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Carl Rogers Person Centred Theory Psychology Essay

This essay will contain home elevators the role and function of your counsellor and can explain and measure the key principles, phenomenology, existentialism, the seven phases of process and the six necessary and sufficient conditions for restorative change and show how they are important for a trainee counsellor. Aswell as considering locus of analysis, the organismic valuing process, a fully working person and the center conditions being set up in a counselling environment. All these in mind influencing the counselling practice of any person training in person centred counselling. All factors to be talked about are in every ways important for a trainee counsellor to review because they are all highly beneficial toward the knowledge and understanding needed before practising in person-centred counselling.

Person-centred counselling is a humanistic approach, founded by Carl Rogers to promote human psychological development. Desire to was to help people achieve a more gratifying and creative life for themselves. This approach was to help in a one-to-one romance that of a customer and of a counsellor and occasionally a group session. The role of the counsellor is usually to be understanding, and without the six necessary and sufficient conditions, mainly the three central conditions of empathy, congruence and unconditional positive respect, a counsellor can't be as understanding as they wish to think, towards a customer. As without interacting with things in their own life, in personal development or learning how to not judge someone for things they have done or the way they live their lives, how do they offer with the personal thoughts and emotions of a person that will be taken to a counselling program?

Lietaer (1984) as cited in Tursi and Cochran's (2006:388) article, said:

"A lot more I accept myself and am in a position to be present in an appropriate way with exactly what bubbles up in me, without dread or defence, the greater I can be receptive to everything that lives in my own client"

If such training has not been given then this may be more damaging toward a customer and perhaps the counsellor. An issue may happen with a client that may well be very close to home for the counsellor and when it has not in the past been handled, may become very difficult for the counsellor to attempt to deal with. In such circumstances there should of course be someone who could supervise or be there for advice. However, the result this might have on the counsellor if not handled in the correct manner could be damaging. Judgements are easy to make, if they are right or not is not relevant, as a counsellor should not judge. As an exercise counsellor, the journey is to help and guide the trainee to be non-judgemental, to acquire congruence and be empathic. These may establish difficult if the client brings something to the session that moves against everything the counsellor believes in but the unconditional positive regard and congruence mainly, should maintain place. If the counsellor locates this too difficult, recommendation is an option so long as the counsellor continues professional throughout.

As a counsellor, being self-aware permits the counsellor to most probably to the client's own experience, one feet in one foot out. Embracing the client's experiencing but ensuring not to be used entirely as this is actually the journey of your client not of the counsellor therefore. This assist's the client in shifting because they are feeling listened to as the counsellor is empathic toward them and experiencing in a single way, what it is that your client has experienced or is experiencing, in turn, providing the necessary conditions to assist the client on the journey. Knowing that they as a client are being been told goes quite a distance, as Frankland et al (1995) says that hearing a person's thought's is completely different to listening to that of a person's feelings.

As part of the British culture, back in the past, people have been trained that for example 'big children do not cry' or 'children have emerged not been told' and that there is a time and a location for thoughts of any kind to be indicated, therefore not publicly. This can cause difficulty for a person to hear another's feelings sincerely and respecting the emotions of another or on the other side it could be very hard to express these thoughts and feelings after being informed during childhood etc. that this was the wrong manner of interacting with the emotions.

The role and function of your counsellor is to reassure the client, assuring them that they are in a calm and safe place. In which a client is able to speak without being judged and is able to feel secure enough, to speak about their thoughts and emotions and the things that are going on in their life. Although this is an activity, and the first few periods are mainly about the building of trust between counsellor and consumer. Therefore it is very important that the client does not feel over-powered by the counsellor or that the counsellor does not abuse this vitality. Though it should be apparent sooner or later to the client that both client and counsellor are similar. Like a counsellor in person-centred counselling the misuse of power may appear, however as Merry (2002) says, a non-directive approach is important.

When following the BACP's recommendations and working out given as a trainee, the misuse of vitality should not take place. After the trust is set up, the counsellor can accomplish the correct environment for the client; they will have a better knowledge of. A counsellor also helps a client develop an interior locus of analysis, dissolving any conditions of worthy of placed upon the client and your client becomes more congruent with themselves. Building trust with a client that does not desire to be there may be greatly difficult and this is where the seven phases of process will come in.

The seven phases of process was hypothesised by Rogers as more of a guide for himself and other counsellors to see whether the customer was progressing or jammed at a collection stage and to assist getting a healing change for the client. However, for this process to achieve full potential, the six necessary and sufficient conditions must maintain place, along-side keeping the client's trust. The procedure of change can get started from the stages and your client does not automatically start from the first stage. For example a client may commence at level four but at some point go into stage two, because this is no linear process and every customer differs. However, after the client is a set stage they will build on activities before moving onto the next.

Fiedler in the 50's asked a variety of counsellor's what that they had considered the best parts for a restorative romance. Carl Rogers in 1957, developed from Fiedler's research and Roger's created the six necessary and sufficient conditions for restorative change. The three most significant factors of the six are that of unconditional positive regard, congruence and empathy. Wilkins (2003), says that it has never been asserted that these are 'the main conditions' but there have been many reports around these 'conditions' individually and jointly to observe how effective these are. As Sharf (2011) areas, research has shown that if the central conditions are set up this can bring therapeutic change. However, these as Wilkins (2003) clarifies, have never been tested, therefore the results are inconclusive. How do the amount of unconditional positive regard from a counsellor to a client be assessed or even analyzed?

Therapeutic change is openness to see as McLeod (2003) clarifies from a client generalising the globe to agreeing to it in time as personal experience. To take advantage of the therapeutic change your client must be ready to begin the journey of self-exploration, as if a customer were to come in at stage one it would be less likely that they might prepare yourself or benefit from the process. This is a process of assisting the client to experience and understand their own value as a person and with this your client becoming stronger using their self, slowly becoming nearer to a more interior locus of evaluation. Reaching this point is along your path for your client to aim to reach the self-actualisation.

Self-actualisation revolves around incongruence which is inconsistent with the experiencing process. Person-centred remedy can assist a customer to reconnect using their self-actualising propensity which have been thwarted in the past by conditions of well worth or inserting their own locus of analysis outside of themselves therefore burning off their interior valuing process. The actualising inclination, being related to the organismic valuing process, that was said by Rogers (1951) that there is a very important factor that aided the introduction of a person, which he called the actualising inclination. He goes on to convey that, in case a person was to have had all the love and support during years as a child, then they would have been given the right components to help that person to attain the actualising trend. Where-as somebody who was not given the love and support that was had a need to help nourish for the actualising tendency, would have problems with conditions of value.

Conditions of price are whatever we acquire as children as there's a strong have to be liked, then being advised the correct way's to act and think and sometimes feel which in turn causes people to place conditions that later in life we tend to look for in others or in activities and if the conditions do unfit that to which are believed to be acceptable, they can be denied altogether. These conditions of worth would then continue to become the need for positive regard, seeking to please others through what they believe to be the right way or right thing, somewhat than following the particular self wishes or needs. This dependence on positive regard make a difference the decision making and self confidence of any person due to the need to be loved or valued.

If one has had a crucial and judgemental upbringing or has been surrounded by critical and judgmental people, this might result in a person to search for acceptance and positive respect, this takes a person away from their organismic valuing process too, which creates a self-concept. This it-self can create a dependence on external government bodies for information or a need to please others, which then subsequently becomes incongruent to self. This has been referred to as locus of analysis. Locus of evaluation is what Merry (2002: 26) says is a "development of positive self-regardvulnerable to the evaluations of others" and with this in mind a person can become to not trust their own inner experiencing, therefore becoming exterior. To learn to become a fully operating person, the locus of evaluation needs to be found and exercised and this can be achieved through person centred counselling. However, a customer can choose to remain as working without feeling pressured to become a fully performing person.

The key concepts personally centred counselling will be the self applied and unconditional Positive regard. The importance of self is a drive inside every person to achieve full potential, attempting to better themselves i. e. self-actualisation. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the best way to describe a person's needs heading from the essential success needs of food and water all the way to the top of self-actualisation. The hierarchy meets quite perfectly into Roger's person-centred theory, which is focused on the self. A person who has been brought back down to the basic success needs through depression etc. , and without realising will go up through this chart and possibly sooner or later come back down through the levels as there is absolutely no limit in life to just how many times a person will continue up or down the chart. Now, a customer, being conscious of their own thoughts and personal experience scheduled to starting counselling, can little by little begin to build themselves back up to reaching the self-actualisation.

The actualising tendency was explained by Carl Roger's (1959), as summarised by Vincent (2005: 25) as "the inherent trend of the organism to build up all its capacities in ways which serve to keep or enhance the organism. "

In the counselling quest of the person, self-discovery and self-awareness become noticeable, by buying their own thoughts when using the 'I' declaration, and understanding their own needs and thoughts, this is called the self-concept. If a person has not reached the stage where they say that 'I feel' or 'I am' then this is a state of incongruence to the personal as in place of the 'I' declaration will be generalisations.

As stated by Nevid (2008:500) "Roger's assumed that the self is the centre of the human being experience".

McLeod, (2009) mentioned that the individual centred approach begins and ends with experience which is this that develops on the phenomenological techniques knowledge. Phenomenology is a person's personal experience and this is central to person centred counselling. McLeod (2009), also declares that the aim of phenomenology is to pick out the type and quality of personal experience whilst bracketing off assumptions, and therefore the counsellor will not apply their own assumptions or encounters into that of a clients. Phenomenology is utilized in some treatments to explore the client's experience of a negative time that they had or have, working alongside existential philosophy, exploring regions of problems in the here and today, giving the client the basic knowing that they control their own lives. Tudor et al (2006) expresses that Roger's was not teaching phenomenology or existentialism but the person-centred approach shares a few of the same values and assumptions of both of the techniques/ philosophies.

Carl Rogers assumed that if the right conditions were in place in a counselling setting up, a person could achieve self-actualisation. Although the core conditions cannot be proved due to the argument of if it could be assessed of how much unconditional positive regard etc. a person has been given, the theory over the years appears to have proven itself with the attractiveness of people learning the theory or becoming counsellors and people seeking out to be counselled or even delivered to see a counsellor. Which means role and function of the counsellor in person-centred counselling has been mentioned throughout, mentioning key factors like the seven stages of process, the six necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change and actualising inclination and exactly how these assist a person independently personal counselling journey. As all factors stated, are in some way or other from the person-centred theory all of them are vital for a trainee counsellor to be learning about them as well as how to use the skills such as empathy, congruence and unconditional positive respect, among others. The organismic self is of upmost importance in the humanistic approach anticipated to it being the central self so when this is jolted the locus of analysis is placed outside of the self, leading to incongruence to the do it yourself and the much longer this goes on for can it can become more damaging toward the client psychologically. That's where a client would then visit a counsellor or be sent to see a counsellor, then start the trip to learning to be a happier person, on the ladder to attaining self-actualisation.


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Lietaer, G. (1984). Unconditional positive respect: A controversial basic attitude in client-centred therapy. In Tursi, M. and Cochran, J. (2006). Journal of Counselling & Development. Street to redemption2006, Vol. 84 Concern 4, p388.

McLeod, J. (2009). An launch to counselling: Fourth Release. McGraw-Hill: Britain.

Merry, T. (2002). Learning and being in person-centred counselling. Second ed. PCCS Literature: Manchester.

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