1. 1 Introduction
Change, in line with the adage, is always constant. Embracing change can be a challenge to improve agents.
Many writers of change have taken care of that change fails because of flawed methods, or in the case of John Kotter, the failing of management to understand that the procedure can and frequently do, take years to come to fruition. Professor Kotter (Kotter, 1996), suggested an eight-step model for making sure change initiatives success. Many organizations, especially state-owned organizations, were blessed out of legacy bureaucratic systems and discover that the staff have acquired knowledge and skill-set that surpasses that of the management who hold on to archaic methods. Such organizations are leading prospects for transformational interjection.
1. 2 Purpose of the Study
This study checks the challenges that faces emerging businesses within the Caribbean area, with an try to highlight issues that are crucial for growth and transition. Focus is put on complexness as a driver of change; as a vessel for accommodating interactive initiatives within systems and agencies of change. The study will explore the ways in which experts and academics have adopted various models and theoretical methodologies to catalyze change, some with limited success others with high success rate. The region has been able to adjust to changes throughout the years but modern change initiatives calls for unique, if not unorthodox solutions to successfully do such transitions. This research attempts to apply such novel ways to bring out the best in general management of organizations.
1. 3 Problem Statement
For ages academics and analysts have wrestled with the condition of change and have even proposed theoretical models describing their different methods. It's been ascertained that over 70% of most change initiative have failed, (Higgs & Rowland, 2005), (Beverage & Nohria, 2000). Change hinges around behavioural habits in people; folks have to consciously desire change to ensure that it works. The past methods applied to organizations have proven to be inadequate, or very complex in nature. John Kotter in an article in the Harvard Business Review, managed to get clear that change is a large-scale process that does take time. This process goes through phases and any significant error in any level can result in the collapse of the complete change effort (Kotter, 1995).
An try out at change management at the international airports in Trinidad and Tobago entitled "Institutional Strengthening Job" failed after many years at change management. There is no single reason behind the inability, but some complex interrelated operations and situations that lead to a total breakdown of your time and effort.
I suggest that using models that deal with change from a multi-faceted way that caters for complexity, will eventually see positive transformational mechanism in the organisations.
1. 4 Purpose of the Research
This exploratory study will demonstrate the trend that either foster an alteration climate or positively deter the process in active organizations. A qualitative methodology would be used. Many theorist including (Senge, 1990; Morgan, 1996) in systems theory, showed that the organizations tend towards preserving homeostasis, but didn't show what dynamics occurs in continual change (Ford, 2008). Moreover, system theory (Von Bertalanffy, 1965) enabled the practictioner to view the business in a far more holistic manner: similar to an organism, rather than machine (Ford, 2008).
In many expanding states, the air-port environment, which is highly active has seen the sensation of rapid, continuous changes and evolvement. The international airports in Trinidad and Tobago were chosen and HyperResearch software was applied to manipulate the info.
1. 5 Need for the Study
The research into the behaviour, culture, management style, of condition organizations such as airports and interface in Trinidad and Tobago specifically and by extention, the wider Caribbean area can be considered a launching pad for significant inroads into the understanding of dynamics that are emerging in organizations of these types.
The research would lead just how in figuring out the advantages or weaknesses of applied management styles, and the way that many management paradigms are put on such vibrant organizations. The info obtained will be utilized for practitioners to understand the emergent occurrence within the organization; the best way to encourage rather than deter changes by 'agencies' of change. State administrators and management practitioners would get the tools to deal with a changing environment.
The group can reap the benefits of a lower turnover rate and higher output as employees find that their needs are actually significantly attended to; both their hygenic and motivating wants (Chowdhary & Prakas, 2005).
Chapter 2: Literature review
2. 1 Why Change Management?
The classical and scientific management theories and a lesser level, the systems ideas sought to minimize the turbulence of changes. These changes were viewed as movement from homeostasis. What modern theorists advocate is the embracing of non-equilibrium forces within an open-style organization. Matching to (Ford, 2008), an wide open organization interacts using its environment, both internally and externally, and between and within groups.
This review will focus on the new way of collecting, using, and disseminating information and procedures within the organization to handle, foresee, even cause changes that may propel such group forward.
Systems theorists emerged to realize that organizations were to be regarded more as organism, rather than machines. Systems, corresponding to renowned educational (Von Bertalanffy, 1965), all distributed common attributes regardless of their kind, the type of their components and the causes between them. All systems were seen to consist of a host, components, interrelatedness, negative entropy, equifinality, homeostasis, has a central goal and has synergy. Systems theory identifies the organization as depicting the control systems mechanisms - negative and positive responses loops - that keep up with the system at some desired goal or circumstances of homeostasis (Ford, 2008). Ford noted that both systems theory and basic management retained similar ontological stances when discussing turbulence and managing change. Both seek to keep an equilibrium status. They seek to lessen or absorb the effect of the turbulence leading to the disruption to the machine.
Kurt Lewin's Three Stages Change Management Model, is a theory that attempts to give the fundamentals of linear change.
Figure 1. shows Lewin's 3-Step style of change.
Lewin suggested that the change specialist, firstly, unfreezes the existing processes, mindset or beliefs which exist. Normally, this is by introducing a fresh idea, idea or issue that allows individuals to see the need for change. Second of all, transitioning follows. This is the benefits of new actions, functions or way of doing things. There could be times when this is bombarded with bafflement and caution as people may well not have clear understanding of where you can go or how to get things done a particular way. Finally, there is the process of refreezing. This technique is the crystallization of the new functions as the accepted norm. This is an interval where there is frequent reiteration of the new system. That is vital since people may revert to their old ways.
Another method that is widely used is the ADKAR model. The technique differs from the Kurt Lewin method only in its focus on the change at the individual's level. ADKAR posits that successful organizational change is merely possible when everyone can transition efficiently (Connelly, 2011). The model has a sequential five-step process as depicted in the body 2 below.
Many researchers assume that changes occur on two measurements. The business enterprise and folks proportions and changes to each sizing should occur all together for success (PROSCI Inc, 2013).
Figure 2 shows this process.
Change management, corresponding to Fred Nickols (2010), brings to head four explanations: the duty of handling change; a location of professional practice; a body of knowledge and a control mechanism.
Managing change can be further subdivided into a planned or organized fashion. This is simply implementing prepared change into a preexisting group. Unplanned change is the reaction to environmental issues where the organization has little if any control.
As a location of professional practice, many change realtors and consultants have set up shops with competence that cater for changes within organizations. As the body of knowledge, there are models, tools, techniques, skill-sets, and applied techniques that define this area of management. Corresponding to Nickols, the topic matter for change management is attracted from a broad field of occupations and studies: psychology, sociology, economics, business administration, professional and system engineering, and human being and organizational behaviours. Being a control device, many organizations keep tabs on the alterations specially in the systems used. These "version controls" as seen to be part of the change management systems at many work environment.
2. 2 The Pitfalls for Change Management
Randal Ford(2008) posits that "a business that has learned how to control ongoing change because ongoing change is part of its goal and necessary to its success would prove important in providing powerful empirical data as a living heuristic. " The truth is, there exist no sound data to aid the actual fact that there will be success if change management is modelled on the intricate adaptive systems way.
In looking at companies that contain profitably survived over time it is obvious that they used some systems approach as they regularly remolded their future as the years progressed. The Coca Cola company, for example, revealed its resilience as it going the field for quite some time and changed to accommodate the changing environment. Google has been relatively new but has applied the model of adapting changes.
Change do not come easy. People resist change for a variety of reasons: by quitting, overt and covert hostility, passive compliance, hits, and even giving reasons for the level of resistance. Paul Lawrence of the Harvard Business Review (Lawrence, 1969), contends that most people do not resist specialized changes but do it for interpersonal changes. Teacher Rosabelle Moss-Kanter (Moss-Kanter, 2012) of the Harvard's Business School, in her blog claim that change should not come as a shock but should be presented tactically by change brokers. She stated that individuals opt to be "mired in misery than to brain towards an unknown. " Change can make people believe that they may have lost control over their place. Due to the ripple effects of change the agencies must reach out to all stakeholders in an effort to lower this ripple effect. Dr. Moss Kanter contended that it is better for management to be honest, fair, translucent, and fast in virtually any change initiative.
3. 1 Introduction
Primary and supplementary research were applied in obtaining the objectives of this dissertation. Due to the nature of the data to be gathered and analysed it was expedient to use a qualitative approach.
3. 2 Primary Research
Questionnaires were used in combination with standardize sealed questions. Immediate interviews were conducted as well as the use of focus groups focus groupings where open ended questions were used.