Twenty or so years back in the 'old' world of work there is emphasis on the following: making a profession choice for a long-term career; concern with only 1 career theme; hierarchical progression (climbing the career ladder); developing a profession and job forever; loyalty to one company and employer; benefits and a pension in acceptance of commitment.
The 21st century world of work is completely different. With rapid improvements in technology and globalisation of the market and job marketplaces, there is an upsurge in competition. The global overall economy is focused on information technology and delivery of services. You can find continuous outsourcing of work, downsizing of companies and customising of careers. More folks are in momentary and part-time work and increasing statistics of people are self- applied. Generally in most occupations there is a tendency towards change, unpredictability, spontaneity, innovation and creative imagination and a demand for folks with social and intrapersonal skills.
Many occupations today can thus be explained in conditions of the next: doubt, unpredictability, insecurity, reduced likelihood of advertising, work intensification, increased likelihood of mobility out of your respective initial job, non-standard contracts, part-time work and self-employment In this particular context one needs to think of oneself as a 'profile of skills' (4-8 profession changes is going to be made in your daily life).
There is a frequent need to invest in maintaining employability, participating in life-long learning and boosting one's personal growth. Increasingly, individuals also need to take care of their own benefits such as pension techniques and medical products.
To be success in career development, we must continue steadily to have high adaptation. We have to be flexible, versatile and willing to get knowledge and find out new skills. Besides, as a key of success, we should be ready for lifelong learning - the capability to gain access to information and develop knowledge and improve new skills on a continuing basis. It is vital that you will be constantly searching for possibilities to build up yourself and your skills. There is a style toward multi-skilling: the acquisition of a variety of skills rather than just focusing on the skills where you were at first trained.
Continuous learning process is vital in job development. In career development, building up a very important network of contacts so that people have the ability to increase our network coverage in the foreseeable future. Besides, we must be prepared to perform responsibilities that may not be precisely what you desire to be doing, but that could pave the way for future development (develop transferable skills). On the other hand, don't be prepared to adhere to the same job for your entire life. It is advisable to move around when you can. Gain fresh activities. In fact, find yourself a mentor-someone whom you can count on to offer you feedback, encourage you and enable you to find opportunities to develop in your career. The last but not the least, learn to work effectively in a team.
Right from your first yr make a start on your career development. Profession development is not about planning just what you can do for your job from enough time you start studying to your day you leave; it's about exploiting every opportunity that you find to obtain new skills that may enhance your employability.
The profession development process is targeted at reaching self-knowledge and learning ways to become as marketable as you can in the current world of work. In order to be able to develop your job and make effective profession decisions you will need to activate in self-reflection and self-assessment every once in awhile in order to ascertain your present position and improvement. If you know yourself and also have insight into who you are, you will be better able to know where you could be going. This knowledge will provide someone to plan and develop your career journey effectively.
It is essential that you make certain you have the required skills and capabilities that happen to be needed in today's job market, especially in the light of the constant changes and trends in the various fields of work. Fast change in the use of technology itself creates a need for continual updating of your respective skills. Your educational qualification alone nowadays will not promise you a job.
These are any relevant skills that you have developed in one framework that may be used in another. The skill of organising, for example, is one particular transferable skill that employers look for. Perhaps you gained this skill through managing a camp for underprivileged children, which involved arranging a location, transportation, a caterer and a programme of events. Although you might not do a similar in another work framework, the skill of organizing something is one you may transfer.
General skills such as presenting and public speaking, time management, problem-solving and taking the initiative can be developed throughout your studies. Speak out in lessons, hand in projects on time, go beyond the particular lecturers require of you by learning to take the initiative and solve problems.
By taking part in activities outside of the lecture room, you will not only develop transferable skills but also find out about yourself. It is important to become involved as early as possible. Look for organisations such as night clubs, societies, teams, church groups, Peer Being able to help etc. that may give you the possibility to make a important contribution and learn and practise skills such as communication, leadership and teamwork.
By taking on many different jobs, you will learn about yourself. You'll get to know what you are you good at and what you love. Consider what excites you and why is you enthusiastic. Make a note of these activities as they might be the things around which you should build your career.
To summarize, the powerful business environment in this culture creates the demand for the employees to keep to learn. Career development is a continuing process to permit employees to stand out and support themselves in when the business enterprise undergoes digitalization, globalisation and differentiation.
2. Compare Holland's approach to work development with Roe's. Summarize the similarities and distinctions. (25 grades)
Osipow (1983) grouped John Holland's work under the trait approach to career development and Isaacson (1985) grouped it under the personality-based theories of job development. Career choice and job adjustment presents an extension of someone's personality. Holland suggested four working assumptions. Holland's assumption on the nature of the personality types includes people develop relatively permanent sets of actions or personalities that they seek to express through occupational selections. Besides, Holland assumed that folks project their views of themselves and of the work world onto occupational game titles. Assessment of these projections serves to recognize information about the occupational areas that could be most satisfying for an individual, as well as to illuminate relevant aspects of the individual's personality.
Holland's topology predicated on the several basic principle theories, first vocational choice can be an manifestation of personality. Vocational choice isn't just a reflection of specific aspects of
personality. This sort of choice expresses who the individual is as a complete. For example, it's important to consider their background, their belief of fact and their sociable context. Second rule is the interest inventories are inventories of personality. Vocational personal preferences are expressions of personality. Individuals selected an occupation based on their knowledge, their
personality and their aptitudes. Therefore, vocational choice is greater than simply using certain talents within a particular context. Additionally it is a lifestyle, a means to be. Vocational choice is the actualisation of personality all together. The next rule is Vocational stereotypes. A number of stereotypes are mounted on various professions. Understanding of professions differs according to years, experience and sociable status. Most psychometric assessments do not consider these different perceptions. Individuals could be inspired to avoid their vocational choice based on stereotypes that are more or less valid. It's important for a vocational choice to be made based on a realistic perception of varied professions. There are a few more process includes Members of any same profession reveal personality types and individual stories that are similar, similarities within a vocational group are likely involved in the creation of a specific work place and vocational satisfaction, its steadiness and its development are immediately attributed to the degree of congruence between your individual's personality and the office environment
However, there are two major tenets in Ann Roe's Theory. First, Freud's psychodynamic preposition that targets youth experience, where what happens before affects today's. Second, The Maslow's need theory concentrate on the influences of need to occupational choice, where people look for several jobs that will assist these to fulfil their certain needs. The incorporation of theory in predicting one's occupation will be explained by using Roe's Round Model.
In term of conclusions, Holland found that there are six basic types of work surroundings in U. S. population; RIASEC. There are six matching modal personal orientations; what sort of person typically responds to environmental demands; RIASEC. People achieve the most work satisfaction when their work environment matches their modal personal orientation.
R / REALISTIC
Realistic people are doers. They are simply independent, stable, consistent, genuine, practical and thrifty. They prefer to cope with things rather than ideas or people. These are no-nonsense, matter-of-fact, right down to globe individuals. They master tasks that are tactile, motoric, physical, athletic or mechanised. They value things that are natural, concrete and tangible. They like the outdoors, tools, machines, pets and working with their hands. (Farmer, Carpenter, Naturalist, Sportsman, Police Officer, Government Staff, Forester, Landscaper, Auto mechanic, Sculptor, Vet, Chef, Surgeon, Plumber, Electrician, Pilot, Fire Fighter, Repairer, Animal Breeder, Creature Trainer, Steelworker, Miner)
I / INVESTIGATIVE
Investigative people are thinkers. They are intellectual, introspective, introverted and inquisitive. They are really curious, methodical, rational, analytical and precise. They master responsibilities that are scholarly, abstract, scientific, medical or specialized. They enjoy activities that involve thought, observation, exploration, exploration, finding and exploration. They are simply avid visitors. They prefer to solve puzzles, perform experiments and take part in research. (Biologist, Chemist, Anthropologist, Sociologist, Historian, Scientist, PHYSICIAN, Botanist, Meteorologist, Astronomer, Environmental Analyst, Pharmacist, Optometrist, Dentist, Engineer, Economist, Dietitian, Psychiatrist, Nurse, Coroner, Laboratory Technician)
A / ARTISTIC
Artistic people are creators. They are really intuitive, delicate, articulate, expressive and creative. They can be unstructured, original and nonconforming. They rely on emotions and creativity. They prefer to use abstractions, ideas, principles and ambiguities. They are simply psychological, spontaneous and open-minded. They master tasks that are literary, verbal, visual and cosmetic. They like art, music, dance, pulling, painting, sculpting, drafting, drama, writing, marketing communications, design and fashion. (Performer, Article writer, Dancer, Interior Developer, Painter, Actor, Duplicate Writer, Playwright, Musician, Composer, Poet, Clothing Creator, Architect, Sketch Artist, Illustrator, Graphic Designer, Printmaker, Cartoonist, Comedian, Choreographer, Photographer)
S / SOCIAL
Social people are helpers. They are simply kind, large, cooperative, patient, nurturing, helpful, empathetic, tactful and friendly. They master socializing, aiding others and coaching. They like tasks that involve teamwork, social conversation, building relationships, and the improvement of population. They enjoy activities that are general population, humanitarian, developmental, educational, philanthropic, altruistic, social and service focused. (Instructor, Counselor, Social Staff member, Therapist, Nurse, Attention Giver, Psychologist, Minister, Priest, Rabbi, Recruiter, Interviewer, Child Good care Staff member, Home Economist, Arbitrator, Facilitator, Sociologist, Bartender, Homemaker)
E / ENTERPRISING
Enterprising people are market leaders. They are ambitious, ambitious, assertive, extroverted, lively, enthusiastic, self-confident and optimistic. They are really dominant, persuasive and motivational. They are really promoters. They generally have a contagious or charismatic personality. They excel at business, management, economics, politics, presenting and public speaking and salesmanship. Being ambitious and willing to take risks, they have got an entrepreneurial nature. They like influencing others by guiding, pushing, directing, preaching, rivalling or debating. (Politician, Attorney, Preacher, Trainer, Salesperson, Manager, PR Specialist, Promoter, Event Planner, Trainer, Instructor, Advisor, Supervisor, Entertainer, Newscaster, Director, Lobbyist, Buyer, Administrator)
C / CONVENTIONAL
Conventional people are organizers. They are really conscientious and traditional. They are reasonable, useful, orderly and sorted out. They are thorough and detail oriented. These are reliable. They enjoy practical tasks, quantitative measurements, standard environments and organised situations. They like to work with data and volumes. They like process, types of procedures, regulations, specifications, and guidelines. They excel at accounting, computer abilities, and clerical skills. They like mathematics, office adjustments and statistical tasks. (Accountant, Secretary, Banker, Teller, Collector, Bookkeeper, Computer Programmer, Inspector, Auditor, Mathematician, Statistician, Financial Analyst, Data Processor, Scheduler, Filer, Typist, Duty Preparer, Bank account Analyst, Budget Clerk)
However, in term of Ann Roe's Theory, Anne Roe advised that there are 6 occupational level within the 8 domains of profession.
Have indie responsibility in important aspect, they may be involve in the making of pilicy in an organauzation
Possessed master's level or doctor of philisophy
Have medium level responsibility, for self and others; e. g. plan interpretation
Possessed bachelor's degree
Have low level responsibility for others; application of insurance policy, or determination for do it yourself only Possessed diploma
Responsibilities are less autonomy and less initiative permitted
Possessed a certificates
Responsibilities are less autonomy and less effort permitted
Need informal practices
Responsibilities are less autonomy and less initiative are permitted
Do not need specific educational qualification
The 6 degrees of performance in Roe's occupational classification system derive from:
Responsibility in the label of work
Capacity and skills required for the amount of work
Complexity of decision making in the amount of work
The higher the level, the more responsibility, more skills are needed, complexity of decision making will increase (Roe & Klos, 1972)
Figure 1: Basic Comparison of Ann Roe's Model and Holland Model
Holland Theory Model
Another difference between the models was demonstrated on the basic principle.
According to Ann Roe's work can meet needs in different ways. The Occupational communities includes:
Service (something for someone else);
Business contact (offering and supplying services);
Organisation (management in business, industry and government);
Technology (product maintenance, transportation of goods & resources);
Outdoors (cultivating, preserving & gathering natural resources);
Science (scientific theory and its software);
General culture (protecting and transmitting cultural heritage) &
Arts and Entertainment (creative skill and entertainment).
However, Holland targets four key concepts:
Congruence: compatibility between personality type & environment
Consistency: similarity among types/ environments
Differentiation: degree to which a person/ environment is plainly defined
Identity: amount to which a person has a clear self applied belief of his/her characteristics and gaols, also to the amount of stability which an occupational environment provides.
3. Each pupil will choose one professional article on career development to critique. Your critique should contain four portions: a) title, b) short overview of the content, c)your point of view/critique of this article, including talents and weaknesses, d) your recommendations for further research by analysts in the field. (25 marks)
A Systemic Approach to Career Development at McDonald's
b) Short synopsis of the content
High-engagement procedure is applied by Mc Donald's in USA to boost both their operations command pipeline and staff satisfaction with the career growth. This process is set up by the very best management. However, the strategies are backed by middle-management employees. In this article, the authors has recognized the way used embodies McDonald's ethnic values of collaboration, cooperation, and openness, and effectively ensured a critical mass of over 100 field officials and 3, 000 middle professionals embraced the change.
c) Your impression/critique of this article, including strengths and weaknesses
d) Your recommendations for further research by analysts in the field
This research article is based on qualitative research method. Case study methodology is utilized in the research is an individual case approach. Case studies can be either a single-case design or a multiple-case design. Relating to Yin (1994), a single-case design is well suited for studying unique or acute cases, to verify or struggle a theory or for situations where the researcher didn't have access to before. However, the researcher should take care not to misrepresent what was observed.
The following are some types of data collection techniques used in this case studies (Stake, 1995 and Yin, 1994). The interview is applied in this research. Researcher has interview the very best management and middle management at McDonald. The interview can be an important way of data collection and there are two kinds of interview are applied in the study, closed or organized Interviews and open-ended Interviews. Open-ended interviews allow content to express themselves more openly and insight into happenings.
Besides, observations techniques are used to review the frame of mind and behavior of the management and their employees. This direct observation of the employees on satisfaction towards command was applied.
The researcher used letters, memos, agendas, administrative documents, magazine articles and other relevant documents to analyse the operation management pipeline. Documents are useful to make inferences about situations. Documents are communications between folks in the analysis.
The writer has successfully identity the study space in the journal. The first reason was there are no other studies which may have used systemic way in career development especially in fast food industry. Besides, the objective of this research is rather direct that to review how high-engagement approach to improve both procedure authority pipeline and staff satisfaction.
To enhance the writing up because of this journal, publisher can consider providing a little paragraph to indicate the construct or operation definition for culture brief and cultural support. Reader could have a clearer picture how the construct does by providing the operational definition.
The writer has given a definite and depth debate in the way employed by McDonald to career development. The area of talk includes talent management essential, task force chartered, open, important dialogue across solos, getting broader command type and support, this content of the change: a systemic approach. The author backed the discourse with the various previous studies.
In the previous session of this journal, the author has determined the limitation of the studies and future guidelines. Personally i think the discourse on the limitation is not completely considered. Even the research design of cohort studies was brought up, however the numerous kinds of bias was dismissed. The restriction of specifying and selecting review sample, non-response, volunteer bias, bogus control bias should be mentioned. Besides, the writer should take care of limitation in measuring subjection and outcome. Obsequiousness bias, expectation bias and mistakes that could appear during documenting the transcribing data should be totally discuss within the last session.
However, the writer has given an extremely clear future path for other researcher to check out in order to contribute to the data gap. More researches should be conducted in the region of profession development in systemic procedure so that a strong fundamental will be provided to aid the theory in this field.
In my estimation, a quantitative analysis should be used to study the partnership between command and the employees' satisfaction. Besides, the mix sectional studies should be conducted to check out various area in job development of the staffs including expertise management, training, career planning and others.
As bottom line, this journal article offers a good fundamental background for the audience to understand the idea of systemic methodology and profession development. By understand the concept of systemic procedure and career development, involvement program can be carried out to help employees to develop a secure job planning in the company.
4. Apply a career development theory to your own career development. Using Super's developmental levels, identify your current stage of development and the age range of which you accomplished other phases. (25 grades)
I would apply Holand way in my career development. This process gives explicit attention to behavioral style or personality types as the major impact in job choice development. This is referred to as structurally interactive.
Family affects, to a certain degree, the development of personality types. For instance, my parents promotes investigative abilities, could favour the development of an investigative type personality. Parents pass on some hereditary characteristics that can impact the introduction of certain personality types. Since my parents are from medical field, I got strongly influenced by them. Also, the family product is a member of a certain public context. This cultural context can also participate in the development of certain personality traits
According to Holand, there are 6 types of personality characteristics.
Realistic - work with hands, machines, tools, effective, practical, adventurous
Prefer concrete occupations (e. g. : carpentry) that are relatively solitary and do need a lot of connection with people
Their range of passions is relatively constrained. They limit their relations and seek people who reveal the same beliefs, interests and values as they do
Values and job objectives
Possess traditional prices and prefer to work within an institutional setting
Have many ambitions and start to see the practical part of things
Rather close minded as it pertains to changing their perception system or their values
Investigative - thought, analytical strategies, explore, knowledge, ideas, not social
Prefer activities that want observation, systematic exploration of natural, biological, ethnical, medical or technical phenomenons
They seek to comprehend and control what's happening
This type will not make investments much in communal or interpersonal activities
Values and profession objectives
Their values influence them to seek academics activities where they can feel a sense of autonomy and personal independence
They are intellectuals who like reasoning and can be ambitious. Their belief system is open
However, family, security and companionship are prices that are less important to them
Artistic - literary, musical, creative activities, emotional, creative, open
Prefer imaginative activities and prevent classic type activities
Like to socialise with people who have similar beliefs and opinion systems as they actually, and avoid people who do not
Values and profession objectives
Believe aesthetics are incredibly important. They have got an expressive, courageous and imaginative personality
Avoid conformity and servility
Belief system is very open - open to new ideas and also to the emotions of others
Social - teach, inform, educate, help, supportive, avoid complex skills, empathy, relationships
Prefer occupations with cultural requirements
Avoid more natural type activities
Associate with people who promote similar worth and values as they do
Values and job objectives
Like to provide others in a medical, institutional or community setting
Want to help and believe in equal opportunities
Are not drawn to the world of ideas or logic
Find spiritual prices important
Enterprising - verbally skilled, persuasive, immediate, leader, dominant
Prefer activities that put their business skills to work
Like to develop in the business world
Avoid activities that want research or investigative work. Prefer to be with people who discuss similar ideals and beliefs as they do
Values and career objectives
They have a normal perception and value system
Strive to be market leaders and manage others
They are very ambitious
They take pride in their physical appearance and try to climb the social ladder
Conventional - rules and routines, provide order or immediate structure, great self control, respect electric power and status, punctual, orderly
Most Masculine Types -- R & E Most Prestigious Types -- I & E
Most Female Types -- A & S A minimum of Prestigious Types --R & C
From my account, I found i participate in IRS. Hence, it symbolizes the profession I am doing now as a medical specialist.
Vocational development is the procedure of producing and implementing a self-concept. As the self-concept becomes more sensible and secure, so does vocational choice and patterns. People choose occupations that allow them expressing their self-concepts. Work satisfaction is related to the amount that they are able to execute their self-concepts. Profession maturity includes readiness to cope with developmental jobs at confirmed stage. It is both affective and cognitive. Most job education programs have been affected by Super's ideas. They offer gradual exposure to self-concepts and work ideas in curriculum that represents Super's ideas of job development/vocational maturity. (National Career Development Guideline Standards)
I am presently at establishment level. (25 - 40 season old). In this age group, the major tasks are to find secure niche market in one's field and progress within it. I've found my everlasting and appropriate field of work when working and building my work in neuro-scientific medical. Besides, I've widened my field of working in the area of business, consultancy and training.
These years are believed to be the most fruitful and creative many years of the life span. I am able to work with more than 24 hours without sleep to complete a task. The energetic during this stage motivates us to work under stress and pressure.
Not only that, in this trial and stabilization level, I have gone through the procedure of settling down, if unsatisfactory may make 1-2 more changes before the right job is found. I have already been aiming to work in various environment including private and administration sectors. After trying various working environment, I learn a few concept and didn't work for any organisation and work for my own. I believe a concept that, if working in an organisation, the utmost they are able to pay me is RM 10 000. However, if I work for several organisation, I am very sure it might be more than working singularly in one organisatiom. It really is proven given that I have multiple income.
During this level I begin to support myself and my children. I must commence to buy my own stuff like properties, car and investment in share markets. I start to understand the tangible possessions and intangible resources. Each one of these development enable me to appreciate the real idea of self dependency. Besides, I commence to develop a lifestyle, utilize their talents and earlier training. I also begin to become involved in meaningful passions.
It further to advancement where in fact the efforts fond of obtaining one's position, acquiring seniority, growing skills, demonstrating superior performance, continue building actions. I have attempted to development myself by participating various conferences, writing various publications articles to be published in order to establish myself in my own profession. Besides, I begin to write in a variety of magazines and books to create my personal branding in the company. After many years of hard work, my name can be googled which is popular among bloggers internationally.
In addition, I get started to be more centered on my place in their profession. Job name, remuneration has become my main focus on all tasks in my career. Not only that, I learn to become interested in might work security and improvement. I create my own company and ensure the business gets the fix income and passive income to support my expenditures. Besides, before investing further, I would ensure my budgeting is performed completely so that I would run into financial meltdown. Hence, I likewise have the expectation that they will become financially stable and move towards challenging degrees of responsibility and independence. Sometimes, this level could become very irritating if progress is not forth coming
In short, in this level I realise i become steady in a chosen profession, consolidating chosen job and continue with my progress. All these inline with the Super theory that the level of development and the age groups within my current years.