Posted at 11.18.2018
The thesis of the paper is the following: quality of the service is one of the main factors influencing on customers loyalty. To aid this thesis it is necessary to help make the books review related to the thesis. The first stage of the study includes the explanations of the customer's loyalty and quality in travel and leisure and hospitality industry. Many associations and organizations in several countries create their own expectations of quality. However, the closer observation proves that these criteria are almost similar all around the globe, though every country has its specifics.
The importance of customers' loyalty in travel and leisure and hospitality industry should not be argued. Studies show that the very best marketing technology in travel and leisure and hospitality is the relationship marketing. Clients' loyalty is the significant part of computer. Thus, the increase of devotion means the development of the whole industry and the growth in earnings.
Different creators propose different ways of customer loyalty increase. However, Philip Kotler proposed the most systematized materials for building the customer devotion by quality.
The effects of the study summarize the overall coverage of the problem in the modern-day media.
The explanation of customer commitment is a complex job. Many organizations chasing a relationship procedure with their customers consider customer loyalty as a key objective for their organizations. However, there is no agreed explanation of customer loyalty.
It is impossible to specify the customer commitment in travel and leisure and hospitality industry minus the review of the relevant marketing ideas. The books provides some meanings than it dependently of typology. You can find two main typologies of customer devotion, relying on action and attitude. Richard L. Oliver in his publication "Satisfaction: A Behavioral Point of view on the buyer" supplies the behavioral typology of customer devotion. Though the reserve is not directly related to the hospitality and travel and leisure industry, it can be useful because of the detailed descriptions of customer's patterns. The author represents the satisfaction, reviews the diversity of its meaning, compares it to the related concepts, analyses the dissatisfaction as the opposition to satisfaction. Oliver represents basic mechanisms of satisfaction, attributes, features and sizes. He gives some focus on such essential aspect as customer notion of quality and describes the interrelation between satisfaction and quality, customers' retention/repurchase and loyalty. Describing the dedicated customers, he writes: "Loyal customers repeatedly purchase products. They recommend a corporation to others. Plus they stick with a company as time passes" (Oliver, p. 189). Oliver figured the satisfaction is a required step in loyalty formation. Nevertheless, ultimate loyalty "is a blend of perceived product superiority, personal fortitude, sociable bonding, and their synergistic results" (Oliver, p. 302)
The enthusiasts of frame of mind typology claim that attitude have an impact on tendencies. The commitment-trust theory of romantic relationship marketing makes difference between repurchase and commitment. The idea distinguishes two types of determination: affective and calculative. The article by Robert Morgan and Shelby Hunt explores the nature of marriage marketing and the final results and outcomes of relationship dedication and trust. Their results show that both determination and trust are essential for achieving co-operation, but statistical data shows that the commitment has the strongest impact (Morgan, Hunt, p. 32).
Mark Uncles et al in this article "Customer commitment and customer commitment programs" telephone calls customer devotion a paradox. He writes that this attitude-based phenomenon can be inspired with some special methods, like loyalty programs. However he notices that "loyalty in competitive repeat-purchase marketplaces is formed more by the passive popularity of brands than by strongly-held behaviour about them" (Uncles et al, p. 101) Thus, it is apparent that the sole explanation of customer loyalty was not developed yet.
The criteria of quality in tourism are relatively well-studied in the literature. It is possible to begin from the "Mapping service quality in the tourism industry". The main finding of the article is the graphical interpretation of SERVQUAL data. The graphs should help travel and leisure professionals in decision making.
Christine Williams and John Buswell released a book formulated with the research of the subject. They pay much focus on the requirements of quality in tourism, however, their attention is concentrated on the situation of quality management. Anne-Mette Hjalage discusses the "Quality in tourism through the empowerment of visitors". The article discusses many aspects of travel business, from travel operator to Internet-network. The author suggests that the quality of tourism is related to the empowerment of holidaymakers.
Thus, it can be summarized that quality of service in tourism is sufficiently studied and defined, there is enough new articles talking about the latest trends in quality of tourism.
The relationship between quality and customer devotion is noticeable: the commitment is impossible with the reduced quality. The need for loyalty is also apparent: the mature industry require the long-term relationships with clients. Some magazines support this point of view. The Journal of travel research» posted lots of articles related to customer's devotion in tourism. Augistin and Ho in "Service Quality and Travel and leisure" discuss the several areas of quality, and point out the worthiness of quality in travel and leisure. They also discuss the changing circumstance in the tourism industry nowadays. They declare the worthiness of travel and leisure is modified now and provide some recommendations how tourism-related business can improve their quality.
The idea of new marketing paradigm in the hospitality industry was also mentioned by Xiang Li and James Petrick in this article "Tourism Marketing in an Period of Paradigm Shift". In this article they proposed three different marketing perspectives: "relationship marketing, the network approach, and the service-dominant logic" (Li, Petrick, 235). This article also talks about the implementation of these alternative perspectives used.
XIang LI also published one more article related to the devotion in tourism, "Loyalty Irrespective of Brands? Analyzing Three Nonperformance Effects on Brand Commitment in a Travel and leisure Context". In this article he continues his previous research of commitment creation and studies the interrelation of general loyalty and the devotion to the definite brand. In particular, he tries to judge the effect of nonperformance factors, such as brand parity, brand market share, and commitment proneness, on the customer's loyalty. His study proven that the loyalty of customers is meticulously connected with the ready to be dedicated, and the willing to be loyal is related with the brand market share.
The need for customer commitment for travel and leisure is also proved with some practical cases. The research study by Spanish experts, "Loyalty programmes as a tourism service sales route: a Spanish multi-sponsor programme research study" discusses the potency of "multi-sponsor loyalty platforms and the high volume of tourism service offers (flights, journeys, hotel accommodation, etc. )" (Casada, Lara, p. 35) They used the data from leading commitment program on Spanish market, and proved the effectiveness of individual preferences for each and every client or group of clients. The individual preference can be viewed as as the element of quality service and the tool of getting customer devotion.
Campo and Yague discuss the client loyalty in travel and leisure in other aspect. Their article "The forming of the tourist's commitment to the tourism distribution route: so how exactly does it impact price discount rates?" points on the importance of keeping clients devoted. The author write that the long-term business relationships include the attraction of new customers as well as loyalty of the prevailing clients. Price savings can inspire short-term sales, nevertheless they are doubtful in the long-term perspective. Merchants in the service industry "hire price special discounts on products to inspire short-term sales, they often times establish promotional guidelines without considering their influence on the long-term business results. " (Campo, Yague, p. 454) The price discounts can decrease the revenues, but regarding the results of the analysis, they don't really have much affect on customer commitment.
The contemporary books related to the building customer devotion through quality proposes some resources to review and examine. First source is a e book of Kotler Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism». Probably no books review in the area of marketing in tourism and hospitality can avoid talking about the works of Philip Kotler et al. Kotler and his team, John R. Bowen and Wayne C. Makens, will be the authors of the most widely used e book on hospitality marketing. The publication combines the idea with the descriptions of situations, it is simple to learn and it covers contemporary material. The authors identify the situation in the hospitality marketing at the start of the new millennium. Nowadays hospitality marketing professionals can face the necessity to find the balance between their resources against opportunities and needs in the current global marketplace. The latest model of the publication, 2008, contains the part about the digital marketing. This booklet contains a chapter discussing building the customer's loyalty through the product quality.
The section 11, Building Customer Commitment Through Quality», claims that "The customer's satisfaction will depend on the product's or service's performance relative to the customer's objectives. " The writer cases that the loyalty is a measure of possible go back of the client, and customer's satisfaction is very important, though it generally does not guarantee that the customer will return. The writer recommends concentrating on the relationship building, in particular, the individual relations with individual customer. He boasts that it might be useful to use three customer worth: financial benefits, social benefits, and structural ties. The last one means the links within the industry, including the link tourist organization and Air Company.
Among the other publications related to building commitment in clients through quality are some articles from the Journal of travel research». Among these articles, "Can Travel and leisure Providers Buy their Customers' Loyalty? Examining the Effect of Customer-Provider Ventures on Commitment" by Morais, Dorcsh and Backman, talks about the formation of commitment. Their idea is close to the ideas by Symbol Uncles and the paradox of customer's commitment. Like Uncles, they write about the overvalued performance of special customer devotion programs, especially in tourism. They claim that there is absolutely no consensus concerning how loyalty builds up. The maturation of tourism industry in many countries resulted in the shift in the marketing purposes. Now every marketing consultancy in travel and leisure and hospitality industry wants to have long-term and respected romantic relationship with clients. That's the reason marketers develop the programs of loyalty for his or her customers. However, the potency of these programs is under talk. Studying the loyalty formation, the authors 've got the interesting finding: "The results indicated that if customers perceived that a service provider was making an investment in them, they subsequently made a similar investment in the provider, and those ventures led to commitment" (Morais, Dorcsh and Backman, p. 240) In this case the quality means the communication with customer as well nearly as good service.
The article by Rosemary Stockdale "Managing customer associations in the self-service environment of e-tourism" talks about the comparatively new style in travel and leisure and hospitality, the self-service technologies. These solutions became widely propagate as a result of development on the web and e-commerce. Despite the preliminary impression, this article is strongly related to the thesis of the research. The reason is that self-service technology reduce the market share of tourism firms and contradict their prepared to make the long-term and respected relationship with their clients. The author advises to tourist businesses to develop the partnership within the edges of self-serving service. To her point of view, the hospitality business should follow the most recent trends to increase the service quality.
At last it worth to mention this article by Fick and Brent Ricche. They propose special SERVQUAL scale for quality measuring in travel and leisure.
The information above allows creation the general picture of the mass media coverage of building customer loyalty in tourism and hospitality industry with the quality. First, the problem of customer care and customer commitment was studied by many researches. Te agreed definition of customer commitment was not found. Generally, the literature related to this issue is lacking the system approach. There is no single analysis summarizing the results of the researches in this field.
The issue of quality in travel and leisure is covered sufficiently. The industry marketing, like "Journal of Travel Research", posted the number of articles discussing the product quality standards in travel and leisure and hospitality. These magazines not only express the quality standards, but also emphasize the newest tendencies on the market and measure the new quality specifications.
The theme of client loyalty in travel and leisure and hospitality is covered in the particular media. Al magazines related to the issue mention the importance of romantic relationship marketing. Some research of practical circumstances put under discussion the effectiveness of programs of loyalty. The latest articles propose the choice approach to marketing strategies directed on the customer loyalty in travel and leisure and hospitality.
The literature formulated with the recommendations for building the customer's commitment through quality begins from the book of Phillip Kotler. Some articles support his perspective and add additional argumentation to the problem.
However, the entire picture is not so optimistic. On the main one palm, the latest articles discuss the most actual themes in the present day tourism. Alternatively, there is no systematization and generalization in these articles. This is actually the most perspective dimensions for further researches. The literature on this issue is also lacking the case studies describing the real results of new strategies implementation.
The customer loyalty is the hot matter» nowadays. A lot of the sources examined in the first part of the research were printed over the last ten years of the 20th century. The thought of keeping customers is ageless, but the romantic relationship marketing became the popular term roughly in 1980s. Through this and the next decade the studies created the methodical and terminological basic of the kind of marketing. Customer loyalty became one of these terms. However, the study showed there is no agreed definition of customers' commitment. This is related to the different typology in the bottom of different meanings. The marketers of all business develop different methods to develop customer loyalty. The travel and leisure and hospitality industry is not the exclusion. The analysts published a number of materials related to this issue. The studies described the quality standards in travel and leisure and hospitality, and showcase the newest movements on the market. Many articles demonstrated the importance on customer loyalty for travel and leisure. Generally, the client devotion is important in every industry, including tourism and hospitality. The fascination of new customers can not exclusively support the development of industry minus the long-term relations with clients. These long-terms relationships are based on loyalty. The product quality is one of the most crucial factors influencing on commitment, this truth was also reviewed and proven by latest magazines.
At previous, there many advice for building the client loyalty through quality. Some of them have great sensible value, but the area lacks the systematization. However, it could be concluded that this problem gets the sufficient coverage in media and literature.