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Challenges of Health Promotion

There is a very diverse range of this is of health between different sets of people. What sort of person will determine what health methods to them will be based upon a number of factors. Probably the most influential of the factors are; years, sex, socio-economic status, social course, location and culture. It really is now recognised that there are 5 distinct measurements of health; physical, emotional, spiritual, communal and mental. THE ENTIRE WORLD Health Organisation (1948) described health as 'as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being'.

Kelleher (1991) says that for some people being healthy means being happy, for others it can be an expectation of living for a long period, while others could see it as an exclusion of health issues. These meanings of health may be influenced by personal experience of health problems, however some could see it as merely being able to cope and start their daily lives without interference. Usually the most dominant definition of health is only viewed as an absence of illness, often referred to as a negative description. Downie et al (1990) say that 'negative meanings of health can be linked to perceptions of what's unnatural, unwanted or incapacitating'.

Age is an essential factor in deciding how someone identifies health, as those of a younger age group will mainly concentrate on the physical aspects of health such as fitness and diet. Generally however, as people era they place more focus on the emotional and spiritual areas of health. This implies that cultural factors are an extremely big determinant of how someone will define health. A whole lot of podiatry work will involve working with various visitors to enhance their health for example keeping them mobile and reduce painful symptoms scheduled to some form of fraility, health issues or disability. This might include short term treatments or permanent care may be needed.

The classification of health has also changed over time, for example the Ancient Greeks believed that illness was caused by an imbalance in the humours (fluids). In contrast in Victorian times, health issues was seen as ' the will of God', a more spiritual undertake the idea of health.

There are three models relating to the concept of health; the Biomedical model emphasises health in terms of biological processes of your body. On the other hand the Social model of health asserts that in addition to physical dimensions of health, other measurements must be looked at including the folks social and economic circumstances. It considered the individual as a whole living inside a social context (Blaxter 2004). The Biopsychosocial model requires the areas of the prior two models and combines them. It's the dynamic interaction of biological, mental, and social affects of health, however it concentrates more on the individual rather than the social structures encompassing them.

In the 1800's and 1900's the concentration was on the provision of a wholesome environment which included adequate housing and sanitation and the provision of safe water and food. With advancements in medical research the emphasis has shifted to preventative medical services e. g. vaccines, immunisation and stimulating people to make healthy alternatives. This demonstrates the move from communical diseases to lifestyle related diseases e. g. cancer tumor.

There are two approaches to health promotion: a preventative approach and an empowerment procedure. Glanz, Rimer & Lewis (2002) assert that 'the central concern of health education is health behaviour'. This means that peoples life styles play a substantial role in the development and management of disease and through various options we can encourage people to make healthy options. In 1975 Marc Lalonde published a report entitled 'A New Perspective on the fitness of Canadians' in which he argued there are 4 main causes of illness, specifically: Inadequacies in current health services, lifestyle or behavioural factors, environmental pollution and physical characteristics.

The Ottawa Charter (1986) describes the five main elements of health campaign as; Conducive general population policy, supportive environments, community participation, personal skills and the reorientation of health services to allow visitors to make up to date, healthy choices. Conducive policy refers to the importance of Government insurance policy generally, and not simply in health insurance policy, to advertise health. The next aspect is the provision of supportive conditions. This refers to the importance of having healthy physical environments such as in the house, at institution, work and in public areas.

The community contribution aspect of health campaign consists of concerning areas and special interest groupings, e. g. older people, women, people who have disabilities and vacationers, in identifying their own health needs and growing services appropriate to these needs.

The final component of health advertising is the reorientation of health services towards services which are worried with health advertising, protection and disease protection. This involves shifting the emphasis in health services to key health care e. g. providing verification services and health bank checks inside a community.

Ewles and Simnett (1999) list the next activities that could be viewed as health promotion techniques; Media advertising, campaigns on medical issues, patient education, self-help categories environmental safety precautions, public coverage issues, health education about physical health, preventative medical procedures, codes of practice on medical issues, health improving facilities in local neighborhoods, workplace health policies and health and public education for young people in institutions. Ewles and Simnett (2003) also identify approaches to health promotion. These all flow from a particular set of aims which desire to be achieved. They emphasise that no one aim or approach to health campaign is right but that it is very important to us, as health care workers to consider which is appropriate for all of us, and relevant to our work. However one of the most important factors is educating people, so they can make enlightened, healthy selections.

The to begin approaches is medical or preventitive. The aim of this process is to gain freedom from clinically identified disease and disability e. g. tumors. This could be achieved through screening process, immunisation and early on detection. This approach has been highly successful but will reinforce a negative classification of health.

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