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Causes of high drop out rate disadvantaged girls


Education is the main part for developing the country so all people both boys and girls needs to have education equally to get skills, knowledge, and good attitude. However, there were large amount progresses in accomplishing young ladies' full and identical usage of education because the early years of 2000, as yet it has not realized. Particularly, girls from poor households in rural and remote areas appear to confront various drawbacks in education, shown in lower female enrolment rates at secondary levels and higher drop-out rates among ladies. Research provides many explanations regarding the disadvantages these young ladies face.

According to analyze article about 'Why are Girl not at College? Notion, Realities and contradictions in changing in Cambodia' provided the influent factors which have caused females stay out school. The causes are ancient culture and traditions [daughters should be around your kitchen and girls aren't as wise as boys], not understanding the worthiness of education from parents, distance university, poor parents, obligations for much housework, getting income for family, insecurity in university, devoid of good conversation between educators and female students, not having enough institution facilities for girls, unqualified educators in school, intimate harassment, having low self applied image of women, bad environment in institution, and late enrolment to begin university (Velasco, 2001).

In addition, the study article about Common Primary Education: Reaching the unreached in Cambodia depicted some factors which afflicted ladies out of school such as open public costs on formal primary school, pupil-teacher proportion, school infrastructure, poverty, geography and ethnicity Badloe et al. (2007).

Depending on the many disadvantages, lower feminine enrolment rates at secondary level and higher drop-out rate among young girls, in education for girls from poor young families in rural and remote control areas, there were many influent reasons which have affected girls education in Cambodia so we raise two questions to learn the problems which cause: what exactly are these demand part and supply aspect factors which might cause to disadvantages of young girls in education and what does indeed the Cambodian administration do to lessen the influence of these factors?

Situation with regards to Dropout in Basic Education

As we have known that Cambodia is country that was torn by civil conflict about three years and was damaged almost all luxurious countrywide properties such as custom, custom, culture, religious beliefs, and important recruiting which is the most important source in producing the country make this country in serious troubles educationally, economically and socially (Filmer & Schady, 2006). The reason above makes the country need to cope with it in problems and reform a lot of times in many areas such as overall economy, agriculture, industry and especially education to own people's need and develop the whole country after the war.

Basic education is the essential part for children to develop their understanding about the planet. Basic education is the education of children both boys and girls that start from level 1 to level 9 which is the level that offers children to have the ability to read and write better and also understand more about interpersonal activities and get some good skills and positive attitude to stay in society. This stage of basic education is demanded by the federal government and ministry of education for children. Which means that children must get education at least class 9. In addition, to provide more opportunity of education through basic education for children who leave the institution without finishing primary school (quality1 to 6) and lower extra school [class 7 to 9], the federal government and ministry of education have ready the Reentry and Education FOR THOSE (EFA) Program to allow them to enhance the living standard and develop the whole country as well.

However, in basic education, university student dropout has been more opposing to change even with the release of educational reforms in the current decade. This is essentially true for both boys and girls living in distant areas where rates have vitally increased. Generally, women seem to own higher drop out levels than males whatsoever educational levels, displaying a reverse structure to that shown for scholar repetition. Nationally, dropout levels were reported to be 8. 3% for guys and 13. 9% for women in 1993 growing just a bit to 10. 4% for children and declining slightly to 13. 0% among young ladies in 2001. However, dropout levels at both lower and upper extra level have depicted important falling down from 1997-2001 (Bredenberg, 2003). Furthermore, relating to research finding on 'why are young ladies not in university?. ' shown there were multiple reasons that young girls do not stay in school comprising earning profit for their family, relative treatment, housework, work in the plantation, perception of women' parents[parents do not understand the value of education], the old tradition and custom and rigid ideas of gender role in family members of division labor[ This means that the girls should be around the kitchen and the girls are not clever like the children], distance of institution from home, risk of security on girl and early marriage (Velasco, 2001). In addition to this problem, we can easily see that in this article research about "Getting young girls into university: Evidence from a scholarship program in Cambodia" depicted that families in poverty collection and surviving in remote control and rural areas are pressure which pushes the girls do not attend the school (Filmer &Schady, 2006).

In short, as a result of situations above, we see that the girls in Cambodia meet up with the difficulties in continuing their study to develop themselves and families as well as country. As is seen that issues, exactly what does the government do to reduce the issues on ladies in education?

Demand Side and Supply Side Factors WHICH MIGHT Cause in Drawback of Young ladies in Education

According to article research on Education from a Gender Equality Perspective depicted that education is globally acknowledged to profit individuals and promote countrywide development. Educating females and guys produces similar increases in their succeeding profits and expands future opportunities and selections for both boys and girls. However, educating women produces many additional socio-economic benefits that benefit whole societies. These benefits consist of increased economic productivity, higher family incomes, delayed marriages, reduced fertility rates, and improved health and success rates for babies and children (USAID, 2008). Really, education for woman provides benefits for expanding the countries such as decrease the poverty series, enhancing the women to actively interact social action, and also understanding the worthiness of education to talk about using their children and other ladies who can not read and write in order abolish illiteracy.

In contrast, in Cambodian context we know that authorities and many local and international non-organizations have been endeavoring to help girls going to college to be educated in order to promote them, but there seem to be to be high drop-out of young girls in school, automatically the girls from poor family in rural and distant zones (Velasco, 2001).

Based on the research article on "What makes Females Not in Institution?" proven that the two factors, supply side and demand area, cause high drop-out rate of young ladies in school, almost all of the responses taken notice of the next interconnected problems in four provinces in Cambodia such as Banteay Meanehey, Siem Reap, Kompong Thom, and Kompong Cham, (Velasco, 2001). Somewhat, we can see that both demand aspect and supply area factors have obligated children both children dropout and repetition in high rates. The factors contain physical location, poverty lines of people in rural and distant areas which pushes children within heavy labor, school infrastructure, pupil-teacher percentage, and public expenditure on primary college Badloe et al. (2007).

Demand Aspect Factor

First, women are responsible for housework so it is difficult to join the regular college. Second, parents do not value education because of their daughters and they always thought that females can be a mothers and housewives and will not need much education. Alternatively, education will be more involved with kids because the young boys will be heads of families. Furthermore, parents reckon that even if the girls obtain high education, it is not guarantee to get good job and also have opportunity to stand in high and vital positions. Third, culture and traditions/ early marriage: parents would stop their daughters from school for marriage and also Cambodian people has adhered strong culture and traditions which do not allow girls to visit away from home because they are afraid of getting bad reputation. Further more, people from cultural minorities do not see the value of education for women (Siem Reap, Kompong Thom & Banteah Meanchey). Fourth, young families are too poor to send all children to college, therefore; daughters should discontinue stepping into university because they can assist in housework and in generating incomes. The best option is the children can attend university because they cannot do a whole lot of work like girls. Seventh, young girls start college at a late age in comparison to young boys so they feel embarrassed and then stop study (Velasco, 2001).

Furthermore, much like article research on universal primary education: reaching the unreached in Cambodia so long as poverty led children into poor performance in key education including childlabour, costs of child schooling, and late entry to institution. Therefore, poverty is the most crucial case which causes many children, especially females; drop out school Badloe et al. (2007). Fifth, young ladies would leave school to help parents earn income. Sometimes, parents would ask their daughters to drop out school to work and make a living such as employing in garment factories in Phnom Penh, conducting business by providing souvenirs to travelers in Angkor temples or even to work with out their labor in development work and sometimes because of poverty, parents would induce traffic their daughters to the gender trade (Velasco, 2001).

Supply Side Factor

First, university is inaccessible: poor streets, no travel and too far from the community Junior high schools are too far way from the community. There is absolutely no house for girls and no bicycle for traveling; furthermore, there are only primary colleges in the village, but there is absolutely no secondary school in community (In Siem Riep & Banteay Meanchey). Second, security hazards is also obstacle for mailing girls to school, for example kidnapping and rape which took place causes parents worried of sending their daughters to faraway college and also spoiled young boys frighten the safeness of ladies' traveling to and from school (In Kompong Cham, Siem Reap, and Banteay Meanchey). Third, the school environment is not girl-friendly; insufficient good professors and college facilities like you can find inadequate water and toilet facilities significantly for girls, classrooms are overcrowded, teachers pay more focus on boys than females, some teachers aren't certified, parents do not value of spending because of their daughter's learning, and also feel no secure for letting daughter heading to university (Velasco, 2001).

Furthermore, because of insufficient school infrastructures like imperfect institution which there aren't enough classrooms and instructors for students show plainly that the imperfect school is the most crucial part in higher level of dropout and repetition rate in most important college Badloe et al. (2007).

In brief, there are really many causes which push girls keeping out of institution such as young girls burden a lot of housework, university is inaccessible, it is security hazards, parents do not value women' education, culture and traditions are restricted on girls, families are too poor, females are overdue at schooling, and university environment is not girl-friendly; lack of good professors and school facilities, and ladies can help their parents to earn incomes.

Strategies for Cambodian Federal government to lessen the Influences of Women Drop-out

According to research article of on What Policies will Reduce Gender Gap in Developing Countries: Information and Interpretation depicted "The positive effects of education on economic growth and individual earnings and welfare are widely, even universally, known. It also more popular that there are particular benefits ton investing in female schooling, credited to externalities such as superior child nourishment and schooling and reduced fertility. These economical efficiency arguments add to the strong equity rationale for increasing feminine education in areas where young girls have customarily been disadvantaged. Reaching gender equality in education is roofed one of the Millennium Development Goals and many growing country governments now officially understand this goal as a priority" (Glick, 2008, p. 1).

Really, we see that we now have many causes both in source part and demand side to push girls from poor young families in rural and remote control areas leave the school highly which donate to a great deal of negative points to your country for expanding. Therefore, to complete these bad factors, especially on ladies, the Cambodian government must take some kinds of actions to lessen those influences on young ladies.

Based on the study article about 'Why Gal are not in Institution?' provided some ways of cut down the influences on young girls from higher rate dropout that the government should do such as leading the campaign to explain girls and parents of daughters in rural and remote control areas to comprehend the value and value of education, driving school process and commune main work cooperatively in lively role to motivate parents whose daughters are out of college to own opportunities to their daughters stay in school, presenting some assist with girls and their own families which make them easy in learning such transport and safety, building enough college with enough school room and chairs, dining tables and toilets in each community and area, providing satisfactory qualified professors and creating good disposition in school for women (Velasco, 2001).

In addition, regarding to article research on Why Girls Are not in University depicted "the federal government must promote the equivalent essential attention of gender collateral key points with poverty and geographic issues in bettering access and equity in education, need to reform and improve Ministry of Education, Junior and Sport (MoEYS) logical and technical support to realize the gender knowing of officers and staffs and also improve gender capacity in program and project, implement affirmative steps to significantly reduce gender and communal disparities in the education system. It ought to be adopt a sector large way that addresses issues in enhancing indicators in women' education and women's representation in the education management and delivery services in any way levels. This will involve the participation of NGOs with substantive experiences and knowledge on gender and education in the context of Cambodia, give importance to gender issues and principles in initiatives to improve university facilities, curriculum content, and quality of coaching in basic education. Instructor training on gender understanding and ideas should be included in job design" (Velasco, 2001, p. 25).

Moreover, regarding to article research on getting girls into school illustrated that many girls are out of college for their poverty and also residing in rural and remote areas. This is actually the worst impact on young ladies' education which causes girls drop university easily therefore the government must prepare this program in order to keep the girls in school. The federal government gives the females in poverty more scholarships for review to reduce high rate of females drop-out (Filmer & Schady, 2006). Further more, the government must prepare suitable labor market segments for the girls and abolish discrimination in work area because of the education (Glick, 2008).


To summarize, education is a crucial thing in producing human being, especially whole country. However, it's been seen that education in Cambodia is not even better because of many factors both supply area and demand part which is bad condition such as poverty, limited school facility, too faraway college, unqualified educators, very crowded-student class, being not value education from parents, no determination from government, risk of security, and poor structured- public expenditure for offering education to all or any children, significantly women from poor family members in rural and distant areas in Cambodia to react to their own goals and the as the six goals of international education for any. In truth, ladies' dropout of college from poor family members in rural and distant areas is apparently high through Cambodian education framework so government must take activities to help for expanding. We should promote and value young girls in education, give more opportunities to women in every social action, significantly, needy females in rural and remote areas and give up the out of date idea which always reckons that ladies are always in your kitchen and only take care of children.

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