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Causes OF THIS Construction Defect

Construction defects are incredibly common and often arising or place in the engineering project, especially in the job which includes poor management or supervision in the development site. Building defect can be known as a problem in the building industry that might lead to the value of your building decrease eventually. For the question of "what is construction defect" there is no direct or brief answer or reason to answer fully the question of "what is construction defect". Engineering defect in the development job normally can be happen from two mains factor which is defect cause by workmanship and land movement. Some of the example for the common engineering defect can be faulty concrete of frame, breaking of slab; wood structural harm by termite, leaking in the building and etc. besides that, construction flaws in construction project due to the reason of land movement could be underground drinking water, settlement, incorrect compaction during earthwork stage and insufficient of drainage. Every development project is definitely involved and shows up the word of "construction defect" for the reason why of there is no a building or job without defect occurs. In order to research the further details information of causes, effects and methods to minimize construction defects in construction job, this dissertation would be carry out for the purpose of study in profound of structure defect.

1. 2 Research Background

Climatic of Malaysia are change aggressively, therefore all the complexes in Malaysia are expose to the hostile environment all the time. As a result of this, most the building in Malaysia will contain the defects occurs in the complexes following the building is occupant a period.

The reason for conduct this research is to review the common building defect in the structure project. Once the defects study, additionally it is necessary give attention to the consequences of the construction flaws that will take place, since defect is precedent of ramifications of the construction defects. In additional, to be able to reduce the construction flaws, an analysis on methods to minimize the structure defect will also be give attention to this research.

1. 2. 1 Causes of the building defect

A construction defect can be known as a component in the building are built by the contractor or design by professionals not based on the specs, plan, not adhere to the engineering code that established by the authority( Calvin " Cal" E. Beyer, 2011). Engineering defects can be also defined as that will make the job dangerous, unsafe, triggers an individual of the building to be hurt or useless (Michael S. Poles, GC, CM, RCI, DABFET, ACFE, 1995). It can be occurs through the building process and cause the job costly rework, task not complete in time and affect the entire performance of the building.

Construction defect can be categorized as 2 types, that happen to be 'Patent Flaws' and 'Latent Defects'. Patent Defects can be recognized by the standard inspection or tests and apparent to naked eye, for example roof structure drip or a basis split. However, Latent Defects are covered and cannot discoverable by normal assessment or testing that may appear itself after a time frame (Anon 1, 2007).

According to the researcher from the College or university of Florida, engineering flaws can be various types and affected by many factors in the construction industry. The common types and the sources of the development defect can be included (Calvin "Cal" E. Beyer, 2011):

Improper design Negative workmanship that causes poor finishing quality

Improper means or methods of installation

Improper or poor quality of the materials

Defective material or poor material performance

Missing or limited security from weather or environmental condition in the structure site.

Soil subsidence, movements and settlement

Base on the few studies of researcher, the effects of the building defect can raise the overall building cost and the final quantity of the task (Zietsman, R. , 2004) and a study conducted by the Building Research Establishment in britain, it discovered that 35% of the flaws were occur from faulty construction(Assaf, Al-Hammad, Al-Shihah, 1995). It can be

due to the reason why of bad workmanship, inadequate guidance and substitution of poor materials, components or fixings.

Beside those common type and the causes of the development defect has mentioned above, the 35 most typical defects was recognized by the Building Research Establishment. The sources of defects which were determined which is (Assaf, Al-Hammad, Al-Shihah, 1995):

Lack of inspection

Making use of inexperienced, unqualified inspectors

Avoiding and overlooking inspection completely

Non execution of corrective actions during the development process

Inaccurate measurement

Making use of defective or ruined formwork

Excavations to near to an existing building and exposing the foundations

Non-conformance with waterproofing specifications

Inability to learn and understand/interpret drawings

Insufficient cement cover

Improper engineering of wintry joints

Loss in adhesion between materials

Stripping formwork too early

Unacceptable ground compaction procedures

Inadequate curing procedures

Lack of communication

Non-compliance with specifications

Inability to learn and understand/interpret drawings

Insufficient site supervision

Lack of communication between the owner, architect/engineer, project manager

Employing unqualified supervisors

Speedy completion of certain activities specifically where equipment is on hire

Unqualified labor force

Multinational development experience

Defects resulting from the wrong collection of materials

Using materials unsuitable for the climatic conditions

Using cheap materials

Making use of expired materials

Inadequate storage space facilities

Misuse of equipment

Equipment not accomplishing to specification

Lack of the correct equipment

Cross referencing and specific referencing on drawings lacking

Conflicting information on drawings

Details of sections on drawings lacking

According to Marianne (2005), these 35 flaws listed above can be grouped directly into 4 categories which can be:

Design deficiencies

Material deficiencies

Construction deficiencies

Subsurface/geotechnical problem

1. 2. 2 Method to minimizing the construction defect

In engineering industry, you can find varying of the techniques to minimizing or decrease the construction defects. Regarding to Alice M. Noble-Allgire (2008), improving quality control can be known as a strategy to minimize the development defects occurs. An excellent control programs can be setup by the builder and use to reduce the construction problems. Besides that, structuring their deal with certain of the rules that can ensures that the parties take obligations on the flaws that created under his works. Development defects can be also minimizing by the much better oversight, for example constructor can improve their building inspection methods in all the way in which. Besides that, when there is insufficient for improve the quality control, it also can through licensing, official certification, and education need to improved the product quality control. For instance, a service provider which intended to select, the builder must be sign-up with the Building Industry Development Panel know as CIDB. With all the enrollment, that can ensure the quality of service provider and the works.

1. 2. 3 Effect of the construction defect

Construction defect can decrease and affect the worthiness of the structures. According to Atkinson, (1999), flaws are advancements in development that reduces the job`s value instead of increasing it.

Other than reduces the task value, where in fact the construction defect noticeable, It also can cause the job totally delay which indicate not complete with in the time state in the deal. Cost overrun can be known among the effect when the structure problems happen in the development site. Development defect will also impact society at large due to possible danger posed and result in direct and indirect cost in repairs, abnormally high maintenance dispute and possible loss of building.

1. 3 Problem Statement

Construction defect in the construction project is very common. For the reason that buildings are exposing to the inclement weather especially in the climatic country such as Malaysia. Engineering flaws can be arising due to limited design, poor workmanships in the building and insufficient maintenance. The flaws that in the construction project can become worst and worst due to the reason of invisible defect that not discover by the contractor or the occupants. Engineering defect can be taking negative impact to the occupant, builder, and country. So that it may impact the appearance of the building, health insurance and security of the occupant, country economical, reputation and etc. Thus, this problem can cause occupant miserable eventually.

1. 4 Research Aims and Objectives

1. 4. 1 Aim

This research was aimed at determining and studies the causes and effect of construction problems in the engineering sector. Besides that, the other goal of this research is to study the techniques of lessening the construction problems in construction jobs.

1. 4. 2 Objectives

In order to attain the goal of this research the objective has been outlined as follow:

To identifying and understand numerous kinds of construction defects in construction jobs.

To identify the complexities and effects of the construction problems in construction projects.

To analyze the methods used to minimizing the construction defects in the development projects.

1. 4. 3 Key Question

What is building defect?

What will be the effects of structure defect can be occurs in engineering projects?

What is the solution or solutions to reduce the defect?

1. 5 Importance and Great things about Study

This research will have benefits associated with to prevent the construction flaws occur. Thus, this thesis will examine the causes, results and the methods to reduce the construction flaws. Besides that, this analysis can also enhance the knowledge of the builders or any members involve in the engineering to be able to increase the quality of the complexes.

1. 6 Scope of Study

Various types of building problems will be study for the intended purpose of understanding the development defects.

The main range will be the factors behind the construction flaws will be analysis in depth and identify the most typical triggers that cause the construction problems occurs in the construction project.

Followed by the effects from the various construction problems that happen in the building task will be analysis.

For the last, the method to minimize the construction flaws will be analyzes.

1. 7 Methodology of Research

In order to get the useful information because of this dissertation study goal, there may be few methods to collect the data and information. Since the type of the data to be collecting having not been deciding therefore there is a consequence stage to check out.

Stage 1: Books Review

Literature review is the Initial phases of the methodology, because some of the information that pays to for setting out the questionnaire.

There is amounts of way or method for carry out literature review to acquire information for this dissertation:






Internet (www. google. co www. yahoo. com)

Stage 2: Choose of suited data collection method

There are 2 types of the methods to collect the data had been choose for this dissertation, which categories in 2 types. Only one of the methods will decide for this research to accumulate the data among the 2 2 methods.



A set of questions will be form bottom on aim, aim of this study and the info that I came across in the books review.

Target groupings: experience contractor and the website supervisor.

Reason: personal financial and in a position to have the data in short period.


Case study

Observation and analysis (site visit).

Targeted Place : engineering sites, occupied buildings

Identify the common problems in the development project and some of the picture will be studied.

Stage 3: Data analysis

Once the info accumulated, in this section will analysis the data that collected from the questionnaire and research study by either method of SPSS, desk method or pub chart.

Analysis includes:

Respondent age

Collected data for Reason behind defect in structure project

Find out the major cause

Collected data for the effect of defect in structure project

Find out most most detrimental effect

Collected data for the method to reduce the defect in construction project

Analysis which method most effective

Details of the engineering site or building

Comparison of site or building

Major defects happen in building from the research study data

Stage 4: Finish and Recommendation


Result of evaluation will be realization.

Judgment for the result will be including in the final outcome.

For example which common cause of the defect in the engineering project.

Most effective method to decrease the defect in construction job will conclude.


A further opportunity of analysis will be advised.

Most effective methods as remedial action for building will be advised.

Some of the field for analysis comprehensive will advised.

1. 8 Summary of chapters

1. 8. 1 Section 1 - Introduction

In section 1, information regarding the research subject will be discussed in short in the introduction. Besides that, record in this chapter will further analyze in depth the complexities, effects and solution to minimizing the construction defects. For instance, problems can be classified in 2 types, which is patent and latent defect. In additional, the research aim and aim will likewise incorporate in this section follow by research technique, which is the way the data be collect and analyze.

1. 8. 2 Chapter 2 - Literature Review

In section 2 Books Review, the causes of the construction problems will be discussed. Once the factors behind the construction problems is discussed, the effects of the development defects may also be discuss follow by the methods to reduce the construction problems. In additional, ways of obtain information for the purpose of conduct Books Review will be from the articles, journals, internet, reference literature and etc.

1. 8. 3 Section 3 - Research Methodology

In Section 3 Research Methodology, framework of questionnaire will be form and the procedure of the research study will be plan. (If research study method is choose). Once the information obtains from the questionnaire, it'll be detailed in this section.

Example for the framework of questionnaire:

Improper design Negative workmanship that causes poor finishing quality

Improper means or methods of installation

Improper or low quality of the materials

Defective material or poor material performance

Missing or limited protection from weather or environmental condition in the engineering site.

Soil subsidence, movement and settlement

This questionnaire is foundation on the Likert's scale of 5 ordinal options from 1 to 5 according to level contributing. For example:

= strongly Agree (4) = Agree (3) = modest (2) = Disagree (1) strongly disagree

Example of the research study procedure:

Step 1: Selecting the sites

Step 2: Meet up with sites administrator and get approval

Step 3: Conduct case study


-Take necessary photo

Step 4: Accumulate all the data

Step 5: Examination the data

1. 8. 4 Chapter 4 - Data Analysis

Once the data successful collected from the questionnaire or research study, the next step is to analysis the data in this section 4. The methods use to analysis the accumulated data can be SPSS, Bar Chart or table method. Including the data can be evaluation included: Respondent time, accumulated data for Cause of defect in construction project, accumulated data for the effect of defect in structure project, information on the structure site or building, major flaws arise in development from the case study data.

1. 8. 5 Chapter 5 - Bottom line and Recommendation

In this chapter a bottom line will be carry out to conclude the whole research including the derive from the evaluation that carry out through the SPSS, pub graph. Besides that, most effective methods to decrease the construction defects will be recommending base on the result of analysis in order to fulfill the study aim and purpose.

1. 9 Summary

In Chapter 1, basic information treat this Research will be discus in the introduction such as explanation of the engineering project and problems. A number of the further information from other tool such as internet, articles, books, magazines and etc will be discuss in further in the study Background. For example, causes of the construction problems, methods to minimize the construction flaws and effects of the construction flaws in the building project will be discuss in more detail.

Identifying and studies the causes, effects and solutions to minimize the engineering defects is desire to and objective for this Research.

In additional, the Strategy of this research includes books review and data will be accumulate from either questionnaire or research study.

In this section, the aim and purpose include determining and studies the complexities and effect of construction flaws in the structure sector, and the methods to minimizing the construction flaws in construction job.

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