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Cadbury History And Important Trends Marketing Essay

The name of Cadbury in the domains of chocolates was initially established in the year 1824, when John Cadbury exposed a store in Birmingham, London, retailing freshly made cocoa and drinking chocolate. Seeing the heavy demand and success of his shop, John Cadbury set up a manufacturing plant to commercially produce his offerings.

In 1861, sons of John Cadbury - Richard and George Cadbury - took over the control of the company and also to save Cadbury from shutting down, invested all their money into a 'cocoa press'. It offered a competent processing technique, lowering wastage and eliminating use of additives, in so doing making the product 'Absolutely Pure' (Cadbury promoted it such as this).

In the old age, Cadbury realized that a lot of cocoa butter is left after finalizing cocoa and if it's combined with milk; dairy chocolates can be made out of it. So, in 1905, Cadbury launched the 'Dairy products Milk' for the first time, which became one of the major chocolates to be sold and consumed throughout the world. Within the same calendar year, Cadbury commissioned its first company logo and went in advance on the lines of so that it is a brand to continue for long.

First Cadbury logo design commissioned.

A smooth and outreaching success of Cadbury received a heavy blow during the Second World War. Rationing was imposed and the manufacturers were prohibited from using fresh milk. Cadbury finally resorted to dried out skimmed milk powder and promoted the merchandise as 'Ration Delicious chocolate'.

Cadbury's Ration Chocolates.

So concerning expand its operations far away, on 19th July, 1948, Cadbury entered India as a private limited company as 'Cadbury-Fry (India) Private Limited'. Together with the years, they began setting up developing facilities in the country too.

Company felt the necessity to cut costs while keeping quality. It decided to source the dairy and cocoa from India only and eventually undertook the job for development of cocoa and milk in India. This included creating a particular advisory panel, research centres and tying up with Induri Plantation Ltd. , for betterment of cattle mating for better milk yield.

Seeing the growing demand for chocolates in India, Cadbury recognized the market potential here. They changed themselves into a open public limited company on 7th June, 1977 - Cadbury India Pvt. Ltd.

And then in 1984, Cadbury launched its renowned brand - Dairy Milk in India. Little do they know at that time that product will become the flag bearer of the business in India.

Besides chocolates and cocoa, the business also attempted its hands on other products like food drinks, ice-creams, confectionaries, apple drink and even exporting software. The business unveiled a high-protein food drink 'Enriche' in 1988. A yr later, they created 'Dollops' snow cream in proper alliance with Unilever.

Cadbury India extended its offerings to Five-Star, Benefit, Crackle, Gems, Bourneville, Temptations, Nutties, etc and presently has 70. 07% of the chocolate market show in the united states with Nestle India second in the lead. Out of the around 30% is captured by Cadbury's Dairy Dairy alone.

Mergers and Acquisitions

J. S. Fry and Sons Ltd.

In 1919, Cadbury merged with Frys, the manufacturers of the first chocolate bar. They merged together to create the British Cocoa and Chocolate Company and became the manufacturers of popular chocolates brands like Countlines (popular in US and Canada), Crunchie, Fudge and Picnic.


Cadbury proceeded to go for a merger with the drinks large - Schweppes. This led to the formation of Cadbury Schweppes in 1969.

This merged company continued to acquire top brands like Canada Dry, Snapple, Royal Crown, etc, to increase its world market share in refreshments.

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In 2003, Cadbury Schweppes overran the world's second most significant gum maker, Adams and became the entire world leader in confectioneries.

Due to such a wide scale of businesses, it became difficult to manage all the verticals under one umbrella. Therefore the company decided to split into two - one focusing on the chocolates and confectioneries while other on the refreshments business. This led to the demerger of the firms in 2007 to create 'Dr Pepper Snapple Group' to handle the beverages business.

Kraft Foods Inc.

In January, 2010, Kraft Foods Inc had taken over Cadbury for 11. 5 billion and became the global confectionery leader.

But due to whole lot of offerings by Kraft Foods it got put into two and Cadbury came up under the newly shaped company - Mondelez International.

Consumer Behaviour

The consumer behaviour of the world inhabitants towards chocolates and confectionaries has seen a drastic change over time. Initially, chocolates were very costly and selective that only the high-ups of the culture could afford to take it. These were more of an extravagance and in Britain; chocolate boxes were gifted only on very special events. But today, from a delicacy, chocolates have become an 'every day nice'. Cadbury identifies it and endorses this perception by its 'Aaj meethe me kya hai' campaigns, forming a graphic that Cadbury is for everyone, everyday.

Also they may have made the Cadbury chocolates, especially Dairy Dairy, synonymous with the term 'meetha' or sweet. They know how Indians have a special teeth and the youngsters is leaving the traditional sweets. To capture the forex market opportunity, they pushed strongly for campaigns like 'Kuch meetha ho jaye' and offered festive packs like 'Activities' to displace the traditional Indian sweets.

Some other significant decisions used by the business regarding changing consumer behavior:

In 1987, Cadbury launched 'Wildlife Bar' chocolate. On the market of every bar of it, the business contributed a portion to the wildlife fund. The business marketed itself as an environmentally-aware company, and people could relate to the reason and supported the business.

With the idea of capturing the maximum of India Inc. , Cadbury also came into the confectionery business by starting a sugar candy - Googly. Such candies were easy to create in volume, convenient to disperse. Also, these were lowly priced and could be used by the all the sections of the Indian culture, who either didn't have a taste for chocolates or couldn't manage it.

To bring the chocolates and food drinks within the budget of the huge middle-class inhabitants of India, Cadbury travelled for LUP (Low Product Packs) by launching chocolates in small grammages. The youngsters acquired more affinity to chocolates and colas and wanted to be a part of the new fads. Cadbury made it simpler for the coffee lover by the LPU offerings and was quite effective in taking advantage of this changing consumer behaviour.

Not only the youngsters, the business also targeted the adults especially moms by presenting its famous food drink 'Bournvita' in sachets. Because of this, in the wake of evolved consumer behaviour, where moms preferred health-drinks for their children, Cadbury easily moved into the homes of even middle income individuals, who couldn't afford large packages at a time.

Over the years, the consumers have become more health and quality conscious and the firms can't be informal about such stricter consumer behaviour. A classic circumstance when Cadbury erred was the 'Worms controversy'. A batch of Dairy products Dairy chocolate was infested with worms. It lead to an enormous controversy. People lost their trust in a quality mindful company like Cadbury and the consequences were noisy and clear-Cadbury's Diwali time sales of products decreased by a whopping 30%.

The company bounced back by releasing 'Procedure Vishwas'. They recalled all defective chocolate batches and even introduced double and plastic based presentation to ensure safe practices. In addition they roped in a reliable and trusted role model - Amitabh Bachchan to invoke the lost trust of the people in the brand.

Eventually, Cadbury was successful and is also the market head in the country.


The Emami Group came into existence when two ex-Birla Group professionals - Radhe Shyam Agarwal and Radhe Shyam Goenka, resigned from their jobs in 1974 to establish an ayurvedic medication and cosmetic manufacturing facility in Kolkata. They known as the company Kemco Chemicals.

The founders acquired a strong idea that India being the land of Ayurveda, people here still got faith in the traditional medicinal system. Of course, if it can be complemented with latest making techniques, it's rather a huge commercial success. They made a risky decision of establishing their first stock in a hypersensitive area like Kolkata, where labour unrest, strikes and even conditions of assault were common. But later, all ended up being well.

Realizing the size and potential the Indian middle class possessed, Emami targeted them primarily and began with a paltry sum of Rs 20, 000. The circulation of the merchandise under the Emami brand was initiated in Western Bengal where the founders visited markets and sellers to market their products. Due to the superior quality and competitive costing of the products, when compared with other multinational products, the market and consumers easily accepted Emami. Slowly and gradually but steadily, work were put in to grow the circulation network in other eastern says. Soon, Emami proceeded to go pan-India, where too it replicated its success as a trusted, reliable and traditional-yet modern brand.

The container of Emami products in the 1970s included standard and daily use products like Emami Talcum Powder, Vanishing Cream and Chilly Cream. These were primarily targeted at the fairer sex and were supported by strong marketing promotions on radio and post-1982 on Television set too.

Emami was successful when in 1978 it came across an chance to take over a dying yet credible company Himani Small. The company was well known in eastern India for quite some time but credited to poor functions and thin income was on the verge of closing down. Emami in those days took a striking decision of acquiring Himani and by capitalizing on it brand collateral and factory device, change both Himani and Emami into a more substantial and more lucrative company.

After six many years of acquiring Himani, Emami arrived with two revolutionary products under the ambit of Himani only - Boroplus Antiseptic Cream and Boroplus Prickly Warmth Powder. They were introduced to focus on the change in consumer action. People were needs to become more conscious about their choices and wanted specialized products. Previously they used to go for any cream or any talcum powder. But Emami understood that they had to produce and market professional products like antiseptic lotions for minor slashes and bruises and prickly warmth powders for India's scorching summers, to focus on changing consumer needs, in order to assure their sustenance in the foreseeable future. Riding high on the success of brand Boroplus, the business launched it in Nepal, Ukraine and Russia. There also the products were a great success.

The ten years of 90s was very important and essential for Emami. They launched an ayurvedic cool engine oil under the Himani brand - Navratna Cool Essential oil. The petrol was a runaway success and such was the demand of the merchandise that Emami were required to expand businesses and setup another manufacturing unit in Pondicherry. Right up until date, Navratna petrol is the earth leader among cool oils. It had been developed keeping in mind the changing patterns and standards of living of the consumers. Lives became more demanding and hectic. People were losing on the health and fitness quotient and illness crept in. Keeping alive the custom of massage therapy, Emami developed this cool oil never to only cool-down a person but also alleviate him of stress, headaches, high temperature and insomnia. Individuals connected with the product and became aware its effectiveness in their lives. Availability of the oil in low unit packs further come to out to the rural people. Eventually, Navratna petrol found acceptability in all economic sections of the society because of its USP.

The establishing of the second manufacturing facility in Pondicherry provided two-pronged profit to the company. Not merely it catered to the heavy requirements of Navratna Oil but also opened up the market segments of southern India for Emami lead by Navratna Oil.

Not only powders and oils, Emami increased its offering to chywanprash, head of hair dyes and pain-relief ointments. To further increase to its collection, Emami purchased close rival Zandu and re-launched its products including balms and health foods.

But this year 2010, Emami got to face a failure in acquiring a tough competition like Paras Pharmaceuticals. Paras got a parallel portfolio to Emami and included top brands like - Moov, Krack, DermiCool, Livon, SetWet, Zatak, etc. If purchased, Emami would have turn into a major market player in the FMCG sector. But its bid fell brief and Paras was eventually bought by Reckitt Benckiser (RB). Emami now could be in talks with RB to obtain Paras.

A classic example of Emami changing with times is the launching of 'Good and Handsome', a fairness cream for men. Emami known that Indian men no longer want that dark skin tone and long for a fairer skin, a perception popular amongst the females. So, they launched a particular product particularly for men's difficult skin.

Since its inception, Emami realized that its USP is ayurvedic compositions and it must maintain it. Ayurveda linked well to the people in the 70s and 80s however in the new millennium, people, especially the junior are unwilling to such age-old traditional methods. They can be more inclined towards latest researched techniques and formulations because of their health insurance and beauty. Emami recognized this danger and heeded to the changing consumer habit by roping in superstars like Amitabh Bachchan, Shahrukh Khan, Kareena Kapoor, and many south celebrities, which promote the products amongst the youngsters and portray an image that Emami is a brandname that provides the best of ayurveda and modern techniques which is a favourite amidst their star symbols too.

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