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Causes And Impacts Of Sexual Harassment Sociology Essay

This study provides an insight in to the interconnection between a man dominated organisation such as the Fire and Recovery Service and intimate harassment. It shall assess and quantify the effects that intimate harassment has on women firemen, the impact of legislated polices against sexual harassment and the actual FRS are doing to avoid this cruel action.

It is analyzed that girls, who work in a predominant male environment, are at risk of intimate harassment; this is reconciled by the existence of male dominated cultural norms. Sexual harassment implicates negative health consequences for sufferers and the organisation involved also faces repercussions of their own out of this social bad.

It is noticeable that within the path of society, social categories are often designed within groupings, which often present unseen barriers. The impact of pressure throughout contemporary society forces many individuals to make a persona that might not be true with their beliefs but one which conforms into a socially accepted position.

Through social functions which many individuals hold, they have a tendency to often catalogue individuals quickly into positions that often impact their lives, these judgements tend to be made scheduled to indoctrinated perceptions that are designed by society's even skeletal attitudes.

The impact of an gendered identification within the Open fire and Save Service creates cultures where hegemonic masculinity is strengthened and preserved, it allows a prominent male position to be performed and controlled. Because of the character of masculinity ingrained within formal and informal activities of the Fireplace and Rescue Service, the popularity of women as subordinated themes is highly complex.


I would like to exhibit my deepest gratitude and appreciation to Mr. K Look, Miss. T Bradford and Mr. S Cable tv; who throughout this job have given their valuable time, advice, criticism and corrections.

I would also like to express the deepest appreciation to a fellow course mate and good friend; Neglect N Jones for encouraging me and keeping me sane through this project. My dearest Wayne and caring family for his or her support and encouragement within my time at university or college.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Abstract. i

Chapter 2 ii

List of Figures

List of Tables

Chapter 1: Introduction

This study examined the causes, impacts and ramifications of intimate harassment in the Open fire and Rescue Service, focusing generally on women as they are the central focus of this cultural malevolence.

The thesis begins with a brief history of the Fire and Save Service, a review of relevant books including related legislation, a talk of significant instances, and an overview of the fear of reprisal.

1. 1 - The Level of the problem

Sexual harassment has been obvious in the Flames and Rescue Service since the sanctioning of the equality take action in 1964 which allowed females to pursue careers in the Flame and Recovery Service. An functional profession in the Fireplace and Save Service is definitely perceived as a masculine role; fighting fires and being involved in operational activities, representing "a good example of the masculine benchmarks of aggressive heterosexuality, physical and mental power and stoic self-discipline. " (Baigent; 2001) Changed perceptions of the Hearth and Recovery Service; conventional, cultural and even educational often presume a stereo system typed individuality for firemen to be, "strong, masculine and tough" idealist perceptions of this dominant alpha man physique often fashion obstacles for females coming into and sensing "accepted" within this male dominated company, disregarding the actual fact that female firemen perform the same duties as their men counterparts.

Currently there are 46 Hearth and Save Services in Britain using 45, 016 firemen; 43, 632 which are men and only one 1, 384 are female. (31 March 2007 - Hearth Research Technical Article 8/2008) This makes fireplace fighting one of the very most sex segregated occupations in the world. Statistics through the Baigent Survey 2006, show that 53. 4% of female fighters report that they had been harassed.

1. 2 - Basic Aim of study

The basis behind the preferred subject, related to the reality that although females have served in operational jobs within the Hearth and Rescue Service for almost 50 years now (UK Hearth Services); looking at current situations in the media, it is visible that they have not been completely accepted into this generally assumed male role. The essential reason for this research study was to take an in depth check out the literature and secondary data that is already available with regards to sexual harassment on ladies in the Flames and Rescue Service also to present a synopsis of the existing point out of knowledge and determine what the complexities and the effects of sexual harassment are, make a judgement whether Erotic Harassment is still obvious in this contemporary society, despite relevant laws and attempts such as 'positive action' to diminish these acts of hostility.

The primary aim of the research project was to identify predicated on current literature the nature and prevalence of erotic harassment within the Flames and Rescue Services.

1. 3 - Specific Objectives

To identify the prevalence of sexual harassment in the Fire and Rescue Service.

To analyse the nature and causes of sexual harassment in the Fire and Rescue Service.

To analyze the impacts created with sexual harassment in the Flames and Rescue Service.

To examine if 'positive action' has a positive impact on prevention and safeguard of females within the Fireplace and Rescue Service.

To examine if 'CLG goals' affected male staff's opinions of women being recruited?

To identify steps and precautions that may be implemented to handle the challenge of intimate harassment within the Fireplace and Save Service.


The study centered on each aspect surrounding the problem individually, investigating each factor and the subsequent results that they fashion. The info is then associated with relevant cases relating to the Hearth and Save Service and their agenda to prohibit this difficulty and to form an overall impartial examination of the conclusions.

After account of the difficulty to gain moral clearance to carry out primary data because of the invasive character of the study and also with a limited time frame, the study interprets extra research data to be more efficient. The info used within the analysis has been outsourced from related research to the study. Benefits of secondary data are that it is already collated, downsides to the use of secondary data is the opportunity of manipulated and biased data by the researcher. An array of secondary data resources were used within the analysis, such as journals, literature, books and webpages.

The report identifies and examines today's existing literature available on erotic harassment to offer an impression of the existing talk about of knowledge. During research it was pointed out that although various aspects of sexual harassment are well recorded, others are quite under researched; such as exact results and the full testimonies behind the circumstances offered in the media.

The term 'Woman' and 'Female' are used interchangeably throughout; however both have the same meanings in this particular study.

1. 5 - Summary

Sexual Harassment often has a significant impact on the average person included and the company where this malevolence occurs. The data provided in this report strongly suggests intimate harassment continues to be largely noticeable within the Fireplace and Recovery Services and is likely to occur before company becomes less male dominated.

Chapter 1

Chapter 2 reviews and critiques the relevant literature associated with the Flame and Rescue Service and Sexual Harassment.

Chapter 3 interprets, presents the findings also to draws conclusions from the study.

1. 4 - Main Achievements

The main successes of the study are

Chapter 2: Overview of Literature

The practise of sexual harassment has been dominating for centuries and can be followed back to the 1970's in North America; sexual coercion was a more developed characteristic of chattel slavery by African-American women without the fortification of regulations.

Nevertheless it wasn't until 1986 in the united kingdom when the first successful case identified erotic harassment to be always a form of erotic discrimination, under the Career Protection Take action. (Hodges Aeberhard; 2001)

Many activists have authoritatively expressed their ideas about erotic harassment, however in 1980, the Equivalent Employment Opportunity Commission rate (EEOC) described the act as;

"Unwelcome sexual developments, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical do of a sexual nature constitutes intimate harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly influences an individual's job, unreasonably inhibits an individual's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or unpleasant work place. "(Wall; 2001)

Key elements found in most explanations include:

The conduct of a sexual aspect, and other conduct based on intimacy impacting on the dignity of women and men, which is unwelcome, unreasonable, and offensive to the recipient.

A person's rejection of, or distribution to, such conduct is employed explicitly or implicitly as a basis for a choice which impacts that person's job.

Conduct that creates an intimidating, hostile or humiliating working environment for the receiver.

Legal and Sociological understandings

Interpretations of sexual harassment are fashioned by "legal awareness" or using cultural schemes guiding the understanding and use of law. (Merry 1990; Ewick and Silbey 1998)

Individuals often have mixed perceptions on what constitutes to intimate harassment, this differs among different societies and sociable groupings; this can possibly cause issues both legitimately and sociologically, as it causes difficulty interpreting if sexual harassment has took place. Behaviour is much more likely to be seen as harassment if there is a large ability difference between the victim and the co-conspirator. Many forms of the act may be easily identifiable; such as kissing and coming in contact with, while other kinds such as verbal and physical conduct may not. Certain behaviours which may seem inappropriate in some cultures may be regarded as normal cultural practise in others. A kiss on the cheek in greeting is known as normal behaviour, while in other cultures; this may be considered a erotic advance. What's acceptable in some workplaces, such as sexually suggestive calendars or posters, may not be tolerable in others.

Implementing an effective sexual harassment plan in an company and strict enforcement punishments for offenders is the rightful treatment for the problem.

It has been identified that 50% of women are sexually harassed in the workplace and "fewer than 20% of the women label themselves as having been sexually harassed. " (Magley; 1999, p390) Women can be hesitant to recognize their activities, as they don't feel that they are really serious enough. That is a large adding factor to why intimate harassment continues to be present today as the challenge can't be prevailed if it will go unreported. This also shows that present statistical data on sexual harassment is greatly inaccurate as huge amounts are undiscovered.

2. 1. 1 - Impacts

Sexual Harassment usually has a negative effect on the victim worried, potentially giving them with long-term psychological results.

Suffers of the social bad may often experience condition, loss of self-confidence, psychological damage and frequently feel intimidated, ashamed, irritated and humiliated. They are also more likely to face workplace problems such as lowered performance, lower job satisfaction, high absenteeism and frequently find it difficult to continue employed in such circumstances as it can create a hostile, offensive and unsafe environment, which can on occasion lead to the victim being unable to carry out their job effectively and may also cause resignation.

Negative results of erotic harassment such as anxiousness, concern with retaliation, retaliation and melancholy are often exacerbated by sufferer reporting which reporting may not in fact be considered a 'realistic' plan of action for most goals. (Bergman)

According to the Country wide Council for Research on Women; scheduled to intimate harassment, women are 9 times much more likely than men to quit their jobs, 5 times more likely to transfer, and 3 times more likely to reduce careers. (The Webb Record; 1994)

Sexual harassment threatens the fundamental constitutional basis of freedom and equality for those, which needs to be abolished from modern culture entirely. The women's liberation movements has been spoilt by this action of discrimination which continues to haunt society.

2. 2 - Record of the Flame and Rescue Service

Historically, the flames fighting career was dominated by white males before equality action was released in 1964. The first female operational hearth fighter in the united kingdom joined up with the London Flames Brigade in 1982. Primarily many male fire fighters firmly resisted the introduction of folks who did not fit their ideal perception of a fire fighter, especially women.

Almost 50 years have passed because the equality take action was conceded and the Flames and Save Services today are still typically a white man predominant service. Currently women represent a meagre 4% of the UK's fire fighting profession; however this is an improvement from 3% in 2006, which makes operational fire struggling with one of the very most gender segregated occupations in the united kingdom. Sexual harassment is often more frequent in professions where there can be an unequal sex percentage; such as the Fire and Recovery Service, 'Hearth stations once boasted a fraternity house atmosphere; they were "homes abroad" for men. '

The HMFSI conducted an assessment into Equality and Fairness (1999) and results suggested that generally the views and views of service staff were 'institutionally sexist' and it was generally believed that girls didn't belong in operational functions in the Flame and Rescue Service.

Diagrams taken from ????? show the proportions of feminine firemen between 2002 and 2012.

Fire and Rescue Service - Operational Information Bulletin for Britain 2010-11

This diagram illustrates hook increase of female fire fighters each year; from 1. 7% in 2002 to 4. 3 % in 2012, this is a substantial improvement nonetheless they are still significantly low in proportion to results.

This diagram illustrates the percentage of men to female fire fighters, each year the information for females are subsequently growing, however at the lowest capacity of guys in 2012, 95. 7% would be considered a very large percentage.

This diagram illustrates that only 2 employee resigned due to harassment or discrimination.

2. 2. 1 - CLG targets

A record was published because of the Audit Commission in '09 2009, on the deficit of women and cultural minorities in the Flames and Recovery Service, stating that the 'shortage of variety significantly reduces the services capability to contact and advise different communities about the potential risks of open fire'. "Even where in fact the proportion of feminine firemen and personnel from minority ethnic communities is increasing, quantities remain very low and are not representative of the neighborhoods they serve. "

This was highlighted in the last mentioned countrywide Equality and Diversity Strategy for Fire and Recovery Services.

Individual Fire and Rescue Service's have presented proactive measures to market the addition and recruitment of women from the OFFICE AT HOME CLG targets associated with the percentages of women in operational jobs. Despite these actions there are still relatively low numbers of women working in a operational capacity, significantly less than 1% of women in the whole time functional service and just over 1% in the maintained service however the EOTG concluded that a goal of representation of anything significantly less than 20% by 2009 wouldn't normally make the service appealing to women. Women firemen would continue to end up isolated on fire station watches. (E. GUY; Home Office; 2000)

Recruitment of women (whole-time and maintained operational personnel)

1 April 2002: 4% of uniformed personnel (excluding control) should be women;

1 Apr 2004: 9% of uniformed staff (excluding control) should be women;

1 Apr 2009:15% of uniformed personnel (excluding control) should be women.

2. 3 - REGULATIONS; Erotic Harassment at work

Sexual Harassment had not been regarded as a discrete injury before the campaign because of its inclusion as a kind of love-making discrimination under Name VII of the Civil Rights Act, the change in regulations has done more than merely create new rights.

Sexual harassment laws is of particular interest to feminist theorists confronting the capability of law to promote social change. This feminist treatment into the law has affected the cultural meaning of connections between women and men in the workplace, even though the new meanings have never translated into legal victories.

The legal lay claim for intimate harassment is distinctive because of its distinctively feminist roots. Given birth to in the mid-1970s, the word was created by feminist activists, given legal content by feminist litigators and scholars, and sustained by a wide-ranging body of scholarship generated typically by feminist academics. Intimate harassment is the quintessential feminist harm - in Catharine MacKinnon's words, the very first time in history. . . that girls have described women's accidents in a law.

The goal of legal feminism has gone to fit the cause of action to women's experience at work. As a trend, erotic harassment is nearly gender-specific: unlike other types of intimacy discrimination suits where male plaintiffs frequently complain of gender-based damage, the great majority of sexual harassment plaintiffs are women, and their grievances rarely have an accurate analogue in the experience of men.

2010 Coverage of Women against Sexual Harassment at the Work area -

Under the Equality Work 2010 - All Hearth and Save Service Institutions have a legal obligation to market equality. This take action covers; age, impairment, gender reassignment, motherhood and maternity, competition religion/belief, intimacy and erotic orientation. The purpose of this work is to get rid of unlawful discrimination, harassment and victimisation.

Title VII of the Civil Privileges Take action of 1964 - The take action doesn't distinctively point out sexual harassment; however it states that it's illegal to prohibit occupation based on gender, race, belief or national source.

Subsequent codes have defined erotic harassment and the US Equal Employment Opportunity Percentage is accountable for the supervision of procedures prohibiting intimate harassment in the job place.

The Equal Opportunities Commission payment (EOC) was established in 1975, and since has been apprehensive with sexual harassment at work. The commission rate has used its talents under the Sex Discrimination Work (SDA) to support many occupation tribunal instances and has funded many promises for intimate harassment towards women, to mostly develop current circumstance law and increase awareness of the issue through campaigns and lobbying.

Sexual harassment can be categorised as either quid pro quo or a hostile environment; Quid pro quo is a demand for intimate favours for profession advantages of the employee. Hostile environment in the workplace would include sexual conversations, off shade jokes, sexually explicit pictures, and improper coming in contact with and gestures.

2. 4 - Intimate harassment in the Flames and Rescue Service

It isn't unusual for staff in an extremely respected profession including the Fire and Rescue Service to be caught in the middle of works of discrimination and intolerance to others. Sexual Harassment can kill the lives and employment opportunities of those targeted and in this point in time where everyone gets the to be treated equally it should not be condoned.

It has been uncovered that as much as 85% of fire fighters have been exposed to some form of sexual harassment throughout their career; however it is evident that less than 5% of the victims reported or 'blow the whistle' on their experiences. (Gutek & Koss; 1993)

Carrying out the role of an operational fire fighter often exposes individuals to dangerous situations which can contribute to stress, however adding the strain of harassment and a hostile work place could isolate the sufferer and undermine member camaraderie, which is a fundamental part of success within the Open fire and Rescue Service.

Public lawsuits relating to the Fire and Recovery Service are generally well publicised and due to the severity often mirror adversely on the industry, probably charging the service their reputation, trustworthiness and community position. Money from lawsuits are better put in somewhere else and make the city question the integrity of the team they pay for and support.

The Hearth and Save Service has been described as one of the last bastions of white, male, laddish culture, where erotic discourse about women using stereotyped conditions is widespread. (Kehily; 1997)

"In the old days, there is delineation between when you attend work and what you do outside of work. At the job you conducted yourself in a certain way, but with longer work times and more everyday dress codes, specifically among young people, there's been a blurring of the lines between what happens at the job and what goes on in your interpersonal life, " (Mr. Telman)

"We spend so much of our lives in the workplace, which has become less and less formal like much of contemporary society. " (D L. Hoover)

Comments from subjects who didn't record the harassment said 'they didn't want to be labelled as a trouble manufacturer and didn't feel that a positive results was possible', 'they didn't want to be "singled out" further. Women who have took their case to caught have usually out gone many years of sexual harassment before they have decided to have legal action.

Research suggests that intimate harassment is not just a problem in the UK; in 1995 surveys were conducted on Ladies in the U. S Fire and Save Service. 551 Feminine staff were asked about their experience with sexual harassment and other kinds of job discrimination and 88% responded expressing that they had been at the mercy of some form of sexual harassment sooner or later in their hearth service opportunities. 70% of the women said they were latterly experiencing harassment in the length of the study.

Out of the 88% harassed only 1/3 acquired had positive benefits, where a study was performed and the harasser was disciplined. 26% were retaliated against for reporting the incident.

2. 4. 1 - Whistle blowing

Ignoring problems of intimate harassment can cost the common company up to 6. 7 million each year in low productivity, low morale, and worker turnover and absenteeism, excluding litigation or other legal costs. Following clear and proactive formal regulations against sexual harassment in the work area is one way to prevent lawsuits and drops in output and efficiency.

According to sociable scientists and psychologists; the flame and rescue service industry is a 'hyper concentrated reflection of the community's cultural mixture and bias. ' Once the mix of men, women, black, white, Jews, Muslims, Catholics and other civilizations it's not shocking when they cause some type of prejudice is involved.

It has been witnessed that many women and folks of coloring leave the Fireplace Service, frequently amid successful careers, to avoid the daily harassment, isolation and scrutiny. In what is already a higher stress profession, these added negative factors can take their toll. Results point out that that concern with retaliation and appraisal play the most significant role.

'Diversity at work creates room for new ideas, as well as the likelihood of increased issue. '

Different thoughts have been indicated regarding the position of ladies in fire fighting occupation.

Male functional group director in Derbyshire indicated:"Women bring an alternative dimension to the open fire service, as they can appeal to other women about protection in the home, in a manner that men can't".

Woman fireplace fighter:"Men would threaten to copy off their own watch if a female was set to join. Things have improved upon considerably over the last few years however the fire services should not become complacent about equality. I work with some very nice people, women and men. I also use some dinosaurs. "

"Nearly all fire fighters are in the FBU, therefore the union took its role of combating discrimination critically,

Woman, non- uniformed position:"Because women are in a very small minority, the infrastructure does not change, and the women can experience dreadful isolation. "

Woman, flames fighter:"A lot of the harassment happened as i was on probation and experienced I could not speak out, I did make an effort to talk with my officers; all of them shrugged off my appeals for help. I wish to keep my job. It's clear that those who seek legal recourse can't get back to work. I didn't need to get someone suspended or fired. I just wanted it to stop. "

In 1984, Toledo was under a federal court order to hire more minority fire fighters - to match the city's racial demographics

Read more at http://www. toledoblade. com/Police-Fire/2013/03/04/Woman-hired-as-firefighter-in-84-broke-barriers. html#hzJoDrlSfxRVrsuw. 99

2. 4. 2 - Challenges females face

As earlier mentioned due to interpersonal stereo typing, a job in the Hearth and Save Service is often regarded as a adult males role and non traditional for women. Bradley recognized characteristics which were associated with typical jobs suited to females. 'Clean, safe, bodily undemanding, repetitive, boring and lacking in flexibility' (1989; P. 9) this idealist perception that females were only suited to office assignments created challenges for females who wanted to break this stereo typing barrier and carry out tasks in "masculine" occupations such as the Fire and Recovery Service. Inside the U. K Fireplace and Rescue Services females have completed operational posts for nearly 50 years; along this trip there have been many difficult modifications within the service.

tradition, formalised, para-military associations and discrimination.

"Women are not getting recruited and appointed because of occupational culture that is exclusionary and unequal career methods in recruiting, hiring, assigning and promoting women generally and women of shade specifically in fireplace service, "

Moccio added.

USA: 79. 7% of women survey respondents reported issues with ill-fitting equipment. These problems engaged (gloves 57. 8%) boots (46. 8%), coats (38. 9%), helmets (28. 4%), and breathing masks (25. 6%).

One major hurdle to entry into fire fighting for females was the lack of facilities. The immediate problem of sleeping quarters and bathing areas needed to be fixed before women could take part fully in open fire fighting with each other as an occupation and since a culture. Communal showers and open bunk halls were created for men only. Today, although most channels are now made to accommodate fire fighters of both genders, some female firemen still face issues related to their gender.

One of the best difficulties experienced by most women in the flames service is ill-fitting protecting gear. Gear suitable for men often will not fit correctly. Within an environment where uncovered skin can be almost instantly covered in full-thickness melts away, it is vital that protective items fit properly.

According to a study at Cornell School, "the under-representation of women in fire fighting is an alarming inequity that needs to be immediately dealt with, " said Francine Moccio, director of the institute and co-author of the statement, "A National Record Card on Ladies in Firefighting, " that was provided at the International Relationship of Ladies in Fire and Emergency Services meeting, April 24 in Phoenix, Az.

In a study conducted by Ladies in the Hearth Service in 1995, 551 ladies in fire departments across the U. S were asked about their experiences with intimate harassment and other varieties of job discrimination. Eighty-eight percent of hearth service women responding experienced experienced some form of sexual harassment sooner or later in their hearth service opportunities or volunteer time. Practically seventy percent of the ladies in the study said these were experiencing ongoing harassment during the study. From the 339 women who said they had complained about harassment, only one third (115 women) shown only positive results: looking into/taking care and attention of the condition, and disciplining the harasser. Twenty-six percent said they were retaliated against for reporting the occurrence.

The gender natural term "fire fighter" has been used since 1902, upgrading "fireman", as the word excluded women from the vocation, however it continues to be common for the word to be utilized.

Stand Down Activities

Fire stations are usually well equipped for leisure pursuits[57], as you fire-fighter witnessed: 'it's just like a lads night in'. How this time is put in varies from watch to view, but there is certainly usually one communal activity that is involved in by all fire-fighters. Interestingly, two females expressed dissatisfaction with the preferred stand-down activities on their watch, with one describing how she was one of 3 fire-fighters, on a watch of 18, who didn't enjoy sports. In conditions of fitting into the watch, she observed that 'if you do not like sportsyou've really surely got to try hard. ' (FFF9). Likewise, another female sensed slightly beyond watch culture, as she couldn't appreciate the communal stand-down activities of credit cards and golf, 'It doesn't suit me, I'm not really into handmade cards for two time but I will

sit and have an instant game, more with regard to fitted in than for the enjoyment of playing you understand. ' (FFF5). This particular female originated from a smaller watch (of 7 people) and detailed how the culture was one where everyone liked to be in the same place at the same time. She found this atmosphere somewhat claustrophobic and felt that she'd be better suited to a bigger watch (where there is more opportunity to dilute and do your own thing). The actual physical design of the station may involve some bearing upon this, indeed small station possessed no independent rooms[58] and a large 'banquet' style desk, perhaps inducing a required sociability. In contrast one of the larger stations visited experienced separate rooms, and a 'noiseless room' and a mess room supplied with about 12 small furniture designed to seating a couple of fire-fighters, thus reducing the need to constantly engage with your fellow co-workers. Eventually, Cockburn argues that male worker's proposal in certain public activities positions women outside of 'the boys team' (1991).

Positive Action

in light to the fact that the Fireplace Service is not an obvious job choice for females, the positive action wide open days, which have been held by lots of Brigades, appear to be a great way of bringing out females to the Service in a non-threatening way. However, there seemed to be a commonly held belief that the Flame Service has located too much emphasis on Fairness and Equality regulations lately. Among young and old men fire-fighters alike there is a feeling that white guys were being 'frozen out' by the service. This is typified in the next affirmation: 'okay we're hoping equality em, people's protection under the lawbut there were special open times for ethnic minorities and women, there is nothing for the straight hetero male, the truth is why? And this is people outside em, you understand, producing their thoughts and revealing us "god they're no hoping in a straight line heterosexual men" and it was along thae lines for some time you know?' (MFF6). There is no popularity that the purpose of such open days was to redress the gender imbalance in the Flame Service and to make it more representative of the community it functions, or indeed that certain sections of world might need extra encouragement to apply in the beginning. This fire-fighter's selection of words 'right, heterosexual men', implies that he was referring to a certain kind of men, the type that has until very lately, acquired a monopoly on jobs in the service.

The open days and nights created discontent, as for many they symbolised the exclusion of men out of this sphere. As well as this many sensed that positive action (or as many called it, 'positive discrimination') had gone too far, resulting in a situation where, as you fire-fighter put it 'if you're men you have less potential for getting in than a female or an cultural. ' (MFF3). There is a sense that the Service is extremely worried about 'amounts' and that this is in fact disadvantaging the white guy 'I wouldnae like tae feel that my kid couldnae get a chance of getting back in ken?. ' (MFF3). In terms of whether this is a commonly kept perception among men in the Flame Service, he said that he approximated that approximately 95% sensed this way (but that lots of of them could not speak openly about their values for fear of negative repercussions). The amount of discontent these open days created resulted in their demise, as you woman fire-fighter said 'there's way too many people who think that we're trying to have an all female Flames Service, that you know is quite nave to think that. But it's just, you've obviously got to opt for the majority and you've certainly got to fulfill most people so, regrettably, that kind of thing hasperished a fatality really. ' (FFF7)


A firewoman given a payout after suffering a campaign of intimate harassment has transferred home in the united states after village gossips 'ruined her life'. Kate Ellis, 48, launched a intimacy discrimination case against her hearth service over vile taunts and pestering for love-making from firemen. But she and her hubby effectively became prisoners in their own house because neighbours continuously sniped at her in the shop and pub. On one occasion at the hearth station she was in her underwear getting ready to change into her even when she realised four co-workers were leering at her through the window. She was accused of 'flaunting herself', and a fireman's wife remaining her in tears by abusing her in the village shop, declaring: 'I don't want you changing down to your G-string before my hubby. ' But she advised a tribunal she had a one-night stand with her supervisor Make Butler, 44, in August 2003, convinced that 'becoming a notch on his bedpost' would stop the mistreatment. Instead it compounded the challenge, with Mr Butler boasting about his conquest, and word soon growing among villagers. A fireman badgered her for making love after a Xmas party, fellow workers ostracised her and refused to travel with her to jobs and her car was vandalised. Another fireman's wife asked her what the fire key was like in bed. Just two days and nights into the career tribunal in Reading, the Hampshire Open fire and Save Service settled the truth for an undisclosed number. Mrs Ellis, who continued to join the ambulance service, said village supporters of the firemen possessed made her past home intolerable.

The settlement of the contentious erotic harassment lawsuit in the Phoenix Hearth Section has prompted one city councilman to demand a study. firefighter Julie Simpson, whose 2011 Federal government sexual harassment lawsuit The allegations of harassment include putting Simpson's uniforms in a freezer, feeding her a meal that included a grilled sponge, getting in touch with her a variety of vulgar titles, and the following statements:

"it was nice not having a girl in the place";

"we wish a man on the vehicle, so could you leave":

"men are usually more mechanised, and are therefore better individuals than women";

"he's a man, he can shape it out";

"you can't get the job done, your just too small and you're a female";

"fellas don't want girls in the place because of women like you";

"you're the kind of girl who should be a secretary or nurse, not really a fireplace fighter";

"you're clothes are too tight, they [i. e. , Plaintiff's guy counterparts in the Flames Team] will just look at you as someone to [explicative]";

"you're too small and you're a female, you ought to be off the pick up truck and working as a secretary";

"you speak too much, fellas don't like to hear girls speak. "

2. 5 - Ideas on Sexual Harassment

Sexual harassment may take both traditional and non-traditional, but electricity is a steady element in explanations of sexual harassment, making a focal point for the existing research.

The International Labour Company has noted that generally the act of sexual harassment doesn't relate with the biological differentiations between men and women but rather, it pertains to gender or public roles certified to men and women in sociable and financial life. The perceptions about male and feminine sexuality in modern culture could lead to unbalanced male/female authority interactions.

2. 5. 1 - Power

Sexual harassment is usually a indication of control, electricity and authority rather than actual libido and is usually a face of aggression and hostility. The associates of this interpersonal evil often want to degrade, humiliate and intimidate their sufferer into a submissive condition. "Sexual harassment is inextricably associated with power and occurs in societies which often treat women as making love objects and second category residents. " (Martha Langelan, Back Off! How exactly to Confront and prevent Sexual Harassment and Harassers; July 1993)

Catherine MacKinnon, a scholar on sexual harassment, explained in 1979; at its most elementary level, sexual harassment is the "unwanted imposition of erotic requirements in a romantic relationship of unequal power. " Perpetrators leverage the energy they have predicated on their gender or sexual status to gain or maintain power at work. (Catherine A. MacKinnon, the Intimate Harassment of Working Women, 9-10(1979).

MacKinnon continued to explain that a woman struggling to determine credibility in a work environment environment "can be swept off balance by way of a reminder that she can be raped, fondled, or put through repeated sexual needs. " Her resulting anxiety, fear or vulnerability avoids a woman from "feeling, or being considered, the equals of these male counterparts in the workplace. " (Catherine A. MacKinnon, the Intimate Harassment of Working Women, 9-10 (1979)

social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender nonconformity and women's specialist, particularly in male-dominated work settings.

racism, prejudice, intolerance, jealousy, intimate tension, overt and covert harassment, a hostile working environment, and homophobia you need to include detrimental personal equipment, violating existing talk about and federal regulations, intolerance of others' beliefs, poor management and management, insufficient policy, nonexistent self-discipline, and institutional silence (no one finding or witnessing any inappropriate carry out).

2. 5. 3 - Economical motivations

Sexual harassment may be used by men to keep up their competitive benefit in the workplace; reserving the most highly compensated work with men and branding women workers in these areas as incompetent or unsuitable for the job.

2. 5. 5 - Gender and Electricity Influences on Society

Harassers use it to police force or maintain traditional gender assignments also to promote gender conformity; 'keeping ladies in their place'.

Women in non traditional careers may go through baiting, in the form of sexual inquiries, jokes, remarks, or innuendoes. Such behaviour has "the effect of reminding a female that she is viewed as object of intimate derision alternatively than as a credible co worker. " (Kathryn Abrams, Gender Discrimination and the Change of Office Norms, Vanderbilt L. Rev. , vol. 42, 1207-1209; 1989)

Gender impact on population must be assessed to gain complete knowledge of the affects gender has. These could be accepted by the understanding of gender relationships throughout world with your competition for a range of cultural resources such as, wealth, status, politics prestige and ability.

It is this competition for ability and prestige through ideological consent which allows us to discover these influences. Community constructionism may allow us to interpret the gender roles we associate with men and women, but it does not analyse how these stereotyped assignments came to be from the sexes. It's the analysis of hegemonic masculinity that shows the importance and effects of dominance and vitality of gender in world.

Hegemonic masculinity identifies the dominant form of masculinity within the gender hierarchy. Connell (1987) describes it as "The settings practice which embodies the presently accepted answer to the challenge of legitimacy of patriarchy, which ensures the dominant position of men and the subordination of women".

Examples of the is seen in the simplest of activities, such as men having doors open for women. This activity, although seen as courteous, allows the person to regulate when and the way the female strolls through the door, and the popularity that this is what men must do reinforces their prestige and status, allowing the male to 'look after' the 'incapable' female. Although "The public face of hegemonic masculinity is definitely not what powerful men are, but what sustains their power and what many men are motivated to support" (Connell, 1987).

A hegemonic men can often be stereotyped as the perfect men, the alpha male who has physical prowess, heroic position, a definitive heterosexuality and for that reason power,

This electricity is then proven to dominate over not only women, but male sets of less ability. Gender could be observed to be the underpinning foundation to the syndication of power prosperity and status towards men, which motivates characteristics such as ambition, strength, drive, aggressiveness, and personal reliance for men, but is overwhelmingly discouraged in women, which is this that stimulates us to permit this behavior.

This is a definite demonstration of the energy of this male position. A posture of full heterosexual masculinity, a posture holding hegemonic electric power over other subspecialist roles, the sense of prestige because others are unable to complete this role.

"The interplay between different types of masculinity is an important part of how patriarchal cultural order works" (Connell, 1987). Record tells us that the man with status, ability and wealth got ownership of property and the method of production, consequently 'owning' the right to superior rank in the hierarchy of masculinities as Connell explains. Once this is accepted in culture and other see this, his power becomes hegemonic. Hartmann (1976) describes this patriarchy as "men's domination of one another. . . a set of social relations in which there are hierarchical relations between men, and solidarity among them, which enable them to regulate women".

The power belonging to males and their dominance is further accentuated by 'emphasised femininity'. Which Connell (1987) suggests is "defined about the conformity with this subordination and is also orientated to accommodating the hobbies and needs of men".

The acceptance by women that this is ok increases the hegemonic power held by men and reiterates the notion of consent in their role, this automatically subordinates women, assigning the men the proper execution of power they require.

Power then is key when looking at gender in the framework of social roles. The dominance of male position and power and exactly how this subordinates different ethnic categories, creates situations where structure dictates the links between people and institutions. This electric power is most efficiently deployed by making ideals of masculine and womanly behavior to which we should aspire.

The affects that gender is wearing contemporary society can been seen wherever we look, and the frameworks we follow ensure these definitive positions in culture are clear and powerful.

2. 5. 6 - Societal perspective

The societal point of view considers the collective view of the role that ladies play, becoming a parent and having to support a family. (Larwood & Gutek; 1987)

Powell & Graves suggest that usually a woman's put in place society was to stay at home, have children also to look after the home. (2003)

"Women's roles therefore include bearing children; to give food to them and other family; to clothe people; to look after the tiny, the sick, older people and the disabled; to be accountable for the education of children; and to care for the house. (Alvesson & Thanks Billing; 1997)

2. 5. 7 - Organisational Violation

Organisational culture often performs a fundamental role in intimate harassment. Bullying and assault can be seen as a amount of 'organisational violation' where the culture associated with an organisation makes it feasible for individuals to be at the mercy of maltreatment or with disregard.

Hierarchical and managerial power is necessary to identify how such a culture develops and continues. As contempt and impertinence in a organisation exacerbates, the more likely it is for inapt carry out to be carried out and where uncivil behavior becomes routine and thought to be normal with a workforce.

2. 6 - Summary

Based on the info constructed in this analysis, there is strong proof that erotic harassment is still significantly active in the Fire and Recovery Services. Intimate harassment remains a major challenge that all the Services must continue steadily to combat.

A number of tips have surfaced which point out that although some aspects of harassment are well noted; others are very under researched. A clear example of this is the fact the true level of sexual harassment in the united kingdom is unknown. There are no definitive incidence surveys. Estimations regarding its incidence and how common a difficulty it is differ broadly, and without clear baseline data it isn't possible to find out whether sexual harassment in United kingdom workplaces is increasing or decreasing. It really is clear however, that erotic harassment can stand for an mistreatment of electricity and can take many varieties, from sexually explicit remarks and banter, to harassment over the telephone, to sexual assault.

There are three basic types of intervention that can be integrated by an company to avoid or package with intimate harassment; prevention, giving an answer to sexual harassment where it does occur and follow up in the aftermath of an investigation into a grievance of sexual harassment.

There are three types of involvement that organisations are advised to implement to reduce and eliminate intimate harassment at work: protection of harassment through training plus effective plans and procedures; giving an answer to harassment through an efficient complaints technique; and following up by handling rehabilitation of the individual who may have been harassed and their harasser. Research shows that these will be most effective where an organisation adopts a consultative and participatory methodology at all levels, combined with effective monitoring and evaluation. The intimate harassment involvement model illustrated in advocates a proactive i. e. preventative rather than a reactive i. e. response powered strategy to intimate harassment insurance policies and steps.

Chapter 3: Conclusions and Recommendations

This section will initially consider conclusions from the study findings presented in the last chapter followed by suggestions for future research. This section will be organized around the study questions with an additional section analyzing conclusions relating to the barriers faced by females getting started with the hearth service and seeking development.

3. 1 - Conclusion

This report has determined and examined the available books on sexual harassment to provide an overview of the current express of knowledge.

A amount of key points have emerged which show that although some areas of harassment are well documented, others are very under researched. Harassment can have a significant effect on the individuals engaged and the company where it occurs. The evidence strongly suggests that to avoid this, organisations take a proactive, i. e. preventative, rather than a reactive, i. e. response powered, approach to producing effective erotic harassment regulations and steps.

Much is still unknown about erotic harassment at work and a number of areas for future research were discovered. These included: attitudes towards harassment and the harassed; intimate harassment and ethnicity, impairment and same love-making harassment; evaluation and monitoring of programs; the effect of control styles; and the gap between policy and practice. We need to understand the real scope and characteristics of sexual harassment and the result it has both on the individual and on the work area to enable the implementation of the most effective preventative regulations and interventions. Ways of dealing with and responding to sexual harassment differ generally and there is no single agreed method. Those regarded as most reliable include confronting and negotiating with the harasser e. g. requesting/telling them to stop, and advocacy seeking e. g. confirming the behaviour to a supervisor or external agency. However, such activities can be quite difficult to take, particularly when the person doing the harassing is a director, as is usually the circumstance. One way of combating many of the problems is to provide employees with a casual, and a formal, route to follow when coming up with a complaint about harassment. The down sides of dealing with harassment both on a person with an organisational level reinforce the necessity for effective preventative measures.

awareness of people's trend to miss-predict what they would do in the same situation experienced by erotic harassment victims, as well as how those erroneous predictions affect co-workers' judgment of and behavior toward the subjects. Organizations also have to train employees how to lessen their biased perceptions and behaviour.

3. 2 - Recommendations

The job of creating a more gender well balanced fire service reaches the center of the challenges of the modern FRS.

organisations have a proactive; preventative, rather than reactive - response influenced, approach to growing effective sexual harassment insurance policies and procedures.

3. 3 - Limitations

The biggest limitation under this job was enough time limitation.

There was insufficient data accuracy.

Due to time limitation, the data accumulated was extra data.

3. 4 - Future research

Fully effective intimate harassment regulations and preventative programs.

What is already known from the books?

Sexual harassment definitions

Organisational violation, electricity and sexuality

Types of sexual harassment

Groups vulnerable to sexual harassment

Antecedents of intimate harassment (specific/ organisational/ societal)

Short and long-term effects on the average person and organisation

Troubles facing those who wish to record a complaint

Legal responses

Examples of best practice procedures

What is necessary?

Empirical research examining:

Incidence of intimate harassment

Leadership styles and their impact on

sexual harassment incidence rates

Ethnicity and erotic harassment

Same sex sexual harassment

Disability and sexual harassment

Sexual harassment via electronic media

Attitudes towards erotic harassment and the effect on the individual of filing a complaint

Effectiveness of intimate harassment programmes and training

Comparative review of general population and private sector insurance policies and procedures

The distance between coverage and practice

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