Case Study Stanbic Loan provider Tanzania Essay

Stanbic Tanzania is one of users of the typical Bank Group. Idea of establishment of Standard Bank Group was helped bring by group of business men in 1857 anticipated to economic prosperity in Slot Elizabeth in South Africa, that was the major port and was used to the export of wool. The man behind the Idea was John Paterson who with fellow business men wanted to establish the typical bank of Slot Elizabeth. This notion did not work credited to concern with competition from the prevailing of the two bankers. Paterson sailed to England to find support of British isles Investors. Paterson's attempts were successful and in April 1860, a prospectus for The Standard Bank of English South Africa was published in London. In 1862 THE TYPICAL Bank of British South Africa was founded. On 15 Oct 1862 the lender was contained and authorized as a restricted responsibility company. Its capital was set at 1, 000, 000 with 10, 000 shares of 100 each. The Standard Bank of English South Africa operation commenced in 1863 and Dock Elizabeth remained to the Bank Mind Quarters. In 1883 the word British was dropped from the name.

In 1962 a subsidiary company was made to transport business in South and THE WEST Africa (now Namibia) under the bank's old name. The name Standard Bank or investment company Limited was used for the positioning company in England (subsequently to be Standard Chartered Bank or investment company plc). Standard Loan provider Group was established in 1969 as Standard Standard bank Investment Corporation - the holding company of SBSA. Standard Chartered sold its 39% stake in Standard Bank Group in 1987, moving complete possession of the retaining company to South Africa.

The Standard Bank group, based in Johannesburg, South Africa, has total resources of about US$81 billion and employs about 35 000 people worldwide. Its network spans 17 sub-Saharan countries (including South Africa) and reaches 21 countries on other continents, like the key financial centres of European countries, the United States and Asia. Furthermore to bank, Standard Standard bank has a proper interest in the insurance industry through its control of the Liberty Group, one of Africa's leading life offices and financial services groupings.

The group has one of the biggest single systems of bank services in Africa. Through this network we offer an array of banking products and services that happen to be shipped through more than 1 000 details of representation in 17 African countries (including Tanzania). We live effective in international and cross-border deals and in those areas liaise tightly with Standard Loan provider Corporate and Investment Bank and Standard Lender London.

We offer a variety of financial loans and services in the following markets:

Personal

We are committed to providing our customers with the security, convenience and affordability they expect from an international standard bank with African roots. So, we offer you a range of products and services that boosts your bank experience.

Business

We recognise that as a small business Bank customer you lead a active life. Through our extensive service offering we aim to simplify your financial orders which means you can spend additional time on your business and less time on your bank.

Corporate and Investment

Our corporate framework ensures that we're able to provide customized products and services to both established customers as well as newer, entrepreneurial companies. By focusing on personalised solutions and ongoing financial product development, we have been committed to delivering alternatives that support our clients'success where it matters most.

Stanbic Tanzania background

Stanbic Lender Tanzania was set up in 1995 by Standard Lender group to dominate functions of the defunct Meridien Biao Bank or investment company Tanzania limited. Stanbic Loan provider Tanzania is one of the people under the Standard Loan company group.

The bank has eight branches:

City branch in Dar ha sido Salaam

Main branch in Dar ha sido Salaam

Industrial branch in Dar es Salaam

Mayfair branch in Dar sera Salaam

Arusha branch in Arusha

Moshi branch in Moshi

Mwanza branch in Mwanza

Mbeya branch in Mbeya

Stanbic Centre branch in Dar es Salam

Vision and prices of Standard Standard bank group

Our vision

We desire to be considered a leading emerging marketplaces financial services company.

Stanbic bank key values

Serving our customers

Stanbic Bank aim to do everything in their power to ensure that their customers are given with the products, services and answers to suit their needs, provided that everything they actually for them is dependant on sound business guidelines.

Growing our people

Stanbic Bank encourages and helps their visitors to develop with their full probable, and measure their leaders about how well they expand and challenge the folks they lead.

Delivering to shareholders

The Standard bank realizes that they earn the right to exist by giving appropriate long-term comes back to their shareholders. The lender tries difficult to meet various goals and deliver on the commitments.

Being proactive

Standard Bank strives to remain ahead by anticipating somewhat than reacting, but their actions are always carefully considered.

Working in teams

The bank, and everything aspects of their work, is interdependent. The lender also appreciates that, as teams, they can perform much better things than as individuals. They value groups within and across sections, divisions and countries.

Guarding against arrogance

Bank has self confidence in its capacity to achieve ambitious goals and celebrate success, but it must never allow itself to be arrogant.

Respecting each other

Standard Bank staff gets the highest regard for the dignity of all people. They are doing respect one another and what Standard Lender stands for. The lender recognises that we now have corresponding obligations associated with our individual rights.

Upholding the best degrees of integrity

The bank's entire business model is dependant on trust and integrity as recognized by its stakeholders, especially their customers.

SWOT analysis

Stanbic strengths

Performance oriented (rewards) staff. Stanbic Loan company uses Performance index as a key to success. Staffs are rewarded predicated on their performance. It has built a culture which has encouraged the bank staff to deal more with corporate and business clients with big business.

Portfolio diversification

Competitive benefits on products made available from the bank. The Bank offer a variety of products which are more competitive compare to other lenders. Among other products includes, Capital and investment products, Assert and vehicle funding, Home loans, affordable agricultural loans with a warranty up to 70% of the acquired loan.

Networking with internationals hence get together customers' goals. Standard Loan company group operates in more than 37 countries worldwide hence form a large network with their customers. This implies customer can simply operated to some of Standard Bank or investment company group branch quickly.

Security system in the branches. THE LENDER has spent much on Technology especially on security hence provide insurance of customer property both financial and non financial

Wide selection of currency, because of its extensive network coverage the Bank operates with a variety of currency hence are more convenience to more of its customer compare to local Banking institutions in Tanzania

Weather index insurance in agricultural products. Recently Agriculture in Tanzania has become a top priority country agenda. Stanbic Bank or investment company Tanzania offer affordable loans with guaranteed to 70 percent to its customers. After that the lender has adopted Weather index insurance in connection with agricultural loans. This has seduced more customers to operate with Stanbic Loan company.

Weakness

Small branch network in Tanzania, -Currently Stanbic Tanzania has on 11 branches in Tanzania which in cases like this do not reach its customer in the majority of the parts.

Apart from small Branch systems, Stanbic Bank or investment company has been focusing more on corporate clients abandoning the retail customer occupying the big populations in Tanzania.

Opportunity

Branch network enlargement in other region

Retail banking

Competitive products not offered in other areas

Threats

Fraudulent as it not local as multinational organisation

Competition

Chapters 2 - Company structure

What is organisation?

Organisation is defined as group of individuals, large or small that cooperate under route of executive leadership in accomplishment of certain common aim (by Keith Devis). Louis described organisation as an activity of identifying and grouping the task performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority and establishing romance for the purpose of enabling visitors to work most effective together to accomplish the indented aim. Organisation can also be defined as form of any real human association for attainment of common purpose. From above definitions it is clear that any company have main four components namely task, people, structure and Technology. Process is the purpose of an organisation presence. Every organisation has specific goals to be achieved define its living by producing outputs in conditions of goods and services. Folks are the labor force or human part of the organisation that assist in carrying out different function in the organisation. To make sure that different task are well coordinated company must have composition which tells the essential arrangement of folks in the company. Technology is the intellectual and mechanised process used to transform inputs into products and services.

Definition and types of company structure

Mintzberg, ( 1979:2) described organisation framework as " the total ways in which it divides its labour into distinctive task and achieves the coordination included in this" Organisation structure is construction of procedures and rules within which lines of power, communication and protection under the law and duties of men and women are determined and assemble. Mintzberg further differentiated Organisation framework to be formal or casual. Roles, electric power and tasks are delegated, controlled and coordinated through the organisation structure. Organisation structure also can determine how communication is performed between levels of management. The sort of the organisation structure mostly depends upon goals and strategies placed by of the organisation to attain the objectives. In organisation with a centralized framework, the majority of the decisions are centered to the top management while in decentralised structures forces for decision making is sent out where departments have mixed amount of autonomy.

The organisation composition determine the methodology where it operates and its own performance. The Composition allows the duties for different functions and operations to be plainly allocated to different departments and employees. The composition also determines degree of resources usage, it also screens the activities of the organisation and organisation framework promotes the accountability for areas of work.

The erroneous company structure will impede the success of the company business. Organisational structures should try to maximize the efficiency and success of the Organisation. A highly effective organisational structure will help working connections between various sections of the organisation. It'll hold on to order and command line at the same time promoting versatility and creativity

The organizational structure is mainly inspired by internal factors such as size, product and skills of the labor force influence. The string of command word will lengthen and the spans of control will widen as the business enterprise of the company. The higher the amount of skill each worker gets the more the business will make use of the matrix structure to maximize these skills over the organization.

Burns and Stalker (1961) introduced the idea of two different types of composition i. e. The Mechanistic composition which is characterised by rigid divisions of activities, evidently defined functions and hierarchically organised authority and The Organic Structure which consists of more liquid and adaptable working agreements.

Organic

Mechanistic

Channels of Communication

Open with free information move throughout the organization

Operating styles

Allowed to alter freely

Authority for decisions

Based on the know-how of the individual

Free Adaptation

By the organization to changing circumstance

Emphasis on getting things done

unconstrained by formally laid down procedures

Loose casual control

with emphasis on norm of cooperation

Flexible on-job behaviour

permitted to be shaped by the requirement

Decision Making

participation and group consensus

Highly structured, limited information flow

Must be homogeneous and restricted

Based on formal brand management position

Reluctant Adaptation

Emphasis on officially laid down procedures

Tight control

Constrained on-job behaviour

Only superiors make decisions

Firms with Mechanistic structures follow centralised decision - making preparations, stringent enforcement of adherence to rules and techniques, rigid control over information content and flows, and carefully designed reporting interactions (Slevin and Covin, 1997). Organic composition on the other hands, demonstrates an organisation's focus on delegation, participation, imagination, openness and adaptability (Brouthers et al, 2000). Mechanistic buildings are preferable for analyzing services and processes and then for employing such entrepreneurial efforts, as ''concentrated power often helps prevent imaginative solutions of problems''. Alternatively Organic structures are enhancing the utilization of rational proper decision-making by giving the flexibility had a need to take advantages of market opportunities or minimize a competitive hazard. The pursuit of shareholders value by private businesses may be facilitated by the versatility afforded by Organic and natural structures. Hence it also shows the positive marriage between organic group constructions and private ownership

Mechanistic organization will offer a less appropriate environment for managing the creativity and the technology process. Alternatively organic and natural system is designed to solve problem in unpredictable conditions, when new and unfamiliar problems come up.

This entails the value of designing an efficient organisation structure which will be flexible and able to react to future requirements and development. The effective structure can conform changing environmental influences and also will have the ability to provide communal satisfaction for employees in the organisation. A poor organisational framework make good performance impossible no matter how good specific Professionals may be. Poor constructions are likely to have low motivation and morale to employees, poor and poor decisions, not affordable and they're likely not to quickly react to new opportunities. There are two specific main of general curiosity about when structuring the organisation i. e. the span of control and the string of order which have to be balanced in building the effective organisation structure although there is absolutely no a right combination effective to every company. .

Span of control

Mullins 2009 defines period of control as the number of subordinates who report directly to a given director or supervisor. V. A. Graicunas developed a numerical formula for course of control which show the restriction of range of subordinates that can effectively be supervised by way of a Manager. The number of subordinates is determined by total direct and cross relationships

R= n (2n/n+n-1)

Where n is the amount of subordinates and R is the number of interrelationships. Urwick reinforced the thought of Graicunas and recommended that span of control should not surpass 5 and at most six direct subordinates whose works interconnect. However from Woodward's study span of control varies from organisations depending on type of technology and production systems. Mullins further pointed other factor influencing the period of control includes:

Nature of the organisation, difficulty of work, range of obligations, similarity of function

Ability and personal features of the manager

Amount of your time manager is available to spend on subordinates

Ability and training of subordinates

Effectiveness of co-ordination & mother nature of communication

Physical located area of the organisation

Length of the command word chain

Importance of period of control

With wider period of control:

It is difficult to supervise subordinates effectively and could stress more the mangers

Planning and development, training and control may suffer

Wide span of control may limit opportunities to grow

Too wide span of control may lead to slowness to adapt to changes

On the other side with too narrow span of control

It can lead to problem of coordination and persistence in decision making and hinder effective communication over the organisation

Morale and initiative of subordinates may suffer from due to near an even of supervision

It boosts administrative costs

It can lead to additional degree of authority in the organisation creating unneeded long chain of command.

Chain of command

This identifies the amount of different levels in the structure of the organisation, the string, or the hierarchical demand. The string of demand establishes the vertical graduation of specialist and responsibility and construction for superior-subordinate romantic relationship. A clear line of authority and responsibility is necessary for the effective operations of the organisations. Few chains of command line can help decision making and fasten communication in the organisation.

Types of company structures

Tall organisation structures

A tall company structure has relative many degrees of management and supervision with long string of command word from the most notable to the bottom of the company. Tall framework normally do not exceed 8 degrees of management because range of levels decrease course of handles. The tall company structures have the following advantage

Span of control is thin where each administrator has few employees to supervise hence easy to regulate.

There is clear management structure

There is clear differentiation on function of every part hence clear type of responsibility and control

In the high organisation structure there is clear succession and advertising ladder.

However you can find some downside of the Large organisation structure

Freedom and duties for each staff is very restricted

There is poor decision making as agreement may be needed from each degree of authority.

Communication is gradual as it takes place through many degrees of management

Tall structure has high costs of management as managers for each level are paid more than their subordinates.

Flat organisation structure

On the other hand unlike tall company structure a flat organisation have relatively few tiers or may be just one layer of management. Which means that there is certainly shorter and vast course of control. Small organisations usually opt for flat company structure since it includes small number of management layers. Flat organisation structure there exists greater communication between Management and employees which impact better team heart which is less bureaucracy hence quick decision making. Level composition has less cost of Management anticipated to fewer level or levels of management. However among other constrain of toned organisation framework includes;

Employees may be handled by more than one manager hence worker may be mixed up on the reporting stations,

Organisation progress may be hindered with this type of structure,

Structure is limited to small organisations and therefore do unfit to big organisations

Function of every office or person could be distorted and amalgamate in to the job roles of others.

Hierarchical organisation structure

An organisation where employees are placed at various levels within the company is recognized as hierarchical, each level is one above the other. At each level in the sequence, one has a number of workers straight confirming to him/her, of their course of control. Under this type of structure there is a tall hierarchical organisation which includes many levels and a set hierarchical organisation will only have a few. The way authority is organized is a typical pyramid shape. A normal hierarchical structure evidently defines each employee's role within the organisation and defines the type of their romance with other employees. Hierarchical organisations tend to be tall with small spans of control, which gets wider even as move down the framework. They are often centralised with the main decisions being taken by older management.

In the twentieth century as organisations grow bigger, hierarchical organisations were popular because they could ensure demand and control of the organisation. However with the advancement of globalisation and wide-spread use of technology, in the 1990's extra tall hierarchical organisations commenced to downsize and reduce their labor force. Technology could carry out lots of the functions previously completed by humans.

The Hierarchical Organisations have the next main advantages

Authority and responsibilities are obviously defined

There is an obvious defined career progress of customers of the organisation

The hierarchical organisation structure create environment which favour effective use of specialist managers

The framework makes employees to be very loyal to their department within the company.

On the other hand hierarchical framework has disadvantages

This structure have a tendency to be bureaucratic and respond slowly to changing to be able to meet customers' needs and Market segments within which the organisation operates

Poor communication within the organisation specifically for horizontal communication

Poor decision making as it might only focus to individual team rather than the organisation all together.

Centralised and decentralised organisation structure

In a centralised company hq (or a few older professionals) will wthhold the major obligations and powers. Conversely decentralised organisations will pass on responsibility for specific decisions across various stores and lower level managers, including branches or systems located from head office/mind quarters. An example of a decentralised composition is Tesco the supermarket string. Each store of Tesco has a store supervisor who can make certain decisions involving their store. The store supervisor is sensible to a regional manager.

Organisations may also decide that a combination of centralisation and decentralisation is more effective. For example functions such as accounting and purchasing may be centralised to save costs. Whilst jobs such as recruitment may be decentralised as devices away from hq may have staffing needs specific only to them.

Certain organisations implement vertical decentralisation which means that they may have handed the power to make certain decisions, down the hierarchy of the company. Vertical decentralisation increases the input; people in the bottom of the company chart have in decision making.

Horizontal decentralisation spreads responsibility over the organisation. Among this is actually the execution of new technology over the whole business. This implementation will be the only responsibility of technology specialists

Senior managers enjoy greater control over the organisation.

The use of standardised methods can results in cost savings.

Decisions can be produced to gain the organisations all together. Whereas a choice made by a department supervisor may benefit their team, but disadvantage other departments.

The organisation can take advantage of the decision making of experienced mature managers.

In uncertain times the organisation will require strong command and draw in the same direction. It is assumed that strong command is often best given from above

Disadvantages

Senior managers have a chance to concentrate on the main decisions (as the other decisions can be performed by other folks down the organisation structure.

Decision making is a kind of empowerment. Empowerment can increase determination and therefore imply that staff output increases.

People reduce the chain have a greater understanding of the surroundings they work in and the folks (customers and colleagues) that they connect to. This knowledge skills and experience may enable those to make far better decisions than senior managers.

Empowerment will allow departments and their workers to respond faster to changes and new troubles. Whereas it may take senior managers much longer to appreciate that business needs have changed.

Empowerment helps it be easier for folks to simply accept and make successful of more responsibility.

(http://www. learnmanagement2. com/)

Matrix Company Structure

Matrix organization is an attempt to combine functional and clean project organizations to couple the strengths of both and lessen the negative. Matrix organisation structure is trusted in many establishments such as motor vehicle industry. Each employee is an associate of 2 different organizations

Advantages of matrix organisation structure

Project as a spot of emphasis - PM needs the duty for handling the project.

Project has acceptable usage of all required resources without having to maintain them - attracts from the useful reference pool as required

Less anxiety in what happens when the project is completed

Response to consumer is as fast as 100 % pure project

Project has access to the administrative models of the father or mother firm to keep up consistency w/ guidelines, routines and procedures

With several tasks in work, matrix offers an improved companywide balancing of resources

Matrix organizations span the extremes of the business range - from practical to pure project.

Disadvantages include:

Delicate balance of target of decision making vitality between Project Supervisor and useful manager

Multiple projects need to be supervised as a set in place to derive the benefits of a matrix organization

Strong matrix organizations have problems shutting down assignments similar to clean project organizations

Division of decision making obligations between Project Administrator (administrative decisions) and efficient supervisor (technological decisions) is complex rather than so clear for the operating Job Manager

Project people have at least two bosses, the efficient and the Task Manager. This can lead to distress and disorder.

Stanbic Bank Tanzania Company structure

Based on aforementioned types of organisation framework and their feature Stanbic Bank or investment company Tanzania has adapted flat organisation structure with wider course of control and few degrees of authority. In the Stanbic bank structure there is greater and quick communication between Management and employees which affect better team heart and it is less bureaucracy hence quick decision making. The framework has less cost of Management credited to fewer level or tiers of management. However Stanbic Bank organisation framework has a number of drawbacks such as employees may be managed by several manager hence employee may be puzzled on the reporting programs. This sort of structure may prevent organisation progress as the case we have seen with Stanbic Tanzania with only 11 branches countrywide compared to other loan provider like National Microfinance Loan provider with 138 branch and was proven 1997. function of every department in this type of organisation composition could be distorted and amalgamated into job of others. Chiseled organisation structure is normally limited to small organisation hence may well not be suitable for an easy growing with large network Bank or investment company worldwide like Standard Bank group where Stanbic bank is part of.

Recommended organisation structure

Chapter 3: Organisation culture and behaviour

3. 1 Company culture

Organisational culture is something of shared ideals and beliefs in what are essential, what behaviours work and about feelings and relationships internally and externally. Ideals and cultures have to be unique to the organisation, widely shared and reflected in daily practice and relevant to the company goal and strategy. But there is no sole best culture (http://www. cipd. co. uk/research/_visionandvalues). Alternatively Armstrong, (2007) described organisation culture as the style of values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions that may not have been portrayed but shape the ways in which people in organizations behave and things have finished. Other definition for company culture includes:

A pattern of basic assumptions - created, discovered or developed by a given group as it discovers to cope with the issues of external adaptation and inner integration - that spent some time working well enough to be looked at valid and, therefore, to be trained to new customers as the way in which to perceive, think and feel with regards to these problems. Schein (1985)

Culture is the commonly placed beliefs, attitudes and values which exist in an organization. Put more simply, culture is 'the way we do things around here' Furnham and Gunter (1993)

Culture is one particular conditions that is difficult to express definitely, but everyone understands it when they sense it. You can notify the culture of an organization by looking at the office set up of furniture, what they boast about, what employees wear, terminology used etc. similar from what you can use to get a sense about someone's personality

The concept of culture is especially important when wanting to manage organisation change. Most professionals and other experts have realised that, despite the best-laid down programs, organisational change will include not only changing set ups and strategies, but also changing of the organization culture as well.

Most of the books generated within the last decade about the idea of organizational culture especially when it comes to understanding how to change organizational culture. Organizational change efforts are discovered to fail most of the time. These failures have been related to lack of understanding about the strong role of culture and the role the it takes on in organizations. That has been one of the important reasons that many strategic planners currently place more focus on identifying strategic values as just how they do objective and perspective.

Successful organisations are characterised by strong worth and a solid guiding perspective that communicates what behavior is appropriate and what's not. If these prices are widely distributed across the organisation and are reflected in the every day actions of employees whatsoever levels, both individually and collectively, then there is a strong culture. (http://www. cipd. co. uk/research/_visionandvalues).

Definition of firm behaviour

Organization habit is the study and knowledge of individual and group behavior and habits of structure in order to help to improve company performance and success (Mullins, 2007). Organisation behaviour is concerned with analysis of behaviour of people within the organisation. Organisation behaviour entails understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour.

Armstrong (2009) identifies organisation behaviour as the analysis that describe how people respond in the organisation whether individually, or in group and how organisations function in terms of their structure.

Pugh (1971) also described organisation behavior as a report of composition, function and performance of company and behavior of specific and group within them.

On the other description adopted by Armstrong from Sorge and Warner (1997) identified organisation behaviour as interdisciplinary body of knowledge and field of research on how organisations, people behaviour and their main features and environment evolve and take place, why thing happen just how they are and for what purpose.

From above meaning organisation habit is constituted by activities, reactions and connections of men and women in the company. More regularly this is influenced or affected by different characteristics of men and women at work, how people are determined, how company function and the company culture (Armstrong, 2009).

In the study of the Organisation behavior Mullins (2009) described adequate understanding the following basic things

Behavior of people

The procedure for management

The organisation framework in which procedure for management takes place.

Organisation process and execution of work

Interaction with external environment which company is part.

From above explanation organisation behaviour is principally affected by individual, group and organisation as referred to below.

Individuals

Understanding individual behaviour helps to know how perceptions, personality and frame of mind influence work tendencies, desire and other work outcomes in terms of satisfaction, commitments and learning. Individuals can add their skills and, with appropriate support, though training' instruction and mentoring, can prolong their impact on the performance of the organisation. There can also see that folks can create discord if their needs and the demands of the organisation are incompatible with their own expectations

The group

Clear understanding of group interactions gives an perception of organisation troubles on command, communication style, teamwork and management, decision making, vitality and conflict controlling to Managers. Communities can include differing product or physical locations and within groups, there can also be a range of teams. Communities can have a major influence on behaviour and performance of specific members. They often times have their own set ups and functions, role connections and influences and pressure. A knowledge of group framework and behaviour complements knowledge of individual behaviour.

organisation itself

understanding and studying organisation- wide tendencies will assist to describe how organisation composition work, channels of communication and decision making, electricity relationship, how organisation adapt to change in case there is competitions, or social, cultural, political and technological changes. Here we make an effort to start to see the impact of the organisation structure and design and habits of the organisation management on patterns of men and women in the organisation. Mullins, (2009) summarize that behavior is afflicted by habits of the organisations framework, technology, control style, and management system.

External environment.

The environment where the organisation works will certainly be influenced by the national culture and the status of the overall economy. The environment influences the organisation through technical and technological development, monetary activity, social and cultural affects and governmental activities (Mullins, 2009)

Characteristics of organizational behaviour, Ivancevich et al (2008)

It is a way of considering individuals, communities and organizations.

It is multidisciplinary - it uses rules, models, theories and methods from other disciplines.

There is a distinctly humanistic orientation - people and their attitudes, perceptions, learning capacities, thoughts and goals are of major importance.

It is performance-orientated - it handles the factors impacting performance and exactly how it can be improved.

The use of scientific method is important in learning variables and relationships.

It is applications-orientated in the sense of being concerned with providing useful answers to questions which happen when handling organizations.

A innovator is one who can use his personal influence to gain the hearts and people mind to accomplish common purpose. Leaders provide strategic guidelines and Professionals are to implement the strategies. Market leaders are the people responsible to create Vision and Objective of the company. Mullins (2007) pointed out that "one of the key elements of the eyesight and mission is to integrate individual and company. The purpose for this is to ensure there is certainly working environment that permits the satisfaction of the individual to meet their need and attainment of the organisation goals. Relating to Mullins, there is excellent importance to focus on the leadership due to changing nature of work organisations. These changes include flatter organisation structures, identification of the productive use of human resources, coupled with advances in cultural democracy. He further emphasis on moving away use of tight control as mean of obtaining result from the labor force instead to give attention to looking at control.

Leadership is related to motivation, interpersonal behaviour and process of communication.

Chapter 5 Team working

Chapter 6 Resourcing, training and Development

Chapter 7 Communication skills, negotiation and influencing

Chapter 8 Performance and motivation

Chapter 9 Management systems and policies

Chapter 10 Management of change

Conclusion and Recommendation

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