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Buddhist And Religious Ethics Theology

Buddhism and Christianity are religions with detailed and contrasting ethical laws and customs. Throughout this essay the ethical routines of both religions will be identified in detail, with an exploration of their similarities and dissimilarities presented.

Description of Buddhist Ethical Practices

Seven weeks after Prince Siddhartha Gautama acquired gained enlightenment whilst meditating under a bodhi tree, he shipped his First Sermon to his five previous ascetical companions under that same tree. The material of that first sermon are has learned as the Four Noble Truths, which are essentially the groundwork of the religion. They are as follows: (Gwynne 2011, p. 93)

"1. Suffering: Now this, monks, is the commendable truth of suffering: Delivery is troubled, ageing is suffering, sickness is hurting, death is hurting; union using what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is troubled; not to get what one desires is troubled; in quick, the five aggregates at the mercy of clinging are battling.

2. The Source of Hurting: Now this, monks, is the noble truth of the foundation of fighting: It is the craving which causes renewed existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking joy here and there; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for lifetime, craving for extermination.

3. The Cessation of Hurting: Now this, monks, is the noble real truth of the cessation of hurting: It is the remainder-less fading away and cessation of this same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of computer, flexibility from it, and non-reliance on it.

4. The best way to the Cessation of Enduring: Now this, monks, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of anguish: It really is this Noble Eightfold Avenue: that is, right view, right goal, right talk, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right attention. "

Like its parent or guardian faith Hinduism, Buddhism educates that the best goal of the lives of adherents is to liberate from the wheel of reincarnation and attain nirvana. Where it is different from Hinduism is instead of stressing the value of commitments related to caste, gender and years (varna ashrama dharma), it strains the embodiment of the sublime truth that was rediscovered by Prince Siddhartha on his nights enlightenment, which was imparted to his early followers in his First Sermon. The essence of Buddhist dharma (as opposed to Hindu dharma) is the Four Noble Truths which, along with the Buddha himself and the community of adherents (Sangha), make up the Three Jewels of Buddhism.

The previous of the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, is often split into three categories:

1. Knowledge (panna) - right view and right intention

2. Meditation (samdhi) - right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration

3. Virtue (sila) - right speech, right action and right livelihood. This category specifically provides ethical instruction for Buddhists, insisting that adherents must refrain from abusive, deceitful or divisive words through right conversation; dialling buddhists to be generally righteous in their activities; and implying that one occupations may be immoral and therefore unsuitable. (Gwynne 2011, pg. 92)

Buddhism lacks an obvious perception in a supreme being, resulting in Buddhist morality being founded upon the amount concerning which thoughts and actions will advance or impede one's search for final liberation. It is not based upon commandments issued by the transcendent God which are to be unquestionably accompanied by adherents, as is the case in the Abrahamic religions. Without a God to determine what is good and bad, Buddhists refer to certain actions as "skillful" (kausalya) or "unskillful" (akausalya) somewhat than right or wrong. Buddhist morality is situated upon considerations of individual progress on the path to liberation from the wheel of reincarnation somewhat than rehearsing the will of an divine God.

The cornerstone of Buddhist honest coaching is the Pancasila, the five precepts. These are as follows:

"I avoid destroying living creatures

I refrain from taking whatever is not given

I refrain from sexual misconduct

I refrain from false speech

I refrain from intoxicants which lead to carelessness. " (Gwynne 2011, p. 94)

These precepts give a basic moral code for Buddhists, so integral they are often recited on a regular basis by the laity, chanted by monks at crucial moments such as birth, marriage and death, and are a favorite sermon matter.

The Pancasila can be interpreted in many ways. In one sense it provides a basic meaning of goodness or skilfulness in Buddhist trust, reflecting the virtues of the spiritually advanced person. In another sense it is comprehended as the "five training rules" (pancasikkha) as they were sometimes known as by the Buddha. On this view the Pancasila can be seen as a set of practical suggestions to ethically guide the individual Buddhist toward a more liberated state of being, rather than a set of moral commandments cast down from the heavens by almighty God.

The Pancasila is mainly negatively phrased, focusing on what activities should be prevented rather than pushing virtuous activities. However, upon nearer inspection one notices that with every negative, "I refrain from" phrase, there's a positive expression to compel the adherent to shoot for higher spiritual progression, getting nearer and closer to enlightenment. Thus the first precept is to refrain from eradicating living beings, not just humans but also pet and even vegetation. This idea suits perfectly with the steering wheel of reincarnation as within the Buddhist world view one may be reincarnated as other life varieties. (Gwynne 2011, pg. 95)

The second precept forbids robbery, stemming in to the obsessive desire of materials objects which causes stealing. This favorably stimulates adherents to be generous in all respects of life, not simply financially but in their hard work. The 3rd precept discourages sexual misconduct, rendering it known that libido is such a strong human instinct it poses a considerable hazard to one's spiritual path. It isn't considered unskilful for adherents to get sexual relations, but it is known that celibacy is a higher form of religious lifetime. The fourth precept forbids any lying or form of deceit, forging a reverence for truth which really is a crucial component of specific enlightenment. Finally, the fifth precept prevents the consumption of any intoxicant, instilling on adherents the importance of clarity of mind, an essential quality for Buddhists who are seriously interested in their spirituality. (Gwynne 2011, pg. 96)

Description of Religious Ethical Practices

Jesus, when approached by a teacher of religious laws and asked which of the commandments is most significant, answered "The most important commandment is this: 'Hear, O Israel! The Lord our God is the one and only Lord. And you also must love the Lord your God with your entire heart, all of your soul, your entire mind, and all of your strength'. The second reason is equally important: 'Love your neighbour as yourself'. No other commandment is higher than these. " (Mark 12:29-31, NLT)

The commandment for Jews to love the best God with all their being is situated in Deuteronomy, with Leviticus stressing the value of loving one's neighbour. What Jesus said had not been revolutionary, he simply reinstated the moral beliefs that are symbolized in the Jewish Decalogue. A comparative stand of the Decalogue in its various forms is provided below (Gwynne 2011, p. 102):

Jewish

Catholic and Lutheran

Orthodox and Protestant

1. I am the Lord your God who helped bring you out of the house of slavery.

I am the Lord your God and you shall have no other gods before me.

I am god, the father your God and you also shall haven't any other gods before me.

2. You shall have no other gods besides me.

You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.

You shall not lead to yourself any graven image.

3. You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God.

Remember to keep holy the Lord's day.

You shall not misuse the name of god, the father your God.

4. Bear in mind the Sabbath day and keep it holy.

Honor your father and mother.

Remember to keep holy the Lord's day.

5. Honor your dad and your mother.

You shall not destroy.

Honor your parents.

6. You shall not murder.

You shall not commit adultery.

You shall not eliminate.

7. You shall not commit adultery.

You shall not grab.

You shall not commit adultery.

8. You shall not grab.

You shall not tolerate false see against your neighbour.

You shall not steal.

9. You shall not carry false witness against your neighbour.

You shall not covet your neighbour's wife.

You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.

10. You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbour.

You shall not covet your neighbour's goods.

You shall not covet anything that belongs to your neighbour.

Jesus himself demystifies any misunderstandings that might occur regarding the Christian point of view of the Jewish ethical teachings in Matthew 5:17 with "Don't misunderstand why I've come. I did so not come to abolish the law of Moses or the writings of the prophets. No, I arrived to fulfil them. " (NLT)

Like its father or mother religion Judaism, the Religious mindset requires an intelligently designed world in which humans hold the chance to live out God's divine arrange for them, to own eternal communion with him. Moral behavior is an vital component of this divine plan, being part of the final judgement each individual must face. However, as can be seen in other religions, Christianity acknowledges that all human beings offer an instinctive moral code irrespective of their faith or lack of beliefs (Gwynne 2011, pg. 101). This inner morality is described by St Paul in Romans 2:14-16 - "When outsiders who've never heard about God's law abide by it more or less by instinct, they confirm its truth by their conformity. They show that God's rules is not at all something alien, enforced on us from without, but woven into the very fabric of the creation. There is something deep within them that echoes God's yes and no, right and wrong. Their respond to God's yes and no will become public knowledge on your day God makes his final decision about every man and woman. The message from God that I proclaim through Jesus Christ takes into account all these variations. " (The Subject matter Bible)

Although the lifetime of this instinctive moral code is proved throughout Religious denominations, there is certainly debate within the extent concerning which it could be distorted by real human sinfulness. The Catholic church takes a somewhat accepting position on the issue, acknowledging the existence of "natural rules" within its moral teachings, while Protestant and Orthodox churches tend to be dubious of non-religious resources of ethics. All the denominations are however united in their perception that Christian ethical teaching are a more complete guide to moral living. The Old Testament, as aforementioned, is the fundamental first rung on the ladder towards Christian moral living, whilst Jewish traditions and routines such as kosher, Sabbath laws and regulations and circumstances were deserted by the early church as these were deemed needless in the development of ethical living tactics within the faith.

As important as the Jewish tradition is at providing a moral basic for Christians, they are generally deemed insufficient in the eye of Christians. Evidenced in the writings in St Paul, regulations of Moses is respected as good and holy yet somehow incomplete, lacking the drive that drives Christian ethics. Christians have confidence in the importance of an "new law" which provides the drive behind embodying the sort of ethical practices indicated in the Decalogue, faith that Jesus is the incarnate Child of God and Saviour of humankind. (Gwynne 2011, pg. 93)

The ethical techniques of Christianity are unsurprisingly christocentric. Christians view Jesus as sinless and perfect, making him the best model for Religious living. The Religious knowledge of the "next level" of pre-established Jewish ethics were unveiled through Jesus, and a standout occasion of his moral training is comprised within his Sermon on the Mount. The comprehensive sermon notably includes moral education on the matters of anger, adultery, divorce and, strikingly, love for one's enemies. An array of verses particularly relevant to Christian ethical tactics is presented below:

"You have heard that the law of Moses says, 'Do not murder. In the event that you commit murder, your are subject to judgement. ' But I say, if you are upset with someone, you are at the mercy of judgement!"

- Matthew 5:21-22 (NLT)

"You could have heard that regulations of Moses says, 'Do not commit adultery. ' But I say, anyone who even talks about a female with lust in his eyes has already committed adultery with her in his heart. "

- Matthew 5:27-28 (NLT)

"You could have heard that the law of Moses says, 'A man can divorce his partner merely giving her a letter of divorce. ' But I say a man who divorces his wife, unless she's been unfaithful, triggers her to commit adultery. And anyone who marries a divorced female commits adultery. "

- Matthew 5:31-32 (NLT)

"Again, you have read that regulations of Moses says, 'Do not break your vows; you must perform the vows you earn to the Lord. '. . . Just say a simple, 'Yes, I'll, ' or 'No, I will not. ' Your phrase will do. "

- Matthew 5:33-37 (NLT)

"If you are slapped on the right cheek, switch the other, too. " - Matthew 5:39 (NLT)

" You might have heard that the law of Moses says, 'Love you neighbor' and hate your enemy. But I say, love your enemies! Pray for those who persecute you!" - Matthew 5:43-44 (NLT)

Similarities and Differences

Although Buddhism and Christianity may outwardly seem to be very different, it may come as a wonder to some to discover that in the centre of these morality, as is the situation with all the major religions, they are extremely similar. This is largely due to what the Catholic chapel identifies as "natural law", the internal sense of morality which is shared throughout mankind. Perhaps the main piece of research for this strategy is the fact that the "Golden Rule" of ethics in both religions (and the other major religions) is actually the same: (Gwynne 2011, pg. 111)

"Comparing you to ultimately others in terms such as 'Just as I am so are they, just as they are so am I, ' he should neither wipe out nor cause others to kill. " (Sutta Pitaka)

"In everything, do to others as you would have them do for you; for this is regulations and the prophets. " (Gospel of Matthew)

Although the moral practices educated in both religions are similar, possibly the most eye-catching difference between the two religions in the role that God performs in their ethical practice. Religious ethics are considered the consequence of divine involvement through the prophets and the real human incarnation of God himself. Conformity to the will of any omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent divine being is undoubtedly a crucial component of Christian morality. That is a stark contrast with Buddhism as it's the only major religion which does not acknowledge the life of a God whatsoever. Buddhist ethics are not handed down by almighty God, they can be teachings made to guide the individual on their avenue towards attaining enlightenment in accordance with the eternal dharma. It is also worthy of noting that Buddhist teachings are usually thought as less restrictive than their Religious counterparts, similar to recommendations of how to live a spiritually advanced life than divine commandments.

While Christianity and Buddhism vary considerably in regards to the contrasting ideas of living a single life then facing judgement versus the steering wheel of reincarnation (Samsara), both religions are concerned about the repercussions that an individual's morality will have on the spiritual status. Christian ethics are comprehended by adherents to be a set of recommendations put in destination to achieve and maintain eternal communion with God in heaven (Gwynne 2011, pg. 110), and are a crucial aspect of the criteria used in their final judgement, while the aim of Buddhist ethics are to steer the Buddhist throughout their voyage towards nirvana. However the practicalities and world views of both religions are contrastingly different, the concern for the individual's religious improvement and future is a common theme.

Perhaps the most powerful similarity in the honest laws and customs of Christianity and Buddhism is the total emphasis Jesus Christ and Sakyamuni receive. Both are infallible models for adherents to bottom part their morality upon, and in both situations they single-handedly (along with their early fans) supply the "next level" of religious ethics of these parent or guardian religions, as well as abolishing past practices which were deemed unnecessary, limited, or even counter-productive. Much of the New Testament is devoted to narrating the life span of Jesus and the lessons to be learnt from it, and Buddhists are even able to study the previous lives of the Buddha through the Jataka Stories in addition to the close analysis of his final incarnation before getting nirvana.

In final result, through the exploration of the two contrasting religions, Christianity and Buddhism, an tremendous ray of noticeable similarities show up among what you might expect from a clash of american and eastern philosophies. One can dispute that their dissimilarities can be reserve to make method for the common honest laws and traditions they both share, using their pivotal numbers, Jesus Christ plus the Buddha, providing types of morality which are extremely similar in nature. The outcome of this is Christians and Buddhists leading moral lives which both have their own merits and most importantly the love for mankind.

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