Brownfield Land Redevelopment

Recently brownfield sites have grown to be popular due to the serious insufficiency in the amount of greenfield spaces readily available for development. This is more dominant in the developed areas where in fact the demand for domestic and commercial property is elevated.

In 2008 the UK set a focus on for brownfield improvements. 60% of most new properties were to be built on brownfield sites. Details show that we have previously exceeded that goal and with the rate that we are reclaiming brownfield sites at the moment we ought to significantly raise that percentage in the coming 10 years.

The uses for brownfield sites are not restricted to residential and commercial properties. They are often considered for redevelopment into available spaces for entertainment, woodland and various other community related areas.

Reclaiming brownfield sites is at the heart of the UK Sustainable Development Strategy. This "Development Strategy" features an extensive collection of economic, interpersonal and environmental targets. Brownfield redevelopment cleans up environmental health hazards and eyesores and in doing this it promotes community development and regeneration.

Managed effectively as a lasting redevelopment scheme, Brownfield sites provide affordable casing, encourage economic development through locally sourced materials nurturing local business' and investments, protect local animals and provide environmentally safe areas for family members to enjoy.

Furthermore, redevelopment of brownfield sites can provide an area a make-over and can help send a note to the vicinity indicating the value of preservation and recycling.

2. 0 Brownfield Land Redevelopment Steps

Now that the land has been chosen for the proposed development, a sizable activities centre within a little town in Scotland, it is important to establish set up Brownfield site involved is suitable for such a development.

The proposed site will involve the demolition of a preexisting building. Therefore all planning regulations must be honored and the neighborhood planning regulators must be notified on paper outlining the intentions for the proposed site. That is important as special licences are required to reclaim Brownfield sites.

There are lots of testing and studies that must be carried out to be able to get the required information to look for the degree of the decontamination methods required to prepare the website.

2. 1 Demolition and Recycling Existing Building On-Site

In order to maximise the sustainability of the development it's important to identify, distinct and eliminate all hazardous materials from the demolished waste products. Furthermore any recyclables such as masonry rubble and other materials should be extracted from the demolition misuse and can be utilized in the concrete / asphalt or paved areas around the website. This promotes lasting development by adding to the government sustainability aims of wise use of natural resources and cover of the environment. Using low embodied building materials reduces the CO2 emissions during the construction process and also offers a positive influence on the price tag on the entire project as less waste material is sent to expensive landfill.

There are a number of companies within the united kingdom that specialise in building and demolition misuse recycling and removal. These companies work meticulously with "Site Waste products Management Blueprints" making certain only dangerous materials are disposed of and everything recyclable is used again.

2. 2 Identification of Hazardous Materials

A large number of materials get excited about any build, therefore, when a building is being demolished it is important to identify these dangerous materials and dispose of them safely in order that they do not become a risk to anybody else in the foreseeable future.

The building on the suggested site is a 150 time old derelict masonry building. The prevailing building is to be demolished and any suited recyclables are to be used in making the new activities centre and any concrete / asphalt or paved areas around the site. In order to identify the many materials it's important to place a sorting plan set up. This may ensure only recyclable materials get used again and all unsafe materials are disposed of appropriately.

The history of the building performs an integral part in the types of harmful materials that can be expected to be found within the building. From the period the building was built a suitably skilled professional can conclude that the building shell itself will contribute various hazardous materials to the list for safe disposal. These are more likely to include asbestos, insulation materials, foams formulated with CFC's (Chlorofluorocarbons) that are harmful to the O-Zone coating, roofing felts and bitumen.

An engineer will also look into the space within the building to determine what hazardous materials might have been from the various uses of the building. The derelict building in question was originally used as a textile stock and later a furniture manufacturer. This would reveal that dangerous materials such as varnishes, glues, sealants, resin-based floorings and solid wood treated with chemicals or preservatives may be there from that amount of the buildings life-time. In recent generations the building was used as a truck repair shop. This could suggest that there may be some contamination from petrol or lubricants, petroleum and any spillage from car / truck batteries.

It is vital to check for the occurrence of these chemicals and much more as determining the presence of hazardous material is the first step to decontaminating the website.

2. 3 Further Investigation

Following investigation in to the building to be demolished, lab tests must be completed on the condition of the land around the website. It's important to note that all Brownfield site redevelopments come together with rigorous environmental issues. As a result it is recommended that an correctly experienced environmental advisor is used. The environmental expert will have experience understanding of Brownfield developments and can adequately research any environmental dangers.

Firstly they'll undertake a table top overview of the suggested site by gathering all historical information available. This may relate to previous quarrying or landfill in the region. Secondly they'll prepare an environmental evaluation report. Contained within this report will be the results from comprehensive testing for hazardous chemical substances within the earth, ground drinking water and surface drinking water.

If the results of the record are positive and support redevelopment on the site, the next step is remediation and reduction of dangerous materials.

2. 4 Remediation / Removal of Hazardous Materials

Now that the various unsafe materials have been determined, it is time to categorize and split them in order to be safely removed. That is what's known as remediation.

The demolition of the building itself should be the final step when clearing the site. Primarily the building should be stripped down with careful consideration directed at how each materials is classed and whether it can be recycled or removed. This includes all loose material, fixtures, fittings, home windows, doors, heating system and electronic systems and roof covering. Once it has been grouped and divided all that needs to be left is the building skeleton and foundations for safe demolition

Up until a couple of years ago remediation of Brownfield sites was an expensive process. However, recent new remediation technologies have emerged and are cheaper than the more traditional methods. They include:

  • Bioremediation - This utilises the natural functions of indigenous bacteria, microorganisms, vegetation, enzymes and fungi to kill or neutralise contaminants and contaminants.
  • Phytoremediation - This process uses crops. The can store impurities in their leaves and stems (bioaccumulation). Some pollutants such as heavy metals can be gathered and mined for reuse (phytomining).
  • In-Situ Substance Oxidation - This process injects air or chemical substance oxidants into the contaminated dirt or drinking water to destroy hazardous compounds.

2. 5 Recycling Masonry Rubble

With a task like this there is serious demand for concrete / asphalt and pavements round the development. Luckily for us with the demolition of the existing derelict masonry building, a lot of the requirements can be found using recycled masonry rubble from the prevailing building.

When using recycled masonry rubble from demolitions such as this it is important to ensure that the rubble is clear of impurities. Once this is done, the rubble is then graded into aggregates. This is a simple process that involves sieve like machines that vibrate, separating the many size aggregates and compiling them with aggregate materials of similar sizes. The aggregates can then be used in various locations around the site depending on their size and classification.

It is important to notice that the quality of recycled masonry rubble complies with the requirement for use in creating roads. Strenuous trials and categorizing is necessary on the aggregates that are designed for concrete used in the building to be able to ensure the consistency is sufficient. Lightweight aggregate will not meet requirements for use as a secondary concrete aggregate as the majority of masonry materials are too tender and can adversely affect the effectiveness of concrete products.

2. 6 Gain access to Highways and Pavements

The existing building will have a number of access streets already in place. These roads should be excavated and commensurate with the lasting design of the proposed building and use of recycle materials in the new build it is merely fitting that the excavated asphalt also needs to be recycled and form area of the new access roads and pavements around the website. The production of asphalt it a very energy expensive process as the materials involved must be heated up to very high temperatures in order to mix together. Therefore, the use of recycled asphalt for street toppings around the website will have an expense advantage to the job as well as a positive impact on the surroundings.

3. 0 Proposed Athletics Centre Complex

The proposed sports activities centre will be built using low embodied, recycled materials where possible paying particular attention to the energy performance of the building. The building design will take passive solar heat under consideration with cleverly positioned house windows and landscaping design throughout the website providing adequate shelter from the elements through the winter season.

Sourcing materials locally significantly reduces transportation costs over large distances. This automatically reduces carbon emissions and also supports the local industry ensuring jobs and community growth. This is a key aspect in the ecological building of the suggested athletics centre.

3. 1 Foundations

The best basis for the proposed sports centre is a raft groundwork. Because of the size and range of the proposed build a raft foundation allows the weight of the building to be used in the ground over a larger area and also provide an even surface that to make upon. It's important that there is adequate steel reinforcement in the concrete to combat ground movement.

When the recycled masonry rubble is graded into aggregates, some of these aggregates will be well suited for use in the concrete raft groundwork. Recycled concrete aggregates can replace up to 20% of virgin aggregate in concrete within the provisions set out in BS 8500-2.

3. 2 Structural Framing / Building Skeleton

The most effective way to create the proposed activities centre building is utilizing a steel framed engineering. The steel framework would meet up with the spatial requirements of the key sports hall, high ceilings with long spans and column free space to support an indoor basketball pitch or basketball court. Recycled material would be appropriate here as steel can be utilized countless times without negative influences to its strength or performance.

3. 3 Wall Build-Up

Once the foundations and steel structure are in place it's time to take into account the external wall build-up. Given the supposed use of the sports hall it's important to employ a material that will not only be sustainable in its engineering and strong but also have an acoustic quality as the sound generated within the activities hall when it's occupied will be of an increased nature and could disrupt the surrounding public.

There is several products available such as concrete blocks with 50% coarse aggregates changed with plastic material while still providing adequate strenght but with that said, I would suggest an aerated concrete block. These are being among the most environmentally friendly building products available. They are really made from recycled materials. One of which is Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), this can be an inescapable by-product of the coal-fired electric power era process which is generally stockpiled in huge unpleasant mounds or is dumped at sea. Further improving the sustainability of this product is the fact that no material goes to squander, anything left whenever a batch is manufactured automatically switches into the next mix. Also due to the light in weight of the material, more can be filled onto an individual lorry minimizing the CO2 emissions produced in transport and speeding up construction.

The cavity should be 100mm partially filled with natural wool insulation or an identical approved natural insulation or recycled insulation system. The exterior face of the building should be clad with recycled bricks attached back to the inner leaf with acoustically approved wall structure ties.

3. 4 Floor Build-Up

Each area of the sports centre will demand a different finish depending on proposed use. The reception for case should provide a warm and welcoming atmosphere, this can be achieved using carpet. Recycled carpet can be found, this is produced from recycled materials such as plastic, wool, cotton or nylon and laid on the recycled rubber underlay. The rubber could be derived from any scrap tyres staying on the site from the pick up truck repair center.

The changing rooms will demand a difficult floor which is impervious to normal water. Many inexperienced options can be found such as recycled ceramic floor tiles and eco-friendly rubber floor tiles. A study should be undertaken of the business' in the area in order to decide which materials is easiest to obtain with the pursuit of sustainability at heart.

If there is a quarry nearby it could be an idea to investigate stone as a possible material for the floor in hard wearing areas. Natural stone has a natural, ageless beauty and a feeling of stable quality which is hard to match with any type of material. Unfortunately because of the costs associated with stone it might not be considered a plausible materials as it is by no means the cheapest type of flooring to set up or maintain.

The floor coverings in the sports hall is a specific type of flooring material. It has lots of practical requirements associated with it. It must be durable, simple and slightly delicate to avoid serious injury. A perfect surface therefore, would be a rubber founded surface that can be developed from any scrap tyres on the site. That is an expense beneficial process as it is a lasting use for the waste materials rubber meaning it is not necessary to purchase the safe removal of the unused tyres. The recycled plastic surface should then sit on some rigid insulation such as woodwool, nutrient. /rock and roll wool or widened or extruded polystyrene to improve the thermal performance.

3. 5 Roof top Construction

For the suggested sport centre i would suggest a green roofing. A 'Green Roofing' is a roof top which has a vegetated covering planted on the waterproofing membrane. The roof contains various tiers, each with its own function. The various layers appeal to drainage, moisture, root safety and filtering.

Green roofs have benefits over traditional or conventional roofs. They provide a longer roof life span, increased acoustic performance, advanced thermal performance in the wintertime and heat shielding in the summer and because they are living microorganisms they hold on to and store 90% of rain and storm drinking water and come back it to the atmosphere by means of evaporation.

3. 6 Energy Performance of the Building

A key feature of the building is the high use of recycled and sustainable materials in the structure. This has a confident effect on the environment ensuring nominal CO2 emissions are generated in the manufacture of the materials. That is an admirable practice and it delivers a clear meaning to creators that the use of recyclables can have beneficial implementations for both the project budget as well as the environment.

It is important to keep this objective throughout the structures lifetime. This can be done by implementing micro renewable technology during the development process. A building of this scale is often associated with large energy expenses. With the prices of oil escalating and the UK's dependency on fossil fuels at a maximum, it is vital that this building incorporates as much micro renewable technology as possible to be able to operate a vehicle the operating costs down to a controllable level.

I would firmly suggest the utilization of solar photovoltaic cells (PV) and wind generators to create electricity along with solid wood fuelled boilers (biomass) connected to a central heat as the utmost relevant micro technology technologies that a building of this nature could reap the benefits of.

4. 0 Lasting Urban Drainage Systems

4. 1 Intro to SUDS

Sustainable metropolitan drainage systems are a new green way of working with surface drinking water run-off. Traditional drainage plans lead to flooding, cause air pollution and are generally more expensive to set up. Surface water no longer has the chance to soak in to the ground, instead it is accumulated in a network of pipes along with any impurities such as engine oil, solid subject or harmful metals it may pick up along the way which is discharged in to the nearest rivers or channels.

Sustainable metropolitan drainage systems replicate natural drainage methods. Water run-off is gathered and stored to permit natural cleaning to occur prior to infiltration or manipulated release to watercourses. As a result they prevent air pollution, control flooding, recharge earth normal water in the natural drinking water table and improve the environment.

There are for main design options. These are:

  • Filter Whitening strips and Swales
  • Filter Drains and Permeable Surfaces
  • Infiltration Devices
  • Basins and Ponds

It is important to note that with respect to the required performance of the sustainable metropolitan drainage system, a blend of two or more design options might need to be incorporated to be able to achieve a suitable drainage solution.

4. 2 Filtration system Pieces and Swales

Filter whitening strips and swales are vegetated surface features that drain normal water consistently off impermeable areas. Swales are long shallow programs whilst filter strips are lightly sloping areas of ground.

4. 3 Filtration Drains and Permeable Surfaces

Filter drains and permeable areas are devices that have a volume of permeable material below surface to store surface drinking water. Water run-off moves to a storage area with a permeable surface such as gravelled paving areas or sound paving blocks with gaps between the specific units. Once the water falls it moves through the top to the permeable fill in the filtration drain. This then allows the safe-keeping, treatment, carry and infiltration of this inflatable water leading to clean pure water being came back to surface.

4. 4 Infiltration Devices

Infiltration devices drain water directly into the land. They may be used either at source or additionally the runoff can be conveyed in a pipe or swale to the infiltration area. They include soakaways, infiltration trenches and infiltration basins as well as swales, filtration drains and ponds. Infiltration devices can be integrated into and form area of the landscaped areas.

4. 5 Basins and Ponds

Basins and ponds store normal water at the ground surface, either as temporary flooding of dry basins and flood plains, or long lasting ponds. These buildings can be designed to manage water number and quality.

4. 6 Benefits of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

There are a number of advantages to installing a sustainable drainage system as opposed to a normal / conventional system. For example the price tag on connecting to surprise sewers and general population drains is prevented and maintenance is easy and cheap. Maintenance can be executed by landscaping companies without the need of skilled technical engineers and heavy equipment. When clean filtrated normal water is distributed back to the site it gives the natural vegetation an opportunity to flourish and can create an extremely pleasant environment for everyone to enjoy.

4. 7 Proposed Sustainable Urban Drainage System

A activities centre will require lots of hard surfaces to cater for car parking. I will suggest using sound paving blocks for the top in the car car parking areas. A difference must be remaining between each block allowing drinking water to filter through to an under the top safe-keeping drain which runs to a designated area like a vegetated or inexperienced area. This rainfall run-off precaution must be implemented in the initial design stage.

I would also suggest soak slots / soakaways around the website to filtering any water collected in downpipes throughout the building. With the existing climate that people reside in it has to be expected that substantial rain will fall each year. So, a smartly designed sustainable drainage system can minimise flooding and any inconvenience that may be triggered during times of high rain.

5. 0 Conclusion

The aim of the brief because of this survey was to critically examine and measure the likelihood of redevelopment over a brownfield site with the demolition of an existing derelict masonry commercial building and the construction of a fresh sports centre utilising as many of the recycled materials from the demolition as you can.

I approached this project relatively blind with my basic knowledge of brownfield redevelopment. After researching this issue further I discovered all environmentally friendly benefits encircling brownfield redevelopment. With the declining availability of greenfield sites and the growing dependence on housing and community expansion, brownfield redevelopment has got to be at the top of the list where possible in order to protect what natural areas are kept. Furthermore building on brownfield sites takes out unsightly and often dangerous derelict buildings and provides local areas a chance to regenerate and create a fresh image.

Decontaminating brownfield sites in a specialised activity but the removal of unsafe materials makes it a safer environment for many concerned. Thankfully new techniques for remediation of polluted sites have managed to get cheaper. This can be appetising for potential coders looking to extend their property collection and as a result it can have a knock on result in a community generating careers and business for local trade.

The brief mentioned that materials from the demolition of the existing masonry industrial building must be recycled and used in the structure of the new sport centre. Once the set of materials that may be recycled in the existing building was divided, it was discovered that almost everything could contribute for some reason to the new build. This influences on the cover the task and commensurate with the UK's carbon emission lowering targets subsequently cuts down on any CO2 emissions that would have been produced in the produce of virgin materials.

The use of micro-technologies would fit in well with the overall idea of a sports centre as in my opinion a athletics centre implies health and wellbeing that can be related back to the conditions "clean" and "green energy" associated with these procedures and the environment.

The implementation of Lasting Urban Drainage Systems allows the safe go back of clean irrigated water back to the ground. The benefits of cost and little maintenance by itself speak for themselves. With four main design possibilities I feel it's important to include at least one system as a drainage solution on sites like this within small cities in order to preserve the neighborhood wildlife and invite vegetation to flourish free from water pollution.

All in every i feel that this job were it to be undertake would be very feasible. Most of the costs for would result from decontaminating the website. The build itself would end up being cheaper with recycled materials already available on-site and given the type of the proposed sports centre I'd not foresee any issues with the local community as it'll provide a safe location for children and parents alike to hold out. The lasting nature of the suggested build also suggests that building is embracing strategies to move forward into a greener future and it could set a precedent for future green development within the area.

6. 0 References

  • Brown, G. , (24th September 2007). Gordon Browns First Talk to the Labour Discussion as Party Innovator. Available from: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7010664. stm [Accessed xx Sept 2009]
  • Department of Energy and Environment Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Biomass. Available from: http://www. lowcarbonbuildings. org. uk/micro/biomass/ [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Department of Energy and Weather Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Floor Source High temperature Pumps. Available from: http://www. lowcarbonbuildings. org. uk/micro/ground/ [Accessed xx Sept 2009]
  • Department of Energy and Environment Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Solar PV. Available from: http://www. lowcarbonbuildings. org. uk/micro/solarpv/ [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Solar WARM WATER. Available from: http://www. lowcarbonbuildings. org. uk/micro/solartherm/ [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Department of Energy and Environment Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Small Level Hydro. Available from: http://www. lowcarbonbuildings. org. uk/micro/hydro/ [Accessed xx Sept 2009]
  • Department of Energy and Environment Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Wind Turbines. Available from: http://www. lowcarbonbuildings. org. uk/micro/wind/ [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. THE SURROUNDINGS - Waste products and Recycling - What Happens to Squander - Construction Misuse. Available from: http://www. defra. gov. uk/environment/waste/topics/construction/ [Accessed xx Sept 2009]
  • Kelly, R. , (13th Sept 2006). "Zero-Carbon" Homes Plan Revealed. Available from: http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6176229. stm [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Lomas, J. , (13th Dec 2007). People Service Review: Carry, Local Government as well as the Regions - Concern 11. Creating Zero-Carbon Areas. Available from: http://www. publicservice. co. uk/article. asp?publication=Transport, %20Local%20Government%20and%20the%20Regions&id=293&content_name=Social%20Housing%20and%20Construction%20incorporating%20The%20Carbon%20Challenge&article=8879 [Accessed xx Sept 2009]
  • Lomas, J. , (13th Dec 2007). General public Service Review: Central Government - Concern 15. Meeting the task. Available from: http://www. publicservice. co. uk/article. asp?publication=Central%20Government&id=287&content_name=Sustainable%20Housing%20and%20Regeneration&article=8680 [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • New Forest Change, (October 2009). Interesting in Producing Your Own Energy?. Available from: http://www. newforesttransition. org/index. php?/archives/2009/10/12. html [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Sheffield City Council. Sustainable Enclosure - Code For Sustainable Homes. Available from: http://www. sheffield. gov. uk/?pgid=67894&fs=b [Accessed xx September 2009]
  • Sustainable Build. Types of Building, Wood Frame Construction. Available from: http://www. sustainablebuild. co. uk/ConstructionWoodFrame. html [Accessed xx Sept 2009]
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