour when it comes to things of regulations. Companies cannot hunt certain individuals in population nowadays because those individuals are above regulations. This happening which is as a result of the partisan politics we practise, have corrupted majority of the state companies in Africa. It has made justice, accountability, transparency and fairness a story book, simply untenable. Corporations in Africa are simply just vulnerable and frivolous. Increasing the non-functional corporations is a assortment of skewed and corrupt civil population organizations. Instead of these civil societies to be a watchdog of the populace to reinforce condition and institutional efficiency, almost all of them are seeking partisan agenda.

Even more, too much interference of foreign countries on the continent is having to worry and highly detrimental. This phenomenon is consequently of globalization. Virtually every decision and every action that a lot of African leaders make, is contingent on the approval of the pay experts, the foreign countries. These foreign countries come into the continent in de guise of assisting develop it, but with the mindset of draining the natural and human being source of information of the continent. They determine for all of us almost anything, from economic regulations, to education, to religion, to who should lead the country etc. The ordinary African has a limited stake in deciding for himself and in assisting build his country or continent. The Constitutions' in most African countries rarely exists due to rule by overseas powers. The normal African is not consulted on any concern as electricity is in the hands of these overlords while our leaders only provide as errand realtors to ensure conformity of their things.

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