Posted at 12.21.2018
Jain, Sharma and Subramanian brought up that congestion in the United States has increased considerably since the previous twenty-five years, which is the same as many countries that experiencing traffic congestion presently. From the authors' prospective, one of the major causes of traffic jam in the most metropolitan areas is 'poor road traffic management system'.
Increasing of traffic congestion annually is creating increasing of air pollution, wasting of the time and output and causes diverse diseases such as, breathing diseases. Moreover, the price of solving or reducing traffic congestion is substantial. However, neglecting the traffic jam problem would increase the cultural problems among individuals.
The next part of this article illustrates many factors behind traffic congestion in various cities about the world, and the consequences of these causes on the surroundings. Furthermore, the solutions that solved the traffic jam problem, and the suggested alternatives that could help to reduce the congestion in some cities.
Causes and Effects
This part of the essay shows many causes, effects and possible alternatives of traffic congestion problems.
Causes and Effects:
One of the main causes of traffic congestion in Los Angeles (United states) is 'car culture', this means many people in the location or county had private cars (Thisdell, 1993). Also, the land-use design can be an important reason that makes people in LA were using private cars greatly and made transportation planning difficult. Furthermore, traffic congestion increased scheduled to no underground railway and general population transport in Los Angeles. Additionally, the high amounts of vehicles, which are due to overpopulation and the financial expansion, and the weak of public vehicles, have a poor effect on the environment such as air pollution, which happened on Sunday when commuter traffic is insignificant. Sorensen (2009) illustrated multiple reasons that make LA have traffic congestion such as 'Common misconceptions' and 'high local population denseness'. For example of common misconceptions, people in Los Angeles love autos' driving, which means the relationship between people and their autos is quite strong and described as love's relation. For example of 'high local population density' is drivers were not consider highways as a problem of traffic congestion. Sorensen said that high inhabitants plus some of the other factors that aforementioned may possibly also make the traffic jam worse.
Thisdell (1993) described that Los Angeles County vehicles committee said creates more highways for cars won't solve traffic congestion problems, with increasing volumes of people and vehicles. Also, traditional general public carry such as buses could be more effective in limited areas only. The committee suggested that 'Metro' system, which really is a complete job of public travel including underground railways, buses and producing motorways. It is clear that, the system has many advantages such as reducing time loss, increase output and lower pollution. However, the cost of making just the first part of Metro project was $1. 35 billion. In addition, there are a few threats to human being life such as, gas and earthquakes. Sorensen (2009) described about some brief strategies that can solve traffic problem in LA such as, stimulating people to use 'ride-sharing' and bicycles, enhance the system of managing the traffic light and make it more efficient, which can be inexpensive alternatives but quite effective and eco-friendly. The other solution is 'Maximum -hour road costs' which make people pay some money to operate a vehicle on specific highways at specific period of your day Downs (2004). This solution makes streets expensive and avoids traffic congestion at peak time.
Causes and Results:
The second cause that makes traffic congestion is insufficient planning of city highways. Corresponding to Mahmud et al. (2012), Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, is one of the very most densely populated cities in the whole world. The populace exceeded twelve million but still increasing daily; making the traffic jams a huge concern for Dhaka administration. According with their survey, multiple reasons cause this congestion such as, huge number of people are in the location and owned their vehicles and traffic guideline violation. In addition, the streets are narrow, lack of Planning of the city's roads and bad traffic signalling. It really is clear from the study that the city's streets are the most problems that creating traffic congestion. Because of traffic jam, there are extensive effects on the current economic climate, peoples' health and the surroundings. The financial impact represents as people shedding some working hours, cars used more petrol and vehicle maintenance cost. Furthermore, people in Dhaka are suffering from inconvenience, deep breathing and eyeball problems which induced by pollution. Additionally, environmental problems such as, air and reasonable pollution are intimidating people's lives. Dey et al, (2002) brought up that 86% of the overall people who reside in Dhaka considered noise pollution are a huge issue for them. For instance, a higher percentage of students said they studied in a noisy environment.
Many solutions considered for fixing Dhaka traffic congestion.
According to Mahmud et al. (2012) study, three different things to suppress traffic jam were mentioned as follows: the first point is considered residents viewpoint [number1], which including ideas such as, increasing people's recognition about traffic triggers and their impact on the environment. In addition to that, 16% of folks think that increasing public transport can be an important solution that can reduce the cost and time for them. As well as, scheduling different times to commence classes and government offices to avoid a traffic jam on the roads. The second point is vehicles' things to consider [figure2], which mean vehicle operators, could help to reduce traffic congestion. It really is clear from [physique2] that, 41% of operators considered making rigorous guidelines of the streets, that every driver should follow these rules, as a powerful solution to curb traffic jam. Moreover, 16% of the operators advised decentralization solution, which means distribute the primary offices and shopping centres far from city centre to avoid a huge traffic on the highway going there. The 3rd point takes professionals viewpoint, which were categorised into three parts. The first part is the short-term solution (5 years) that can reduce highways jam temporarily as increasing traffic light systems and raise the parking prices. The next part is the medium-term solution (5-10 years), such as bettering the railways and makes it more efficient. The 3rd part is the long-term solution (
Causes and Effects:
The third factor that causes of traffic congestion is inefficient and inadequate public transportation, mainly in Arab countries such as Iraq, Egypt, Jordan and Oman. Kaysi et al. (2011) noticed that, the populace of the previously mentioned countries increased swiftly during the last years. Furthermore, the majority of the aforementioned countries abundant with oil, so the price of gasoline and diesel gasoline is very cheap compared to Europe, which led to increase the numbers of private cars. On top of that, traffic congestion has increased significantly because of lack of general population transport and ignoring it by the government authorities. Besides that, some reasons added to increase traffic congestion such as, inefficient traffic management systems and inadequate public awareness. As a result of all previous reasons, environmentally friendly pollution (air and noises) was increasing, and a slight negative effect on the economy generally was happening. Another effect scheduled to traffic congestion is increasing in loss of life rates in the above-mentioned countries by 38. 1, 41. 6, 34. 2 and 21. 3 (per 100, 000 populace) respectively, which regarded as the highest in comparison to other countries in the world.
The Arab governments were considering diverse answers to reduce traffic congestion in their countries. Regarding to Kaysi et al. said, the government authorities understood that the public transport is the largest issue in their countries; so many countries lunched projects such as underground railways. As an example of these projects, the Egyptian government launched a fresh project that is designed to create an underground metro in Cairo decrease using older automobiles, which increase air pollution. Another example, In United Arab Emirates, exactly in Dubai city, the government established an metropolitan rail system that aspires to reduce automobiles' carbon emissions. Furthermore, due to increasing of air pollution, particularly polluting of the environment, a lot of the Arab governments turned from leaded gasoline to unleaded one. For instance, the aforementioned countries and Qatar, Tunisia and Bahrain are using unleaded gasoline currently. Whereas, few countries such as, Algeria and Iraq still using a dual system [body 3]. Furthermore, Arab governments began to control the import of second-hand vehicles that take in much gasoline or diesel and produce more carbon emissions. For instance, in Egypt, importing a second-hand car should be significantly less than 3 years old. As well as, in Jordan significantly less than five years old, while in Oman importing second-hand vehicle needs permission from the Ministry of Industry.
Causes and Results:
According to Hartgen et al. (2006) record, overpopulation and road capacity are the key factors behind traffic congestion in the United States of America, especially Florida Status. As an example, Florida has six urbanized areas that already have problems with the traffic jam, due to increase in population, peak-hour traffic amounts exceed road capacity and folks prefer private ability to move. Additionally, 'The Sunshine State' likely to add another 6. 4 million people in its urbanized areas by 2030. Therefore, traffic congestion becomes worse than currently, because of highway capacities aren't enough to simply accept increasing of vehicles. In addition, traffic congestion has many effects such as time reduction, higher petrol use, increasing of incidents and loss of productivity. In the same way, Beirut city in Lebanon gets the same problem (overpopulation) that causes traffic jam. Khaddaj (2012) mentioned that overpopulation and the high number of cars Beirut will be the most causes of traffic congestion. Also, Analysts at the North american College or university of Beirut (AUB) conducted an environmental research on polluting of the environment that caused by traffic in congestion. The analysis released on 25th of May 2012, the results show an enormous increase in air pollution level that will influence people health and the environment.
According to Schrank et al. (2011) article, which made a report on traffic congestion of several cities in america of America, pointed out that many alternatives would help to reduce traffic jams. For instance, using the general public transportation system (railways, buses) and increasing of existing bus routes. Furthermore, increasing the number of roads, bike lanes and make a fresh transit road can help to reduce traffic on the primary roads. The impact of considering the aforementioned solutions would be, conserving a significant volume of delay hours, and reducing the quantity of gasoline that used anticipated to traffic congestion. By moving to Beirut city in Lebanon, Khaddaj (2012) said, anticipated to overpopulation and increasing in polluting of the environment that afflicted on the green spaces in the town, the ministry of environment in Lebanon launched a fresh project called 'Greener Beirut' that goals to decrease the quantity of gas emissions and improve the inexperienced areas. This task is concentrating on increasing the number of parks in various areas in metropolis to increase the percentage of air levels in the town. In this project, Beirut government attempts to reduce the environmental impact of traffic congestion on citizen's health.
To summarize, traffic congestion is a global problem that lots of cities experiencing it. The main causes that increase traffic congestion are overpopulation, insufficient planning of city road, using private automobiles widely, street capacity and insufficient and inadequate general population transport. As a result of previous causes, an enormous impact on the surroundings, human health insurance and economy. For example of environmental impact, air and noise air pollution, which lead people experiencing heart diseases, asthma and lung cancer. Moreover, time damage, the car consumes more fuel and reduce output will be the popular impact on the current economic climate. Many solutions are considered to solve traffic problems. The best option solutions that some places designed are underground metro, using general public transport, broaden road's capacity, lowering import second-hand autos and improving of traffic light signaling. Each city created properly solution to reduce or suppress traffic jams.
From my understanding, the alternatives of traffic congestion are diverse from city to some other, depending on the city's infrastructure and the culture of the residents. Some alternatives such as metro system, which include underground railways, buses, and bicycles may well not success in growing countries that is suffering from overpopulation and people have own car as a culture. However, starting with public travel (buses) and motivating people to apply it rather than private vehicles could solve a part of the traffic problem, and changing steadily people thinking about using private autos every time.