Posted at 12.16.2018
"Strategy is the artwork of earning use of energy and space. I am less worried about the last mentioned than the past. Space we can recover, lost time never"
- Napolean Benoparte
1. Having comprehended the security network requirements, carried out an analysis of our present surveillance network and recognized burst transmission as an alternative means to complete the information to surveillance centres, the purpose of this part is to analyse the effectiveness of burst transmission technology for the networking of monitoring resources in desert ground for offensive procedures.
2. Electromagnetic waves, like all other waves are characterized by their occurrence and intensity. The electromagnetic variety includes electromagnetic waves of most possible frequencies. This spectrum expands from the VHF runs to mill metric waves in armed forces. The electromagnetic waves do not follow the person made rules/ international boundaries. They can be easily intercepted and analysed to get brains about the enemy. Today we are using VHF radio as the principal means of moving our surveillance information to our surveillance centres.
3. Working Of Burst Transmission. The word burst transmission entails compressing the info, high data signaling rate and transmitting in short bursts which are not easily detectable by the opponent. Burst transmission in essence compresses the same data and delivers it in bursts. This technology is very popular on the list of spies and armed service personals due to its advantages.
4. A radio packet is a short transmission in burst form of data that occurs on the radio route. The burst data may have different kinds of radio characteristics i. e the modulation type, problem coding, preamble duration and transmission shield time periods. It contains reference point sequences in form of an preamble and possible a midamble, control information and payload of data. The combination of all above mentioned characteristics is named the burst account. A burst established is a single burst transmission packet and it gets the preamble along with a number of bursts of data. The bursts of information will contain packets having different modulation and coding. A burst structure contains the complete group of information for a burst transmission. The bursts in just a burst arranged are sequenced according to their modulation complexity. With the bursts having lower intricacy modulation start located at the beginning of the radio packet. Following bursts may use modulation types with higher complexness (e. g. QPSK, QAM). This enables subscriber stations to get and decode all the bursts up to the burst with the best modulation type it can obtain.
5. To allow the acquiring device to lock on, the radio bursts start with a series of pieces i. e a preamble that the getting device can identify and lock onto. On locking onto the preamble, it is aware of the positioning of the rest of the packets. For longer radio bursts, midamble sequences may be placed which helps the receivers in the decoding of bursts. A midamble is thought as a series of bits that your receiving device can acknowledge and lock onto to assist in decoding the bits surrounding it. Sending preambles and midambles frequently supply the user an increased range of motion. Data packets may be inserted within the payload of an individual radio burst. They might be located at one place or divided or fragmented over several radio packet bursts or multiple small packets and packed into the burst payload. The number below depicts a good example of a radio packet which is made of a preamble and a couple of bursts.
http://1. bp. blogspot. com/_tuOGu0JuGOE/SsgZscaJj2I/AAAAAAAAC0I/cC-iCmchLxM/s400/1. jpg
6. Characteristics Of Burst Transmission Technology.
It is a relatively high bandwidth transmission over short time period.
Very high data signaling rate with very short transmission time.
Data is stored for a given time are sent at 10 to more than 100 times the standard rates, recorded when received and then slowed up to normal rate for use by the receiver.
It has Low Possibility of Intercept and Low Probability of Detection. You see, the transmission time is very less which make it difficult to discover.
The download time might use 2Mlittle/s over a average whilst having peaks bursting up to 2. 4 Mbits/s.
Data transmission is interrupted at intervals.
Data is digitally encrypted.
7. Restriction Of Burst Transmitting Technology.
The system would depend on the air interface for transmission of data. Line of sight is still a major factor for VHF transmission. HF transmission is preferred to obviate the condition.
The error in data during transmission / reception can result in mistake at the obtaining end.
8. The burst transmitting is a suitable means to transfer data over a long range in secure mode due to the following reasons:-
The transmission takes place for a brief period i. e only once data must be passed, thus it includes a Low Possibility of Intercept and Low Probability of Detection.
It is difficult for enemy Way Finding systems to locate the air as it transmits for a short duration that is only when required.
9. The burst transmission technology is one of the technologies being found in the military of other countries for networking. The Harris RF- 3700, Falcon II AN/PRC - 150 (c), GRA -71 all of USA, GRC -6400 400W HF Radio System, Tadiiran HF -6000 Radio System of Israel and HF - 7000 of Germany are types of use of burst transmitting in military communication. Similar tools using burst transmitting have been designed and developed in India by Bharat Electronic Small.
10. Harris RF - 3700 Harris Universal Transmitting Software (HUITS). It really is a Microsoft-Windows 2000/XP compatible software being used by United States causes for fast and reliable transmission of high res digital imagery, motion videos and other data difficult tactical communication channels. It has a data copy rate of 64 kbps and uses burst transmission to transfer data. Data/ images are moved using HF/VHF/ UHF/ landline media over a click of a button once attained.
11. Falcon II AN/PRC - 150 (c). It really is a software identified HF radio system being utilized by United States makes for tactical communication including data transfer. It uses burst transmitting and has broadband modem for data transfer. It can be interfaced around Tactical Internet with no additional bins.
12. GRC -6400 400W HF Radio System. It really is a 400W HF radio system being employed by Israel for tactical communication including data copy. It uses burst transmitting and has an adaptive high rate modem up to 4. 8 Mbit/s for data transfer.
13. Tadiiran HF - 6000. It really is a HF radio system being produced by Elbit Systems, Israel for tactical communication including data copy. It can also use burst transmitting for data transfer. It really is available in resolved station, dispatch, vehicle, man load up and high electric power versions.
14. HF - 7000. It is a HF radio system being found in Germany for tactical communication including data transfer. It uses burst transmitting for fast data copy. It is available in permanent, semi mobile platform, vehicle and man pack versions.
15. There are similar gadgets being made in India by Bharat Electronic Limited. However they never have been exploited for monitoring network till today. The tools available from Bharat Electronic Limited are mentioned in being successful paras.
16. Spurt Subject matter Alphanumeric Radio Terminal (SMART). It really is a message control and transmitting equipment based on a microprocessor for field use. It offers reliable burst transmission capacity and reduces radio channel occupancy time with in reduction in probability of interference and jamming. It has a center to prepare messages 'off air' with the alphanumeric keyboard and display product of the equipment. It supports both free and formatted text messages and has built-in encryption for text message. Words Links on HF Radio can be carried out using the built-in modem. It could operate in poor channel conditions. A hard copy of information can be studied by linking a computer printer to a serial dock ASCII printer. The terminal can also be optimized for a particular application. User interface with Computer is also available as an optional S/W component to handle information having relatively longer length, this provides you with an user friendly edit capability. It really is being utilized by the Mobile Observation plane tickets of Indian Air Make.
17. Hand Held Radio Terminal (HART). It is a small size, light weight and low electric power consuming terminal used for planning and transmitting of alphanumeric emails digitally. Its suitable for field use. The terminal reduces the chances of disturbance and jamming by giving reliable burst transmission functionality and reduce radio channel occupancy time. Messages are ready "off-air" with the alphanumeric key pad. Information reception is automatic.
18. HF Trans receiver. It is a sophisticated compact 20W HF lightweight radio set in place. It matches all the requirements of short-range communication to operate in crowded HF band. It provides tone, data, telegraphy and adobe flash (burst) note communication. Communication consistency is improved through automatic link establishment, which enable real-time selection of optimum channel rate of recurrence.
19. Stand Alone Communication Product (SACU). It is a high acceleration, secure data communication equipment using burst communication approach with built-in encryption method and modems within a rugged compact unit. It gets the service for communication over three indie channels simultaneously. The benefit provides are brief 'on-air' time and high network capacity. It has capacity to edit, address, transmit, obtain, recognize, store and print out the text messages.
20. Burst Mistake Control System for Teleprinter (BEST Mk II). It is a microprocessor centered forward error control equipment for reliable burst transmission of alphanumeric emails. It could be easily linked with regular teleprinters and computers to prepare announcements "off-air" from the terminal and transmit synchronously in a burst method. It offers additional features like automatic reception, meaning numbering, night out and time, multiple backup print out, auto print mode, auto repeat center, etc.
21. There are a number of VHF radio places using burst transmitting for data communication; however they aren't being talked about further since VHF radio has limited bandwidth and limited range being truly a line of look communications. It really is thus unsuitable for unpleasant procedure in deserts.
22. Deductions. The burst transmitting is being employed by tactical radio makes in USA, Germany, Israel and a great many other countries due to its advantages like high data transfer, digital encryption, low possibility of Intercept and detection. Software Defined Radio and software like Harris RF-3700 Harris General Transmission Software not only permit the easy transfer of images/ data but also give the facility to hook up to tactical internet network without the additional links. Thus real time fast and reliable transmitting of high res digital imagery, action videos and other data which is difficult over VHF radio based mostly tactical communication systems can be achieved through burst transmission. The United States is using this technology in their Joint Tactical System Program.